著者
町田 樹
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
巻号頁・発行日
pp.38_2-38_2, 2017 (Released:2018-02-15)

フィギュアスケートは、氷上においてジャンプやスピン、ステップなどの卓越した「身体技術」に加え、思想や感情、物語を体現するための「表現技術」を競うスポーツである。基本的に「滑る」、「跳ぶ」、「回る」等の動作で構成されるフィギュアスケートだが、それらの動作を駆使して発揮される一連のパフォーマンスは、ときに「踊る」、「表現する」という動詞によって言い表される芸術的な動きの連続性として捉えられる。では、なぜ人はフィギュアスケーターの演技に美的な価値を見出すのであろうか。その理由の一つとしては、長い歴史の中で様式化されたフィギュアスケート特有の動作と音楽の間に、強力な相関関係が成立しているからであろう。本発表では、実際に発表者による自作振付の映像を用いながら、フィギュアスケーターの身体技術と音楽の密接な関係性を中心に、分析を試みていきたい。なお、発表者はフィギュアスケーターとしてのキャリアを23年間継続させており、現在プロフィギュアスケーターとしても活動を展開している。従って、本発表は研究者の観点と共に、フィギュアスケートの実演家および振付家の視点からも見解を提示するものである。
著者
高橋 豪仁
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.139-150, 2006 (Released:2008-01-25)
参考文献数
37

Mass audiences can now commonly congregate in stadiums due to factors such as advanced transport, increased leisure time, and the growth of the mass media, which has improved spectator sports to create a vibrant and exciting atmosphere produced by the cheering of large numbers of fans who wish to watch players performing. Cheering is a critical component of spectator sports culture. In Japanese professional baseball there are private fan clubs that are central for the generation of cheering within the stadium during the game. The present study focused on the subculture of professional baseball fan clubs that are organized voluntarily by mass sports fans. This paper not only deals with the pattern of action and the value standards peculiar to such fan clubs, but also clarifies the dominant/parent culture that is central to the subculture, and how the subculture is created by adopting the dominant/parent culture through negotiation or conflict between members or groups based on the power resource of the subculture typical to their own. The data were collected through participant observation of private fan clubs of the Hiroshima Carp. It is inferred from descriptions about conflict and power relationships among the members or groups that the social resources are demo-commitment in the stadium and closeness with the baseball team and players, and that “flag-waving” and “leading”, which are the typical forms of cheering behavior in stadiums, serve a ritualistic function of symbolizing the social power of the fan clubs. Furthermore, bureaucracy and yakuza's quasi-family institution are adopted into these distinctive patterns of action and value standards. The former is a dominant culture taken from the mainstream of modern society, and the latter is a parent culture located at a lower level of society. Multiple strata are evident in the subculture of fan clubs. This does not simply mean that the fan clubs have the characteristics of bureaucracy and yakuza's quasi-family institution, but illustrates that the subculture of private fan clubs is created by domesticating bureaucracy and the quasi-family institution to their own values standard and pattern of act about cheering.
著者
岡部 祐介 友添 秀則 春日 芳美
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.129-142, 2012 (Released:2012-06-02)
参考文献数
72

Konjo is the willpower necessary to endure suffering, and for making an effort, having become a word in daily use in society, as well as in sports. The purpose of this study was to clarify the opportunity and the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo in Japanese society in the 1960s. Our study focused on three points: 1) Clarifying how the meaning of the word konjo changed in the 1960s, from its dictionary definition and usage in newspaper articles. 2) Clarifying the situation in which konjo became popular through the Tokyo Olympic Games, and its spread to the sports community and to society. 3) Considering the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo, and to propose a hypothesis that could account for it.   Our conclusions were as follows: 1) The meaning of konjo evolved from a negative context of “a fundamental character and mindset with which a person is born” to a positive context of “a strong, resilient character that cannot be suppressed” and “a strong motivation to accomplish an aim” at the beginning of the 1960s. 2) Konjo was considered to the spiritual keynote for athletes at the Tokyo Olympic Games. Hirobumi Daimatsu's “konjo theory” had the persuasive reason by winning “Oriental Witches” championship at the Tokyo Olympics. In view of these factors, we considered that konjo was interpreted as a popularized moral virtue by society, and impacted on both education and popular culture. 3) We considered that the concept of konjo became transformed and was used to promote competitiveness in sports at the Tokyo Olympics as part of the strategy for “character building”. It also played a role in bolstering human resources that played a key role in economic development during the 1960s, and thus was of strategic value. The considerations listed above show that the Tokyo Olympic Games played an important role in the transformation of the concept of konjo in the 1960s.
著者
夏原 隆之 中山 雅雄 加藤 貴昭 永野 智久 吉田 拓矢 佐々木 亮太 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.71-85, 2015 (Released:2015-06-13)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
2

Some of the mechanisms underlying superior performance in sports may be clarified by investigating the role of visual information in the execution of particular responses by expert athletes. The aim of this study was to examine how soccer players process visual information when executing a tactical pass in a 4 vs. 4 attacking play scenario. To identify the cognitive processes operating during task execution, we measured eye movement and correlated it with verbal reports from players. The subjects comprised 30 soccer players with differing proficiencies (15 “experts” and 15 “sub-experts”). 2 tests were carried out: a test to evaluate the level of passing skill, and a decision-making test to evaluate the reproducibility of tactical passing and the accuracy of passes aimed to specific locations. Eye movements were measured during the decision-making test. Furthermore, in each trial of the decision-making test, verbal reports were collected. These related to how and why participants decided to pass the ball to any particular player among the 4 attackers on screen and, in order to determine their best judgment, how they captured the play situation and what they paid attention to. The results revealed that for execution of the pass, the experts were significantly more proficient at passing accurately to the aimed location, and their passing judgment was more reproducible in comparison to the sub-experts, although both groups had a uniform level of passing skill in terms of pass execution. In addition, eye movement data obtained during pass execution confirmed that in the play observation phase, while experts maintained their line of sight on other objects, they also maintained a longer gaze on defensive players to identify gaps between them. Also in the ball approach phase, the experts maintained a longer gaze on the player who was judged to be the best choice for receiving an accurate pass. These observations suggest that the superior passing performance of expert soccer players is attributable to accurate and efficient extraction of visual information and utilizing it in the context of their accumulated knowledge base.
著者
川上 泰雄
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
巻号頁・発行日
pp.37_2-37_2, 2017 (Released:2018-02-15)

トップアスリートや舞踊家、音楽家など、様々なジャンルで活躍するエリート達は、いずれも人間の身体能力を極めて高いレベルで達成している「達人」であるといえる。人々を驚嘆、感動させるこうした達人たちの動きに関して精力的に研究・実践活動を進めている4名の専門家を演者としてお招きし、本シンポジウムを企画した。「達人技」の域に達する動作の機序、音楽・リズムとの絶妙な協調を成し遂げる情報処理能力や身体制御方略、そして人々の感動を呼ぶ達人の動きのポイントなどについて、各氏より最新の研究成果をご披露いただく。会場では「達人技を科学する」というテーマのもと、各演者の話題を中心に議論を行い、領域横断的な考察を深めることを目指す。シンポジウムに割り当てられる合計時間の関係から、パネルディスカッションは最小限とし、各演者のご発表と質疑応答にできる限りの時間を充てる予定である。バイオメカニクス研究領域はもちろん、ご興味をもたれる様々な研究領域の皆様のご参加と、積極的な意見交換をお願いする次第である。芸術の域にまで高められた人間の究極の動きに迫り、身体能力の多様な可能性を探りたい。
著者
劉 暢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.17021, (Released:2018-03-02)
参考文献数
41

The present study investigated the historical transition in the shape of the character “武”, which appears in both Japanese budo (武道) and Chinese martial arts (武術). A review of related studies conducted in Japan and China revealed that previous studies had focused mainly on the original shape and original meaning of “武”and transitions in its usage. Therefore this study can be considered to complement previous research on the character “武”. ・ The study mainly analyzed the shape of“武”in Jia Gu Wen (inscriptions on animal bones and tortoise carapaces, 甲骨文), Jin Wen (inscriptions on ancient bronze objects, 金文), seal script (篆書), the Chu character (楚 文字), clerical script (隷書) , and regular script (楷書) through carved stones, tombstones, bamboo slips and other related material. The main results were as follows. ・ The earliest representation of “武”in Jia Gu Wen appeared in the Wu Ding (武丁) period (1250 BC), while the earliest “武” in Jin Wen appeared in the Di Xin (帝辛) period (1075-1046 BC). In both Jia Gu Wen and Jin Wen, the character “武” consists of two parts: “戈” and “止”. In Jia Gu Wen, the “戈” part is located above “止”, whereas in Jin Wen “戈” is located on the right upper side of “止”. ・ From seal script to clerical script, the character “武” changed to a great extent. Such a change is referred to as clericalization (隷変). Therefore, the Chu character, which was written on a bamboo slip by hand around the Zhan Guo period (475-221 BC), was used to identify the consistent shape of the character of “武”. Specifically, most of the curve stroke of “止” and “戈” became a straight line and the third stroke of “戈” dwindled, while the positions of “止” and “戈” were slightly changed. ・ From clerical script to regular script, the character “武” changed further, especially in the “戈” component. Specifically, the second stroke of “武” changed from curved to straight. Another change was that the 1st and 7th strokes in “武” became separated from each other. Chinese martial arts began to exhibit an atheistic aspect from the Tang dynasty (618-907). The changes that appear in regular script for “武” shows fading of the recognition that “武” is made up of “止” and “戈”, as well as that “戈” represents “weapon” or “combat”. These are considered the reasons why the shape of “武” changed after the Tang dynasty.
著者
山中 祥子 関矢 寛史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.721-730, 2013 (Released:2013-12-07)
参考文献数
15

The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge of eating disorders among female college athletes. A questionnaire was distributed to female college athletes who specialized in sports with an increased risk for the development of eating disorders (N=100), those specializing in other sports (N=68), and those not belonging to varsity teams (N=79). The questionnaire consisted of the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) and knowledge tests on risk factors, symptoms, and treatments/coping strategies. Although total scores for correct knowledge did not differ among the groups, the score for incorrect knowledge of treatments/coping strategies was higher in both of the athlete groups than in the non-athlete group. In addition, athletes with EAT-26 scores of 20 or more had more correct knowledge of risk factors but also had more incorrect knowledge for all subscales than athletes with EAT-26 scores of 10 or less, indicating that athletes with abnormal eating attitudes had a greater amount of incorrect knowledge.
著者
下代 昇平 谷本 道哉
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
巻号頁・発行日
pp.128_1, 2017 (Released:2018-02-15)

背景・目的:近年運動において、体幹の剛体化は、四肢の土台としての働き、下肢から上肢への力の伝達等の観点から注目されている。体幹を剛体化させるトレーニング(TR)としてプランクなどの体幹TRが注目されており、実施の際には腹圧の上昇を伴うことが重要といわれている。本研究では体幹TRをはじめ、各種運動時の腹圧を調べることを目的とした。なお、腹腔の構造上、腹圧の上昇は体幹を伸展させるトルクが生じる。この観点からの検証、考察も行うこととした。方法:プランク・バックブリッジ等の体幹TR、スクワット・ベンチプレス等の各種筋力TR、ジャンプ・投打動作等のダイナミックな競技動作を実施し、運動中の腹圧を肛門よりカテーテル式圧力計を挿入して測定した。結果:腹圧の上昇の程度は「体幹TR(3~10%)<<筋力TR(7~47%程度)<ダイナミックな競技動作(38~61%:いずれもバルサルバを100%とする)」であり、体幹TRは小さい値であった。また、体幹伸展トルクを生じるような動作において特に腹圧が高まる様子は観察されなかった。
著者
髙山 史徳 森 寿仁 安藤 真由子 山本 正嘉
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.15032, (Released:2015-09-02)
参考文献数
33

The main purpose of this study was to investigate anthropometry and body composition in 26 male ultramountain runners who participated in Trans Japan Alps Race 2014, a multi-stage ultramountain running race over 415 km to be covered within 5-8 days. The second purpose was to investigate the changes in skinfold thickness during the race. Before the race, all participants were examined in terms of body weight, BMI, skinfold thickness at 8 sites and estimated percentage body fat. In addition, the finishers (n=14) were re-examined in the post-race period. The main findings are summarized below.1. The participants had a mean (±SD) body weight of 62.3±5.1 kg, a BMI of 21.5±1.4 kg/m2, a sum of 8 skinfold thickness of 57.7±15.5 mm, and an estimated percentage body fat of 12.0±2.4%. There were no significant differences in any parameters between the finishers and the non-finishers.2. The sum of 8 skinfold thickness in the finishers was significantly reduced by 11.3% after the race (Pre : 55.0±13.6 mm, Post : 48.8±12.1 mm), representing a dramatic response in comparison with a previous study that investigated ultramarathon runners in a 100-km ultramarathon race (0.9%).
著者
工藤 龍太 志々田 文明
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.2, pp.453-469, 2010 (Released:2010-12-28)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
2

The main purpose of this study was to verify the process of formation and development of the concept of aiki used by Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, and his disciples. The main points can be summarized as follows: 1. The term aiki has been used to refer to particular martial arts techniques and to a spiritual state that can be experienced by practicing Aikido. Morihei taught aiki as a technique, as shown in the memorandum of the Japanese Imperial Navy Admiral Isamu Takeshita around 1930. Kisshomaru Ueshiba, Morihei Ueshiba's son, also introduced these techniques in his book, “Techniques of Aikido” (1962), etc. However, neither Morehei Ueshiba nor his son explained about aiki in detail. Kenji Tomiki and Gozo Shioda used aiki as a term of technique, but they do not seem to have taught techniques under the name of aiki. 2. Onisaburo Deguchi, the head of Omoto-kyo, used the expressions “the union between a kami and a mortal” in 1921 and “the great love of the kami” in 1935, which Morihei later emphasized in relation to aiki. Omoto-kyo heavily influenced the building of Morihei's thoughts on aiki and Aikido. Aiki was likened to the great love of the Universe, Heaven and Earth, or the kami who nurtures all nature and mortals. In short, a) aiki is the union between the kami as love, and mortals, hence the practice of aiki is the purification of mind and body; b) the practice of Aikido creates a paradise for mortals on earth; c) because the kami does not oppose anyone, a practitioner does not oppose in Aikido. Morihei's thought influenced the policy of the succeeding organization of Aikido through Kisshomaru. 3. Morihei's four main pupils inherited his thoughts through several arrangements. Shioda explained aiki as “a technique for following the laws of nature”. Tohei insisted that aiki is “the union between the ki in heaven and earth and a mortal”. Sunadomari interpreted aiki as a combative technique and a divine work. Tomiki understood the term in two ways: one is a technique that falls into the category of kuzushi (balance-breaking), and the other is the unity of ki (energy) between nature and man. As to the way that Aikido should develop in the future, we need to study further Morihei's thoughts and their development under his pupils.
著者
松倉 啓太 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.1, pp.277-296, 2013 (Released:2013-06-08)
参考文献数
15

It is believed that the success of the goalkeeper (GK) in saving difficult shots by diving is a key factor in soccer because it can influence the outcome of the game to a large extent. However, the most appropriate way to exert force during the diving motion according to the course of the shot from either leg is still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the fundamental mechanism of a GK's diving motion according to the height and distance of the shot. We performed an experiment in which 11 university GKs participated. They were asked to dive toward balls set at 3 different heights located a short or a long distance from the GK. By examining the GKs' diving motions, we calculated the ground reaction force (GRF), joint angular velocity, and joint torque. The results indicated that the magnitude of the GRF under both legs and the direction of the GRF under the ball-side (BS) leg differed with the ball height. We also found that a higher dive by the GKs corresponded to a larger counter-movement of the contralateral-side (CS) leg and a higher stopping power of the BS leg in order to increase the vertical velocity, and more exertion of extension torques at the hip and foot for takeoff compared to those in lower dives. Furthermore, a lower dive of the GKs corresponded to a larger angular impulse of the BS hip adduction after the BS leg touched the ground. These findings suggest that during the takeoff part of the diving motion of a GK, depending on the ball height, the CS leg controls the magnitude of power and the BS leg controls both the magnitude and the direction of power in order for the GK to dive directly towards the ball.
著者
宮西 智久 森本 吉謙
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.4, pp.361-381, 2007 (Released:2007-08-08)
参考文献数
46
被引用文献数
3 2

A three-dimensional (3D) videography study was performed to clarify the mechanical effects of a change of pitching motion from an overhand throw (OH style) to a three-quarter throw (TQ style). Two collegiate pitchers (subjects A and B) who normally used the OH style participated. They were requested to change their original OH style into the TQ style. To do this, they were subjected to a one-year skill training program based on biomechanical principles and on knowledge such as the stretch-shortening cycle theory, muscle force-velocity relationship, and the motions of skilled pitchers (e.g., shoulder positioning at 90 degrees of abduction-adduction during the acceleration phase). Four pitches for subject A (two in pre-training, one during training and one in post-training), and three for subject B (one each in pre-training, training and post-training) were videotaped with the 3D DLT procedure using two high-speed cameras, and then analyzed. We then examined the mechanical differences between pre- and post-training. The speed of the ball at release increased progressively with every successive pitch for both subjects (Subject A : 1st : 130.3km/h ; 2nd : 133.2km/h ; 3rd : 135.7km/h ; 4th : 142.2km/h. Subject B : 1st : 131.0km/h ; 2nd : 135.0km/h ; 3rd : 139.3km/h). The pitching styles of both subjects changed from their original OH style to the TQ style, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The time-dependent patterns and peak values of the angular velocities of shoulder internal-external rotation and elbow flexion-extension of the throwing arm did not change very much. However, the peak value of the angular velocity of shoulder internal rotation occurred immediately after ball release for the OH style, while for the TQ style it occurred at ball release. As a result, the angular velocity of elbow extension at ball release was larger in the OH style than in the TQ style. On the other hand, the angular velocity of shoulder internal rotation at ball release was larger in the TQ style than in the OH style. These findings suggest that the increase in the speed of the ball is dominated by elbow extension in the OH style, and by shoulder internal rotation in the TQ style.
著者
森下 義隆 矢内 利政
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.1, pp.237-250, 2018-06-10 (Released:2018-06-20)
参考文献数
27

The purpose of this study was to examine within-subject differences in bat-swing trajectory between intentional hitting towards the same field and towards the opposite field. 19 industrial league baseball batters and 16 collegiate baseball batters performed same-field hitting (SH) and opposite-field hitting (OH). The movement of the bat during the swing was recorded with two high-speed cameras (1000 fps) for 3D analysis. At the instant of ball impact, the striking surface of the bat faced towards the same field in SH and towards the opposite field in OH. The bat-head trajectory immediately before impact was directed obliquely upward in SH, whereas it was directed obliquely downward in OH. Throughout the swing, the projection angle of the bat on the vertical plane was greater in OH than in SH, and the ratio of the translational component of the bat-head speed to the resultant bat-head speed was significantly greater in OH than in SH. These results suggest that the characteristics of the bat swing in OH provide a suitable impact condition to drive the ball towards the opposite field, as evidence has demonstrated that (1) a batted ball is likely to travel towards the opposite field when the lower half of the ball is hit by a vertically inclined bat, and (2) the striking surface of the bat is unlikely to turn to face towards the same field when the contribution to the resultant bat-head speed is generated more by the translational component of the bathead speed than by the rotational component.
著者
池本 淳一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.13107, (Released:2014-10-23)
参考文献数
28

This paper focuses on the position of “Ju-ken” matches and their promoter, Kenji Kano, in Japanese boxing history. A “Ju-ken” match was a match between a judoist and a boxer, and such bouts were held from the middle of the Taisho era to the early Showa era in Kobe, Tokyo and Osaka. The main organizer of these matches was the “International Ju-ken club”, whose owner Kenji Kano was the nephew of Jigoro Kano. This study divides the history of Ju-ken into three periods, each with respective features.   The first period was from October 1919 to April 1920. Ju-ken at this time was intended to reform judo into a competitive sport through fighting with boxing. Although judo had been well established at that time, it was facing a challenge due to loss of its spirit and form as a martial art during the process of sportification. Jigoro Kano, the founder of Judo, was unhappy with this change. By studying boxing, karate, aikido, stick fighting and other martial arts, he aimed at creating a ‘Martial Art Judo’. His nephew Kenji Kano pursued martial art-oriented judo as well, but his approach to reconstructing judo as a martial art was through mixed martial arts games, the “Ju-Ken math”.   The middle period was from May 1920 to March 1925, when Ju-ken evolved into a spectator sport that encapsulated the struggle for superiority in terms of nationality and ethnicity. Because Kodokan prohibited their members from participating in any mixed-martial arts match from April 1921, Ju-ken became a spectator sport. In addition, after charity matches following the Great Kanto Earthquake, in order to bring more excitement to the game, Ju-ken heightened the opposition and rivalry based on the nationalities and ethnicities of the athletes.   The final period was from May 1925 to August 1931, when Ju-ken changed into a show that was intended to provoke nationalistic emotions among the audience. After the development of “normal” boxing, Ju-ken held normal boxing matches in their games and adopted new boxing-like rules. These new rules and the point systems put foreign boxers at a disadvantage when fighting against Japanese judoists, ensuring that Japanese would always defeat foreigners.   Finally, through assimilation of knowledge and focusing on boxing, this study argues that Ju-ken matches created a background for localization of modern boxing in Japan.
著者
田邊 元
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.2, pp.631-646, 2017 (Released:2017-12-19)
参考文献数
54

The purpose of this study was to clarify the handing down of a martial art in a Japanese village community, focusing as an example on the Shinto Katori-Ryu School.  The Shinto Katori-Ryu School was established in Kamigawara from the mid Edo period. Kamigawara was a farm village, and the members of the school were farmers. The Shinto Katori-ryu School was characterized by the following features.  1. There was no specific master exponent at the school, and the coaching was done by the village elders. Generally, at most Japanese martial art schools, a magnate or an authority acted as a master.  2. Only the eldest sons of the village were coached, and were referred to as sozokunin, meaning “heirs”. Learners at other schools are usually referred to as “pupils”, but this was not the case here. In order to become a sozokunin, a rite of passage known as kenjyutsu denjyu was necessary.  3. The school taught not only kenjutsu, but also methods of treating plague, and was dedicated to the god of a shrine. In addition, details of village regulation were also taught.  The Shinto Katori-ryu School was closely related to village affairs, and was aimed at educating people within the village. In this way it was recognized as a “folk movement” unique to Kamigawara. After the Meiji era, the school traditions were handed down until World War 2, while maintaining the relations close to local society. Therefore, after the modern era, it was not assimilated by budo and kobudo. Later, like many folk customs, the tradition was swept aside during the period of rapid economic growth.  The organization of a martial art has generally been understood as adhering to the iemoto system. However, the organization of the Shinto Katori-ryu School took a different form, and is one example of a martial art that was nurtured and handed down by farmers.