著者
寺内 直子
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.51-80, 2007-02

Gagaku 雅楽, which is the oldest genre of Japanese traditional music preserved in the Court rituals, has experienced a rapid and drastic change after 1970s. This article will study the new movements of gagaku as artistic music by analyzing the National Theatre's activities in the last four decades and evaluate them in the history of gagaku and western contemporary artistic music. There are three new streams in gagaku for a wider public appreciation after 1970s ; 1) surviving traditional repertoire, which can be found in the standard score Meiji sentei-fu 明治撰定譜 kept by Kunaicho gakubu 宮内庁楽部 (Music Department of Imperial Household Agency) and 'reconstruction' of the lost pieces, 2) collaborative works with western artistic music ; and 3) a fusion with pop music. Kokuritsu gekijo 国立劇場, or National Theater Japan, produced a series of Gagaku kouen 雅楽公演, or gagaku concerts, as one of the important programs, in which 'reconstruction' of ancient pieces and instruments have been staged as well as the traditional (classical) repertoire since its open in 1966. Gagaku concerts tried various new experiments under the name of 'reconstruction' and made a great contribution to the development of contemporary artistic music, as opposed to the generally accepted image of gagaku such as 'eternal classics' or 'noble unchanged music'. This paper will clarify how Theater's gagaku concerts have provided an important place for collaborative creation of traditional gagaku and western avant-garde music, focusing on the contents of and the producer's intention for the 'reconstruction' project of the Theater.
著者
井上 さつき 渡辺 裕 寺内 直子
出版者
愛知県立芸術大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2001

本研究は、19世紀末から20世紀初頭にかけての日本と西洋の文化接触の実態を分析することにより、異文化接触のメカニズムを解明することを目的として行なわれた。井上は、川上一座のヨーロッパ公演における実態を、パリ万博時の日本音楽に関する論文等から明らかにし、さらに、彼らを招聘した舞踊家ロイ・フラーと川上一座との芸術面での関連性についても考察した。コンパクトにまとめられた川上一座の演目が米国出身のロイ・フラーの前衛的な舞踊と組み合わされて上演されたことにより、ヨーロッパ人にとっては二重の異文化接触が起こり、一座の演目が単なる「珍奇な見世物」の次元を超えた衝撃を観客に与えたことが明らかになった。寺内は、川上一座のヨーロッパ公演における音楽的な実態を、近年復刻されたCDおよび20世紀初頭の日本音楽に関する論文から明らかにした。それによると、音二郎らが演じたと思われる音楽や劇は、既成の邦楽曲や歌舞伎のストーリーを換骨奪胎し、ヨーロッパ人に分かりやすく演出が工夫されたものであった。また、彼らの公演は、会場に足を運んだ観客に日本の音楽や劇を紹介する以上に、ヨーロッパにおける音楽研究者に多大な材料を提供した、という意味において、20世紀のヨーロッパにおける日本音楽研究の進展に大きく貢献した、と言える。渡辺は、日欧の音楽面での文化交流史を物語る貴重なドキュメントであるベルリンのPhonogamm-Archiv所蔵の初期日本録音音源の中に1910年代前半に録音された一連の《追分》関連の音源が含まれていることに着目し、それを題材とする研究を行った。日本の民謡が西洋との文化接触の中で近代化・再編成されてくるプロセスの中に位置づけてみるとき、これらの録音は、その直後の時代に急速に進行した近代化・再編成過程にいたる以前の民謡をめぐる状況の一端を示しているとともに、レコードというメディアの登場、とりわけ西洋人による録音・採集という活動の展開が、その近代化・再編成プロセスの大きな動因になったことをも示していることが明らかになった。
著者
寺内 直子
出版者
神戸大学大学院国際文化学研究科
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学大学院国際文化学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
no.30, pp.1-29, 2008-07

This paper examines the musical practice of gagaku, the royal court music of Japan, in the early 1940s, which follows an essay of the author published in 2002, discussing on the gagaku recording in 1903. Recently, several old wax cylinders or 78-rpm records have become available in the form of CD reproduction, which can provide innumerous opportunities for scholars to listento and analyze actual practices of periods. It, however, seems that the materials have not been paid full attention by the academic world. This paper, considering carefully the pitfalls of old recordings, analyze tempo and phrasing of the performance of togaku, a sub-genre in gagaku, in 'The Album of Japanese Music', produced by Kokusai Bunka Shinkokai in the early 1940s and compare them with those of recordings made by Frederick Gaisberg in 1903. Kokusai Bunka Shinkokai (KBS) was established in 1934 under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Education, aiming at promotion of cultural exchange between Japan and foreign countries. KBS produced various records and films of Japanese culture and sent them overseas, one of which was The Album of Japanese Music. It is 10-inches, 78-rpm records, not-for-sale item, and consists of 60 discs (120 sides) arranged into 5 volumes, which covers wide range of Japanese musical genres, such as gagaku (royal court music), shomyo (Buddhist chants), no (medieval masked play), biwa (narrative with lute), shakuhachi (bamboo flute), shamisen (three-stringed lute), kagura & sairei bayashi (folk festival music), komori-uta (cradle songs), warabe-uta (children's songs), and riyo (min'yo) (folk songs). It is also noteworthy that the highest level of artists of the time performed for the Album. Among togaku repertoire in the KBS records, three pieces, 'Etenraku', 'Seigaiha', and 'Bato' (in tada-bydshi rhythm) can be found played in kangen (or music without dance) style, while 'Taiheiraku no ha', 'Taiheiraku no kyu', 'Bato' (in yatara-byoshi rhythm), and 'Chogeishi' are performed in bugaku (or music for dance) style. Tempo of the bugaku pieces is much faster than that of kangen in the KBS records. We can find similar difference in tempo between bugaku and kangen in the present-day practice of the late 20^<th> to the early 21^<st> centuries. On the other hand, togaku pieces (in kangen) in the 1903's recording are all performed in very fast tempi, like bugaku is today. In other words, the distinction between bugaku and kangen styles in terms of tempo was not yet obvious in 1903, but can be clearly found in the KBS records of the 1940s. Besides, we can see another difference between Gaisberg and KBS records in the aspect of phrasing. Melodies of the Gaisberg recording were all cut into bigger phrases that are blown with one breath, while those in the KBS set were into smaller sizes, inserted with many brief breath cuts. Namely, as slower the tempo of kangen became, the smaller units the phrases were divided into, as is kangen today. According to these facts, it is possible of say that the distinction of kangen style from bugaku in terms of tempo and phrasing was not obvious in the early twentieth century, but became clear in the 1940s. In other words, today's kangen style in slow tempo and with more breath cuts was established by the early 1940s.
著者
寺内 直子
出版者
The Society for Research in Asiatic Music (Toyo Ongaku Gakkai, TOG)
雑誌
東洋音楽研究 (ISSN:00393851)
巻号頁・発行日
no.63, pp.16-36,L2, 1998

The <i>wagon</i> _??__??_, the Japanese indigenous six-stringed zither, is often said to have been used only in Japanese native genres such as <i>mikagura</i> _??__??__??_, <i>azuma-asobi</i> _??__??_, and the like. However, from the 10th century, the <i>wagon</i> was introduced into <i>togaku</i> _??__??_ and <i>saibara</i> _??__??__??_ in the context of private concerts, called <i>gyoyu</i> _??__??_, held by a small number of high ranking nobles. Neither this fact, nor the nature of the <i>wagon's</i> musical practice at that time are well known. Fortunately, several sources on the <i>wagon</i> compiled or copied during the Edo period by the musicians of the Ayanokoji family _??__??__??__??_ and others are available. The source Gakurin-gosho _??__??__??__??_ is of most importance in the following regards; 1) It could be dated back to the 15th century which means it represents the old performance tradition, from the time before the <i>saibara</i> tradition's loss in the late Muromachi period. 2) It contains a detailed scores of the <i>wagon</i> as used in both <i>saibara</i> and <i>togaku</i>. An analysis of these sources has made the followings apparent; First, in <i>saibara</i>, the <i>wagon</i> repeats two fixed patterns called <i>sugagaki</i> _??__??_ and <i>katagaki</i> _??__??_ regardless of the vocal melodies. The former pattern is used in <i>go-hyoshi</i> _??__??__??_ or 8 unit pieces and the latter in <i>sando-byoshi</i> _??__??__??__??_ or 4 unit pieces. The <i>wagon</i> part's lack of a close relationship with the vocal part is a characteristic shared with other native vocal genres such as <i>mikagura</i> and <i>azuma-asobi</i>. The basic techniques included in <i>sugagaki</i> and <i>katagaki</i> patterns in <i>saibara</i> can in fact be found in various native genres, so it is possible that <i>sugagaki</i> and <i>katagaki</i> were constructed from these already existed techniques. In this sense, the <i>wagon</i> as used in <i>saibara</i> can be seen as part of a unified lineage of the <i>wagon</i> practice in Japanese native court songs including <i>mikagura</i>.<br>In the case of <i>mikagura</i>, however, a periodical cyclic structure is lacking (except in a small number of exceptional pieces) and the <i>wagon</i> is not played in a periodic patternized manner. On the other hand, periodical repetition is a characteristic of the <i>wagon</i> part in <i>saibara</i> which bears similarity to the rhythmic structure of <i>togaku</i>. In <i>saibara</i>, the <i>wagon</i> actually played in a clear rhythmic role, with unequivocal accents marked with the plectrum pattern in a cycle.<br>Unlike in <i>saibara</i>, the <i>wagon</i> in <i>togaku</i> has developed a more melodic dimension that follows the wind instruments' fundamental melody line. In order to highlight its distinction from other long zither, <i>so</i> or <i>koto</i>, in <i>togaku</i> ensemble, the <i>wagon</i> was always played using plectrum patterns that produced a unique sound and strong accents in a periodical cycle.<br>Although, the <i>wagon</i> was used in a highly patternized way in <i>togaku</i>, different arrangements of a single piece in the sources examined show considerable variety in their detail. This suggests a flexibility in arrangement of individual melodies. In this regard, the <i>wagon</i> had more scope for musical development in the context of <i>togaku</i> than it did in <i>saibara</i>, for the latter case the <i>wagon</i> played only two fixed patterns. In <i>togaku</i>, then, the <i>wagon's</i> style was in closer accord with the ideals of <i>gyoyu</i> which allowed a large amount of improvisation or personal arrangement of melodies.
著者
寺内 直子
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2012-04-01

この研究は、日本の宮廷音楽・雅楽が、海外においていかに発信・受容され、定着、展開しているかを分析する、音楽学的、文化人類学的考察である。本研究は、海外の雅楽を1)日本からの「渡航型」と2)現地在住者による「滞在型」に分け、国際的に活躍する日本の雅楽演奏者やプロデューサーに聞き取りを行うとともに、日系移民の多いハワイ、ロサンジェルス、日系移民が少ないニューヨーク、ケルンでフィールドワークを行い、海外における雅楽実践を、実践者の活動と意識、聴衆の反応、実際の音楽内容、演出等の観点から分析し、その展開のメカニズムと社会的意義を学術的に分析した。
著者
寺内 直子
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2006

本研究は、明治時代以来、現代に至る、これまでの雅楽の「復元」研究と「復元」演奏の目的・方法論・実際を整理し、再評価するとともに、現代日本の音楽文化における雅楽の「復元」の可能性と、その歴史的、社会的意義を明らかにするものである。具体的には、1)明治末から第二次大戦までの20世紀前半、2)1945~1970年代前半、3)1970年代後半~1980年代、4)1990年代以降の四つの時期に分けて、それぞれの時代の「復元」研究と演奏の特徴を、資料批判、音楽的解読、鳴り響く音への実現の手法の観点から考察、整理している。