著者
三上 剛史
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, pp.93-116, 2007-12

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the sociological significance of "Liebe als Passion" written by Niklas Luhmann. Luhmann, a sociologist, is known for having opened up a new type of systems theory. Though he wrote many enlightening books, reference is rarely made to "Liebe als Passion" in sociological research. On the one hand, as love research, this book was probably too complicated. On the other, it was peculiar as a practical example of systems theory. But Luhmann himself considered this book central to his work. Indeed, this book might be rather eccentric as love research. However Luhmann's study of love is highly suggestive when forecasting future society and the relations between individualized persons. There are many points in this work meriting study especially with regard to the nature of individualized consciousness.
著者
寺内 直子
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.51-80, 2007-02

Gagaku 雅楽, which is the oldest genre of Japanese traditional music preserved in the Court rituals, has experienced a rapid and drastic change after 1970s. This article will study the new movements of gagaku as artistic music by analyzing the National Theatre's activities in the last four decades and evaluate them in the history of gagaku and western contemporary artistic music. There are three new streams in gagaku for a wider public appreciation after 1970s ; 1) surviving traditional repertoire, which can be found in the standard score Meiji sentei-fu 明治撰定譜 kept by Kunaicho gakubu 宮内庁楽部 (Music Department of Imperial Household Agency) and 'reconstruction' of the lost pieces, 2) collaborative works with western artistic music ; and 3) a fusion with pop music. Kokuritsu gekijo 国立劇場, or National Theater Japan, produced a series of Gagaku kouen 雅楽公演, or gagaku concerts, as one of the important programs, in which 'reconstruction' of ancient pieces and instruments have been staged as well as the traditional (classical) repertoire since its open in 1966. Gagaku concerts tried various new experiments under the name of 'reconstruction' and made a great contribution to the development of contemporary artistic music, as opposed to the generally accepted image of gagaku such as 'eternal classics' or 'noble unchanged music'. This paper will clarify how Theater's gagaku concerts have provided an important place for collaborative creation of traditional gagaku and western avant-garde music, focusing on the contents of and the producer's intention for the 'reconstruction' project of the Theater.
著者
金野 美奈子
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.29-49, 2007-02

ジェンダーに関する規範理論と実践はジェンダー平等の概念と不可分であるが、ジェンダー平等をどのように概念化するのがふさわしいかは社会の歴史的状況によって異なる。本稿は、とりわけ先進諸国において過去30年ほどの間に顕著に現れてきた様々な多元主義状況、なかでも近年重要性を高めてきていると言われるワーク・ライフスタイル選好にかんする個人間の多元性に着目し、現代にふさわしいジェンダー平等の概念はどのようなものかを検討するものである。まず、このような多元性についてのこれまででもっとも包括的な議論である、キャサリン・ハッキムの選好理論をとりあげ、日本においても近年、この選好理論を支持するデータが得られつつあることを見る。次に、このような現代的状況にふさわしいジェンダー平等の概念として、多元主義的ジェンダー平等の概念を素描する。ジェンダー平等の多元主義的概念化とは、人々のワーク・ライフスタイル選好の根幹にジェンダー関係をめぐる世界観があることに着目し、これらの異なったジェンダー的世界観を生きる人々の間の平等を構想するものである。これに対しては、従来のフェミニズムの立場からいくっかの批判が予想される。ここでは主な批判として、「選好」に基づく概念化に対する批判、および多元主義的概念化に対する批判(特定のワーク・ライフスタイルモデルの優越性や不適切性の指摘、および統計的差別問題の指摘)を取り上げ、それぞれ妥当性を検討する。最後に、多元主義を真に可能にする社会的意味世界の構築という観点から、本稿で素描されたジェンダー平等概念にもとつく規範的社会理論がとりうる方向性を展望する。
著者
小笠原 博毅
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.101-114, 2008-07

Synopsis: Drawing upon five ways that could provide a better understanding of contemporary Japanese society, this paper attempts to tentatively construct views that clarify how specific cultural currents affect our lives under the neo-liberal political and economic condition. These five ways do not regard the field of culture as self-evident. Culture should not be prioritised in social analysis. Even if culture could be considered as relatively autonomous, in what condition can we say so? What force can make it possible to represent culture as relatively autonomous? The important task I would like to propose here is to re-address contemporary Japanese culture as an ensemble of uncertain practices. First, the 1980s is considered as the period that has generated a particular pattern of cultural nationalism among intellectuals. Second, the global trend of 'made-in-Japan' worked as a potential campaign for promoting the neoliberal fashion of cultural production. Third, ai, sorrow/love, is valuable to analyse who is 'in' and who is 'out' of a community that can enjoy a specific kind of love, that is, nationalism. Love without sorrow to others, I suggest, could inevitably lead to drawing a rigid line between 'in' and 'out'. Fourth, ido, moving/sameness-difference makes it possible for us to see the way that the irresistible trend of migration has long been a part of Japanese society. However, this obvious history of moving is submerged by the recent cultural nationalism into the logic of sameness-difference. Those who do not move are 'same' while moving generates difference. Then, the communality among those who do not seem to move is expected and presumed. Fifth and last, the warning words of the African-American savant W.E.B.DuBois in 1930s remind us that Japan has been ceaselessly involved in the global modern geopolitics of 'colour line', the racialised division, since her modernisation. Although this history is not properly recognised, DuBois is useful to reexamine this historical negligence. It is particularly true to those who believe that contemporary Japan has little to do with race and racism. Instead, they are keen to problematise 'race' as exception, the thing that rarely matters in the traditionally tolerant cultural environment. Introducing the Tokyo municipal governor Ishihara Shintaro's deliberately racist speech, I examine the ways in which 'race' comes to occupy the central part among political relations rather than to be an occasionally discussed, peripheral and simple political issue.
著者
金野 美奈子
出版者
神戸大学
雑誌
国際文化学研究 : 神戸大学国際文化学部紀要 (ISSN:13405217)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.1-33, 2007-07

Is 'gender' still a useful concept for social analysis? This paper answers positively to this question by reconceptualizing gender for a more open understanding. From an interdisciplinary perspective it takes up several important contributions in the last decade to determine a major theoretical problem they faced. Recent theoretical attempts can be categorized in three distinctive approaches by the analytical concepts mainly used in these attempts: the action approach, the social structure approach, and the power approach. This paper examines representative theories from each of these approaches. The theory of Judith Butler (literally criticism) and West and Zimmerman (sociology) from the action approach, Iris Marion Young (political philosophy) from the social structure approach, Ehara Yumiko (sociology) from the power approach. Focusing on different aspects of gender, these theorists commonly faced the problem of subjectivity and objectivity. Although they try to theorize gender as part of objective structure of society, their arguments lead them to a point where they have to confront the fact that the social is fundamentally constituted by the subjective. Yet they have so far failed to fully explore its implication so that they remain unable to grasp the whole spectrum of the gendered social reality, which is inherently pluralistic. This paper draws on the theory of social institution by Seiyama Kazuo, one of the most sophisticated theoretical statements within the tradition of interpretative sociology, and apply it to the theorizing of gender. Although Seiyama does not focus on gender, analytical concepts he provides are nonetheless useful. His main theoretical contribution is that he establishes the centrality of the subjective within the social, as well as that he shows a clear understanding of how the social reality takes on such powerful objectivity for social actors. He distinguishes two components in the social reality, namely, purely 'empirical existence' and 'ideal existence.' Ideal existence exists only in the social reality, which is ultimately constituted by the actors' meaning-endowing subjectivity, but nonetheless forms a fundamental component of the social reality. 'Woman' and 'man' can be understood as primary examples of such ideal existence. Thus understood, the concept of gender will enable us to relate to the centrality of subjectivity in the constitution of the gendered social reality. This also opens up new horizons for the gender analysis that have tended to narrowly focus on identifying injustice suffered by women, to fully incorporate the enabling as well as constraining construction of gender in a variety of contexts and contents into both empirical and normative analysis of the social.