著者
三浦 麻子 小林 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.1-12, 2015-08-31 (Released:2015-09-09)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
10 or 1

This study focused on satisficing in online surveys—behavior in which panels do not devote an appropriate amount of attentional resources when answering questions. It carried out questionnaire surveys that could not be answered properly without closely reading the instructions and questions to empirically investigate the prevalence and patterns of satisficing. To detect satisficing tendencies, a screening survey was conducted with questions that necessitated a close reading of the instructions, while the main survey used questions that required a close reading of the item content. Identical surveys were carried out at two different survey companies, and results showed that satisficing due to skipping instructions occurs very frequently. Furthermore, while satisficing due to skipping scale items appears to be relatively rare, trends in satisficing differed between the survey companies. These results indicate one method for preventing satisficing, which was discussed in relation to the merits and demerits of screening respondents with satisficing tendencies.
著者
三浦 麻子 稲増 一憲 中村 早希 福沢 愛
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.3, pp.174-186, 2017-03-31 (Released:2017-04-07)
参考文献数
32

This research applies spatial statistics to examine proximal factors affecting the political behavior of voters in a regional election in Japan, particularly, voter proximity to the election campaigns of the candidates. During the mayoral election in Akō City, Hyōgo Prefecture, voters’ political behavior, attitudes, and awareness of politics were measured using a social survey, the spatial location information relating to candidates’ election campaigns being measured using GPS. Voters’ favorable perception of a certain candidate was positively correlated to the degree of contact with his election campaign of voters themselves or that of their neighborhood, but not to spatial proximity with his campaign. On the other hand, both the degree of contact and spatial proximity with his election campaign of voters themselves led them to cast their votes for the candidate, even controlling for favorability. It was revealed that there is a possibility for proximal factors to be treated more precisely by applying spatial statistics.
著者
樋口 匡貴 中村 菜々子
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.61-69, 2009
被引用文献数
1 or 0

The proper use of condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. One of the major factors that negatively affect the use of condoms is embarrassment caused by the purchasing of condoms. To clarify the causes and effects of embarrassment on the purchasing of condoms, 522 undergraduate student volunteers were investigated. The results showed that both males and females experienced two types of embarrassment, 'Basic embarrassment' and 'Awkwardness,' when they purchased condoms. Moreover, structural equation modeling revealed that the purchasing of condoms by males was strongly inhibited due to vagueness in the guidelines of condom-purchasing behavior, and the purchasing of condoms by females was strongly inhibited due to inconsistency with self-image and the purchasing of condoms. Implications of this study for HIV prevention, especially the intervention method of promoting condom purchasing, are also discussed.
著者
向田 久美子 坂元 章 村田 光二 高木 栄作
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.3, pp.159-169, 2001

A panel study of 543 Japanese college students was conducted before and after the Atlanta Olympics in 1996 to explore the impact of the Olympics on the images of foreign countries. In general, the images of 17 countries including Japan have changed favorably after the Olympics. The more they have exposed themselves to Olympic reports on the media, the more they have changed the images. Individual differences had a small, but negative effect. For example, those who were not satisfied with the result of the Olympics tended to change the images unfavorably. Though the perception of similarity between Japan and each country has also increased through the Olympics, the correlation of the index of positive image and the perception of similarity was not high. It suggested that the images of foreign countries and the perception of similarity could have changed through respective processes.
著者
藤 桂 吉田 富二雄
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.121-132, 2009

The relationship of Internet behavior to sociability and aggression in real life was investigated in a web-based survey. Weblog users (n=395) and online-game users (n=206) were asked to respond to questionnaires that included their behavior on the Internet, as well as to scales that measured real-life sociability, aggression, and social isolation. Results indicated that Self-reflection on weblogs and Feeling of Belonging during online-games related to enhancement of sociability. By contrast, Internet behavior such as flaming, as well as immersive and addictive use, related to decrease of sociability and increase of aggression regardless of the type of application that was used. These findings suggest that the effects of weblogs and online-games use depend on the type of behavior, as well as the types of application, that are used. It is also suggested that social isolation in real life decreased sociability through immersive and addictive use, and increased aggression through flaming.
著者
小林 哲郎 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.82-94, 2007
被引用文献数
2 or 0

The effect of mobile phone e-mailing on young people's social tolerance was investigated by analyzing survey data of high school students in Japan. The results show that mobile phone e-mailing had a positive promoting effect on the homogeneity and a negative effect on the heterogeneity of personal networks. This in turn had a negative effect on social tolerance toward others. Mobile phone e-mailing enables students to select homogeneous others as companions of communication and thus brings a bias of homogeneity into their personal networks. This homogeneity bias in turn had a negative effect on the development of social tolerance in the socialization process by reducing the chance of interaction with heterogeneous others.
著者
三浦 麻子 小林 哲郎
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.120-127, 2015-11-30 (Released:2015-12-17)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
3 or 0

In this article, monitor attitudes during online surveys were empirically examined, focusing in particular on satisficing (when survey participants do not fully engage their efforts). At first, the extent to which the satisficing tendency was dependent on personal traits was examined. We observed participants’ behavior in an online survey setting that required them to view video stimulus material consisting of news footage, and measured the length of time each participant spent viewing the footage. The results revealed that respondents who had satisficed (half-heartedly read) the scale items in a prior study (Miura & Kobayashi, 2015) were much more likely to satisfice the video footage. Then, agenda-setting and media-priming effects were used to examine the impact of satisficing during online surveys (including experimental manipulation) on empirical findings. Both examinations indicated the strong possibility that data pertaining to participants who satisficed could serve to distort empirical findings.
著者
大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.119-129, 1991
被引用文献数
4 or 3

The present paper reviewed empirical research on the effects of violent pornography on male audience. Some laborabory research found that violent pornography depicting rape scenes increased male subjects' aggression against female targets, even when they were not angered by the victims. In other studies, the male audience of violent pornography showed more rape-supportive attitudes, that is, they perceived rape as less criminal and accepted more rape myths. These findings implied that it may increase rape proclivity in males. Rapists displayed more sexual arousal than non-rapists to rape scenes in several experiments, but some researchers held the assumption that the non-rapists were also aroused by rape scene but they inhibited their arousal because of a feeling of guilt. The majority of normal men really showed some similarities to rapists in cognitions or beliefs on women's sexuality and rape. In conclusion, it was alleged that sexual aggression is not a personal pathological problem but a socio-cultural issue which has much bearing on male dominant value system.
著者
大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.2, pp.119-129, 1991-02-20 (Released:2016-11-30)

The present paper reviewed empirical research on the effects of violent pornography on male audience. Some laborabory research found that violent pornography depicting rape scenes increased male subjects' aggression against female targets, even when they were not angered by the victims. In other studies, the male audience of violent pornography showed more rape-supportive attitudes, that is, they perceived rape as less criminal and accepted more rape myths. These findings implied that it may increase rape proclivity in males. Rapists displayed more sexual arousal than non-rapists to rape scenes in several experiments, but some researchers held the assumption that the non-rapists were also aroused by rape scene but they inhibited their arousal because of a feeling of guilt. The majority of normal men really showed some similarities to rapists in cognitions or beliefs on women's sexuality and rape. In conclusion, it was alleged that sexual aggression is not a personal pathological problem but a socio-cultural issue which has much bearing on male dominant value system.
著者
石黒 格
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.11-20, 2013

Traditionally, research in social psychology has focused on the mean values of target variables. In most cases, this is simply because the mean value is the target of most statistical methods and often does not reflect the theoretical basis. Consequently, this has narrowed the perspective of researchers and possibly caused misunderstandings of social phenomena. In this study, we introduce quantile regression to solve this problem, which predicts the pth percentile of a target variable for any value of p. As an example, we theoretically predicted that the effect of extraversion on personal network size is different among the right (upper) and left (lower) parts of the distribution and tested this prediction using quantile regression. The result showed that extraversion positively correlates with the 70th-90th percentile of personal network size to a greater extent than that of the 30th-10th percentile. This result indicates that the distribution of personal network size not only moves toward the right but also becomes right-skewed as extraversion increases.
著者
横田 晋大 中西 大輔
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.75-82, 2012

Previous research has shown that ingroup cooperation tends to flourish in intergroup conflict situations. However, the free-rider problem remains unsolved, even in intergroup conflict situations. In this study, based on multi-group selection theory and cultural-group selection theory, we hypothesized that conformity (frequency-dependent behavior) may contribute to enhancing ingroup cooperation. The results of an evolutionary simulation revealed that ingroup cooperation and conformity can evolve in situations of intergroup conflict. When such conflict is mild, agents who cooperate with ingroup members and adjust their behavior to ingroup cooperation rates facilitate cooperation in their own group. However, no effect of conformity on ingroup cooperation was observed during intense intergroup conflict, even though conformity continued to evolve. We discuss the implications of these results and suggest avenues for future research.
著者
田村 達 大渕 憲一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.2, pp.165-171, 2006

Assuming that labels describing a victim as a dehumanized entity reduce a harm-doer's control over aggressive behavior, we attempted to examine the effects of such labels on levels of aggression. A one-on-one fighting video game was used in order to conduct this experiment. During the game, 63 male undergraduates exhibited uncomfortable noises to an opponent who was given either a dehumanizing or anonymous label. We predicted that the dehumanizing label would decrease empathetic concern for, and increase both perceptual and outward hostility towards the opponent (this was measured by high levels of noises during matches). To examine the question of whether the dehumanizing label actually lessens aggressive behavior, or in fact motivates aggressive behavior, we compared the effects of the label on levels of aggression observing whether the opponent showed hostile behavior or not. The results partially-supported our hypothesis. Although the dehumanizing label did not directly increase aggression, further analysis showed that it indirectly increased aggression by lowering empathetic concern for the opponent. Similarly, our results suggested the possibility that dehumanizing labels may in fact increase aggressive behavior in people.
著者
橋本 剛明 白岩 祐子 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.13-23, 2012

The present study examined the determinants of people's attitudes toward the Japanese government's income inequality policies. We focused particularly on people's perceived inequality of opportunity and self-perceptions of social class, and their effects on the perceived responsibility of income inequality. General survey data of 798 individuals indicated that when people perceive education/work opportunities as generally controllable through personal ability and effort, they attribute both onset and offset responsibilities more to the poor and less to the government, consequently showing less support for government intervention. Moreover, people's perception of social class moderated how they view opportunity: only among low-class respondents did the perception that opportunities are influenced by one's parents' income or their gender lead to the perception that opportunity is uncontrollable. High-class individuals, on the other hand, perceived the effects of parental income and gender on opportunity to be independent of the controllability of opportunities, suggesting that they believe that ability and effort hold strong power over general opportunity.
著者
高橋 直
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.3, pp.200-209, 1992-03-31 (Released:2016-11-30)
被引用文献数
1 or 0

It is generally known that littering can not be controlled by merely physical technology but by controlling the littering behavior of individuals. This would seem to be the most important factor of control. As one effective technique for controlling littering behavior, a behavior modification technique has recently been discovered. This study evaluates the effectiveness of such a behavior modification technique to induce littering behavior in a naturalistic settings: the baseball stadium. The procedures used were as follows; (1) an operant contingency in the form of positive reinforcement procedures, (2) a positive prompting strategy, (3) a negative prompting strategy, (4) a litter bag only condition. The findings revealed a highly significant effect of treatment. There were significant differential effects between the different treatment strategies.
著者
大坪 庸介
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.3, pp.191-212, 2015-03-20 (Released:2015-06-07)
参考文献数
126
被引用文献数
2 or 0

This article attempts to obtain a better understanding of human reconciliation processes by integrating the social psychological perspective with an evolutionary perspective. The evolutionary literature on reconciliation suggests that benefits accruing from one’s association with a partner (relationship value) and uncertainty about the partner’s intention (intentional ambiguity) are two crucial determinants of reconciliation processes. Empirical evidence confirms the importance of these two factors. First, research on forgiveness from the victim’s perspective showed that relationship value increases forgiveness, whereas intentional ambiguity (i.e., whether the perpetrator intends to exploit the victim again) decreases forgiveness. Second, research on apology perception from the victim’s perspective showed that costly apologies, as compared to no-cost apologies, reduce intentional ambiguity and thereby effectively convince the victim of the perpetrator’s benign intent. Third, research on apology-making from the perpetrator’s perspective revealed that relationship value and intentional ambiguity (i.e., whether the victim intends to continue/terminate the relationship) increases the probability of costly apology-making. These three lines of research provide support for evolutionary hypotheses about human reconciliation processes.
著者
渡辺 匠 太田 紘史 唐沢 かおり
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.1, pp.56-69, 2015-08-31 (Released:2015-09-09)
参考文献数
66
被引用文献数
1 or 0

Social psychologists have recently begun to explore the problem of free-will beliefs. Philosophers have been working on the problem of free will over the ages, and studies of social psychologists on free-will beliefs are based on past philosophical theories. Meanwhile, philosophers not only argue over the theoretical issue of free will but also engage with the research program of experimental philosophy. This program shares the methodology of social psychology, and experimental investigation of belief in free will is proceeding at a rapid pace. In consideration of the above arguments, it seems obvious that social psychologists need to collaborate with philosophers on the problem of free-will beliefs. The authors therefore review the findings of each discipline and construct a model of people’s free-will beliefs. In this model, we consider free-will beliefs as composed by alternative possibility and agency, and these components function to promote attribution of moral responsibility, self-control, and social fit.
著者
三船 恒裕 山岸 俊男
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.128-134, 2015-11-30 (Released:2015-12-17)
参考文献数
28

We tested the reputation maintenance hypothesis of ingroup favoritism. Ninety-two non-student participants played one-shot prisoner’s dilemma games with an ingroup and an outgroup partner with minimal groups, and showed ingroup favoritism only when the participant and his/her partner knew each other’s group membership (common knowledge condition). The ingroup favoritism observed in the common knowledge condition positively correlated with fear of negative evaluation. These results provide support for the reputation maintenance hypothesis.
著者
工藤 大介 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.35-44, 2014-08-18

This study investigated why the restrained buying called reputational risk occurred after The Great East Japan Earthquake, focusing on the psychological factors influencing consumers. A preliminary investigation (N=112) identified affective (System 1) factors - "negative affect," "association with Fukushima," "support for quake-hit areas," and "radiation anxieties" - and reason (System 2) factors - "knowledge-based judgment" and "rational decision" - based on the dual-process theory. Initially, the results of structural equation modeling (SEM) conducted on the main survey data (N=310) indicated the influence of multi-collinearity. Accordingly, the factors "negative affect," "association with Fukushima," and "radiation anxieties" were integrated as "anxiety over radiation and nuclear power." The result of SEM on the refined model suggested this factor causes restrained buying while "support for quake-hit areas" is effective in its mitigation. Finally, future contingency plans to combat reputational risk were discussed based on the findings of this study.
著者
小林 哲郎 池田 謙一
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.2, pp.120-130, 2008
被引用文献数
1 or 0

The effect of PC e-mail usage on social tolerance was investigated by analyzing representative survey data collected from electorates in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. The results showed that PC e-mail usage had a positive effect on social tolerance because it allows for mediating communications with heterogeneous others. These results are a clear-cut contrast to previous research, which showed that mobile-phone e-mail usage had a negative effect on social tolerance because of the increasing homogeneity of personal networks. The results indicated that while the technological limitations of mobile phone e-mail usage selectively strengthen communications with homogeneous others through the exchange of short messages, PC e-mail usage facilitates communications between heterogeneous people, because it is suitable for the exchange of the longer messages necessary for sharing the assumptions made during correspondence. From the viewpoint of nourishing "bridging" social capital, it is suggested that the promotion of PC e-mail should be encouraged by establishing appropriate policies and that the functional development of the use of the Internet on mobile phones should be empirically investigated.