著者
西田 公昭
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.3, pp.170-183, 2001
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study is to consider psychological process of AUM members who committed crimes, such as scattering poison gas to murder and others. Four defendants of AUM were interviewed and 76 former members of the group completed questionnaires designed to examine their experiences and lives including three of the interviewees. The following results were obtained: 1) Aum believers were absolutely obedient to their guru as authority, 2) Psychological manipulation by their guru toward the members who committed crimes was stronger than manipulation toward the innocent members, 3) The higher the status of the members, the higher manipulation level, 4) Their crimes were due to obedience to authority arising from perceiving dogma's superiority and fear of being killed themselves.
著者
三浦 麻子 小林 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.1-12, 2015-08-31 (Released:2015-09-09)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
23 1

This study focused on satisficing in online surveys—behavior in which panels do not devote an appropriate amount of attentional resources when answering questions. It carried out questionnaire surveys that could not be answered properly without closely reading the instructions and questions to empirically investigate the prevalence and patterns of satisficing. To detect satisficing tendencies, a screening survey was conducted with questions that necessitated a close reading of the instructions, while the main survey used questions that required a close reading of the item content. Identical surveys were carried out at two different survey companies, and results showed that satisficing due to skipping instructions occurs very frequently. Furthermore, while satisficing due to skipping scale items appears to be relatively rare, trends in satisficing differed between the survey companies. These results indicate one method for preventing satisficing, which was discussed in relation to the merits and demerits of screening respondents with satisficing tendencies.
著者
橋本 剛明 白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.13-23, 2012-08-31 (Released:2017-03-01)

The present study examined the determinants of people's attitudes toward the Japanese government's income inequality policies. We focused particularly on people's perceived inequality of opportunity and self-perceptions of social class, and their effects on the perceived responsibility of income inequality. General survey data of 798 individuals indicated that when people perceive education/work opportunities as generally controllable through personal ability and effort, they attribute both onset and offset responsibilities more to the poor and less to the government, consequently showing less support for government intervention. Moreover, people's perception of social class moderated how they view opportunity: only among low-class respondents did the perception that opportunities are influenced by one's parents' income or their gender lead to the perception that opportunity is uncontrollable. High-class individuals, on the other hand, perceived the effects of parental income and gender on opportunity to be independent of the controllability of opportunities, suggesting that they believe that ability and effort hold strong power over general opportunity.
著者
樋口 匡貴 中村 菜々子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.61-69, 2009
被引用文献数
1

The proper use of condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. One of the major factors that negatively affect the use of condoms is embarrassment caused by the purchasing of condoms. To clarify the causes and effects of embarrassment on the purchasing of condoms, 522 undergraduate student volunteers were investigated. The results showed that both males and females experienced two types of embarrassment, 'Basic embarrassment' and 'Awkwardness,' when they purchased condoms. Moreover, structural equation modeling revealed that the purchasing of condoms by males was strongly inhibited due to vagueness in the guidelines of condom-purchasing behavior, and the purchasing of condoms by females was strongly inhibited due to inconsistency with self-image and the purchasing of condoms. Implications of this study for HIV prevention, especially the intervention method of promoting condom purchasing, are also discussed.
著者
西田 公昭
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.3, pp.170-183, 2001-03-25 (Released:2016-12-20)
被引用文献数
1

The purpose of this study is to consider psychological process of AUM members who committed crimes, such as scattering poison gas to murder and others. Four defendants of AUM were interviewed and 76 former members of the group completed questionnaires designed to examine their experiences and lives including three of the interviewees. The following results were obtained: 1) Aum believers were absolutely obedient to their guru as authority, 2) Psychological manipulation by their guru toward the members who committed crimes was stronger than manipulation toward the innocent members, 3) The higher the status of the members, the higher manipulation level, 4) Their crimes were due to obedience to authority arising from perceiving dogma's superiority and fear of being killed themselves.
著者
中越 みずき 稲増 一憲
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.72-84, 2019-11-30 (Released:2019-11-30)
参考文献数
48

Previous studies have indicated that there is a negative attitude toward the welfare system and its recipients. Media coverage of welfare is considered to be one of the factors behind this attitude. In this research, we conducted a web survey experiment focusing on framing effects, exploring how media coverage of social problems affects people’s ways of perceiving problems. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between media framing and informational positions: whether the article is positive or negative for welfare. Results revealed that the episodic frame focusing on welfare recipients affected the attribution of responsibility to welfare recipients, and this tendency was remarkable in the critical content condition. However, the thematic frame focusing on the welfare system had only a weak influence on the attribution of responsibility to the government, and the difference due to informational positions was also small. Attribution of responsibility affected support for enhancing financial policies. Participants tended to oppose the policies if they attributed causal (onset) responsibility and treatment (offset) responsibility to welfare recipients, and to agree with the policies if they attributed treatment responsibility to the government.
著者
稲増 一憲 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.47-57, 2018-07-31 (Released:2018-08-01)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
1

Due to the diffusion of the internet and the increase in the number of politicians who attack mass media and gain support, the problem of a decrease in the public’s trust in mass media is gaining attention both in Japan and abroad. However, the wording of questions measuring trust in mass media (TVs, newspapers, and magazines) is not consistent; hence it is difficult to examine whether trust is declining or not. We reviewed the previous findings of representative social surveys and revealed three differences in question wording: (1) degree adverbs assigned to choices of 4-point scales, (2) whether to measure trust in newspapers and magazines together, (3) whether to clearly indicate that the target of the question is an organization. We conducted a randomized web survey experiment to explore the differences in expressed trust based on question wording. As a result, level of the trust in media differs by up to 25% or more depending on the question wording. The findings indicate the importance of choosing question wording with a clear reason in measuring trust in media.
著者
三船 恒裕 横田 晋大
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.94-101, 2018-11-30 (Released:2018-12-15)
参考文献数
28

The relationships between social dominance orientation (SDO) and political attitudes and prejudice have been investigated mainly in Western societies, with little known about them in other societies, especially in Japan. In this study, we examined the external validity of the SDO scale and the relationship between SDO and discriminatory attitudes toward foreigners using samples of Japanese undergraduates and adults from the general population. Across four studies, the results confirmed the reliability of the Japanese SDO scale and found that SDO positively correlated with political conservatism, such as taking a firm stance on the “Takeshima” Island (“Dokdo” in Korean) or “Senkaku” Islands (“Diaoyu Islands” in Chinese and “Diaoyutai Islands” in Taiwanese) problems, negative and avoidant attitudes towards foreigners, and discriminatory attitudes toward Korean residents in Japan. We also found that some gender differences of political attitudes and prejudice were statistically mediated by the gender difference of SDO. These results suggest that SDO can be one of valid explanations to understand the individual differences in Japanese political and discriminatory attitudes.
著者
渡辺 匠 太田 紘史 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.56-69, 2015-08-31 (Released:2015-09-09)
参考文献数
66
被引用文献数
1

Social psychologists have recently begun to explore the problem of free-will beliefs. Philosophers have been working on the problem of free will over the ages, and studies of social psychologists on free-will beliefs are based on past philosophical theories. Meanwhile, philosophers not only argue over the theoretical issue of free will but also engage with the research program of experimental philosophy. This program shares the methodology of social psychology, and experimental investigation of belief in free will is proceeding at a rapid pace. In consideration of the above arguments, it seems obvious that social psychologists need to collaborate with philosophers on the problem of free-will beliefs. The authors therefore review the findings of each discipline and construct a model of people’s free-will beliefs. In this model, we consider free-will beliefs as composed by alternative possibility and agency, and these components function to promote attribution of moral responsibility, self-control, and social fit.
著者
大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.119-129, 1991-02-20 (Released:2016-11-30)
被引用文献数
2

The present paper reviewed empirical research on the effects of violent pornography on male audience. Some laborabory research found that violent pornography depicting rape scenes increased male subjects' aggression against female targets, even when they were not angered by the victims. In other studies, the male audience of violent pornography showed more rape-supportive attitudes, that is, they perceived rape as less criminal and accepted more rape myths. These findings implied that it may increase rape proclivity in males. Rapists displayed more sexual arousal than non-rapists to rape scenes in several experiments, but some researchers held the assumption that the non-rapists were also aroused by rape scene but they inhibited their arousal because of a feeling of guilt. The majority of normal men really showed some similarities to rapists in cognitions or beliefs on women's sexuality and rape. In conclusion, it was alleged that sexual aggression is not a personal pathological problem but a socio-cultural issue which has much bearing on male dominant value system.
著者
池内 裕美
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.2, pp.86-98, 2014-11-30 (Released:2015-07-24)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
5

In this study, hoarding tendencies were defined as the trait through which many possessions were accumulated and could not be discarded because of their subjective meaning. Two internet surveys were conducted. In Study 1, a hoarding tendency scale for non-clinical individuals was developed, with questionnaires sent to 410 participants. In Study 2, animistic thinking was taken up as one of the determinants of hoarding, and the relationship between animistic thinking and hoarding tendencies was investigated. Two hundred and thirty-four participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. The main findings were as follows: (1) The results of factor analysis indicated that the hoarding tendency scale consisted of six factors (28 items), such as “having too many things” and “avoidance of discarding things.” These subscales indicated the common and particular attitudes of hoarders toward their possessions. (2) The hoarding tendency significantly correlated with compulsive buying. This result indicated that the hoarding tendency scale demonstrated sufficient criterion-related validity. (3) Animistic thinking, especially “part of the possessor” and “the anthropomorphication of possessions,” had a significant effect on hoarding tendencies.
著者
高橋 直
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.3, pp.200-209, 1992-03-31 (Released:2016-11-30)
被引用文献数
1

It is generally known that littering can not be controlled by merely physical technology but by controlling the littering behavior of individuals. This would seem to be the most important factor of control. As one effective technique for controlling littering behavior, a behavior modification technique has recently been discovered. This study evaluates the effectiveness of such a behavior modification technique to induce littering behavior in a naturalistic settings: the baseball stadium. The procedures used were as follows; (1) an operant contingency in the form of positive reinforcement procedures, (2) a positive prompting strategy, (3) a negative prompting strategy, (4) a litter bag only condition. The findings revealed a highly significant effect of treatment. There were significant differential effects between the different treatment strategies.
著者
向田 久美子 坂元 章 村田 光二 高木 栄作
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.3, pp.159-169, 2001

A panel study of 543 Japanese college students was conducted before and after the Atlanta Olympics in 1996 to explore the impact of the Olympics on the images of foreign countries. In general, the images of 17 countries including Japan have changed favorably after the Olympics. The more they have exposed themselves to Olympic reports on the media, the more they have changed the images. Individual differences had a small, but negative effect. For example, those who were not satisfied with the result of the Olympics tended to change the images unfavorably. Though the perception of similarity between Japan and each country has also increased through the Olympics, the correlation of the index of positive image and the perception of similarity was not high. It suggested that the images of foreign countries and the perception of similarity could have changed through respective processes.
著者
稲増 一憲 清水 裕士 三浦 麻子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.1, pp.11-18, 2019-07-31 (Released:2019-08-15)
参考文献数
27

This research introduces a method to compare the responses to rating scales with different rating labels by examining the effects of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake on trust in public institutions. Although both the World Values Survey and the Asian Barometer Survey, conducted before and after the earthquake, included questions about trust in the Self-Defense Force, the police, the courts, the media, political parties, and parliament, their rating labels were different for each survey. Therefore, this research used Bayesian statistical modeling to remove the influence of the label differences and examined the changes in trust before and after the earthquake. The results demonstrate that while trust in the Self-Defense Force increased, trust in the courts, the media, political parties, and parliament decreased. The correction of social survey data using statistical modeling, as demonstrated in this research, is effective in examining the influence of earthquake disasters and for verifying the short-term or long-term social changes.
著者
大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.119-129, 1991
被引用文献数
4 3

The present paper reviewed empirical research on the effects of violent pornography on male audience. Some laborabory research found that violent pornography depicting rape scenes increased male subjects' aggression against female targets, even when they were not angered by the victims. In other studies, the male audience of violent pornography showed more rape-supportive attitudes, that is, they perceived rape as less criminal and accepted more rape myths. These findings implied that it may increase rape proclivity in males. Rapists displayed more sexual arousal than non-rapists to rape scenes in several experiments, but some researchers held the assumption that the non-rapists were also aroused by rape scene but they inhibited their arousal because of a feeling of guilt. The majority of normal men really showed some similarities to rapists in cognitions or beliefs on women's sexuality and rape. In conclusion, it was alleged that sexual aggression is not a personal pathological problem but a socio-cultural issue which has much bearing on male dominant value system.
著者
藤 桂 吉田 富二雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.121-132, 2009

The relationship of Internet behavior to sociability and aggression in real life was investigated in a web-based survey. Weblog users (n=395) and online-game users (n=206) were asked to respond to questionnaires that included their behavior on the Internet, as well as to scales that measured real-life sociability, aggression, and social isolation. Results indicated that Self-reflection on weblogs and Feeling of Belonging during online-games related to enhancement of sociability. By contrast, Internet behavior such as flaming, as well as immersive and addictive use, related to decrease of sociability and increase of aggression regardless of the type of application that was used. These findings suggest that the effects of weblogs and online-games use depend on the type of behavior, as well as the types of application, that are used. It is also suggested that social isolation in real life decreased sociability through immersive and addictive use, and increased aggression through flaming.
著者
小林 哲郎 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.82-94, 2007
被引用文献数
2

The effect of mobile phone e-mailing on young people's social tolerance was investigated by analyzing survey data of high school students in Japan. The results show that mobile phone e-mailing had a positive promoting effect on the homogeneity and a negative effect on the heterogeneity of personal networks. This in turn had a negative effect on social tolerance toward others. Mobile phone e-mailing enables students to select homogeneous others as companions of communication and thus brings a bias of homogeneity into their personal networks. This homogeneity bias in turn had a negative effect on the development of social tolerance in the socialization process by reducing the chance of interaction with heterogeneous others.