This study examined factors which influence the extent to which citizens prepare for natural disasters. A questionnaire-based survey was administered to residents (N=849) living in the greater Nagoya area. The items were devised to probe for residents' attitudes toward disaster preparedness, perceived flood and seismic risk, their commitment to the community, and concerns about society. The study revealed that both household and community disaster preparedness were affected by the individual's subjective norm regarding preparation, the perceived benefit of protective courses of action, and general concern about natural disasters. Commitment to the community and concerns about society were the only strong predictors of community-based disaster preparedness. By contrast, perceived flood and seismic risks were weak predictors.