著者
岩科 司 松本 定
出版者
国立科学博物館
雑誌
国立科学博物館専報 (ISSN:00824755)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, pp.67-73, 2006

アマギカンアオイHeterotropa muramatsui (F. Maek.) F. Maek.は伊豆半島に準固有のウマノスズクサ科の植物である.この変種シモダカンアオイH. muramatsui var. shimodana F. Maek.は伊豆半島先端の須崎半島にのみ自生している.またもう一つの変種タマノカンアオイH. muramatsui var. tamaensis (Makino) F. Maek.は関東地方の多摩丘陵を中心とした地域に分布している.これらの変種のうち,タマノカンアオイは独立した種,Asarum tamaensis Makinoと考える立場もある.本研究では,これらの3変種をフラボノイドを指標とした化学分類学的手法によって検討を行った.各種クロマトグラフィーによって分離されたフラボノイドは7種類で,UV吸収スペクトル,加水分解とその生成物の定性,質量スペクトル,ペーパークロマトグラフィーおよび高速液体クロマトグラフィーによる基準標品との直接の比較などからそれぞれ,chalcononaringenin 2', 4'-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (2), kaempferol 3, 4'-di-O-glucoside (3), kaempferol 3-O-rhamnosylglucoside-4'-O-glucoside (4), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (5), isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (6)およびisorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside (7)と同定された.これらのうち,1はすでにアマギカンアオイ,シモダカンアオイ,タマノカンアオイから報告されており,また2, 5, 6および7についてもカンアオイ属植物から分離されているが,3と4はこれまでウマノスズクサ科では報告されていない化合物であった.アマギカンアオイ,シモダカンアオイおよびタマノカンアオイを二次元ペーパークロマトグラフィーと高速液体クロマトグラフィーによってフラボノイド組成を解析したところ,これらは質的にまったく同一であり,化学分類学的にはこれらの変種は同じ種類と考えられた.
著者
海老原 淳 岡 武利 松本 定
出版者
国立科学博物館
雑誌
筑波実験植物園研究報告 (ISSN:02893568)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.17-25, 2005-12
被引用文献数
1 or 0

The Vandenboschia radicans complex, one of the 'cosmopolitan species' of pteridophyte, shows great morphological variation within the Japanese Archipelago. The study by Ebihara et al. (2005) which clarified the complicated origin of this complex resulted from reticulate evolution also revealed that the Pacific coast of the Kanto region possesses the most diversified genomic-formula. In this study, we focused on the V. radicans complex of the region (Izu, Miura and Boso Peninsulas) by enriching samples, and discussed possible causes for the diversity. Of the three peninsulas, Miura Peninsula exhibits particularly diversified genomic formula in spite of less variable alleles and narrower distribution range than the other two. These results suggest that the present populations of Miura Peninsula have been locally formed by reticulate evolution based on limited number of ancestral lineages.
著者
松本 定
出版者
国立科学博物館
雑誌
筑波実験植物園研究報告 (ISSN:02893568)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.1-141, 2003-12
被引用文献数
3 or 0

The ornamental fern, Cyrtomium falcatum (L. f.) C. Presl native in Eastern Asia naturalized coastal region of the warm-temperate zone in the world. The chromosome number for cytotypes on 186 localities (341 individuals) and the spore-number per sporangium for reproductive mode on 794 localities (2,467 individuals including herbarium specimens and population samples) in Japan were surveyed. Four cytotypes, two sexual diploid (A1: dwarf, A2: normal), one sexual tetraploid (C) and one apogamous triploid (B) were mainly recognized. In central Japan, A1, B and C types show that the habitat segregation among sea-cliff, coastal grassy ground and forest floor are sympatric. While, A1 and A2 types show that the geographic segregation between northern part and southern part in Japan are allopatric. And also, several polyploid hybrids were recognized at contact zones of each cytotype and another apogamous triploid species. There are one sterile triploid (A1×C), one apogamous and sexual tetraploid (A1×B) and four apogamous pentaploid [C×B (♂), C×D (D: C. laetevirens (Hiyama) Nakaike: ♂), C×E (E: C. fortunei (J. Sm.) var. clivicola (Makino) Tagawa: ♂), C×F (F: C. caryotideum (Wall, ex Hook, et Grev.) C. Presl: ♂). The polyhaploid (apogamous dihaploid) was gotten from reduced spores (64 spores in a sporangium) of the tetraploid (A1×B). This apogamous dihaploid considered to make variation of B type as donor of sperm by backcross (hybrid cycle: 3x to 4x to 2x to 3x). Artificial hybrid for genome analysis were synthesized as follow, fertile diploid (A1×A2), sterile triploid (A1×C) and sterile and apogamous tetraploid [C×(A1×B)]. Sexual meiosis of all hybrids including natural apogamous hybrids and dihaploid were analyzed for the basic 4 types, A1, A2, and B types were same genome as AA, AA and AAA respectively, but C type was allotetraploid having AABB (see Fig. 3-5). On the genetic background of agamospory, the apogamy was considered to be one dominant gene from the segregation ratio of gametophytes to originate in reduced-spores of tetraploid hybrid, A1×B. And also linkage of apogamy and diplospory genes considered as to be present, for reason to show diplospory on the almost dihaploid. On the variation of mating systems, ratio of the gametangium formation (mix or separate antheridia with archegonia) and sporophyte formation by intragametophytic selfing test were investigated on the A1, A2 and C types, and one hybrid A1×A2. A2 and C were separate types, but A1 was variable from separate to mix type and the hybrid was intermediate type with the half ratio. Sporophyte formation of the mix types including parent (A1) of the hybrid were high frequencies by self-fertility, but that of separate types were low in A1 and A2 types of diploid or relatively low in C type of tetraploid. And also sporophyte formation of separate types later one month than that of mix type. On the comparative study under the cultivation, dwarf form of A1 type specialized genetically from A2 type was considered as 'Progenesis'. The shape of B type intermediates between A1 and A2 types. While, C type was distinguished from another types with shape of pinna and presence of micro-scale on upper surface of frond. Correlation of the ecological structure and speciation on basic 4 cytotypes of Cyrtomium falcatum complex in Japanese Archipelago were considered from viewpoint of species ecological study (see Fig. 4-1). Most basic A2 type growing subtropical maritime forest with cross mating evolved under K-selection. The A1 type growing warm and cool temperate sea-cliff evolved under r-selection from A2 type, as follows, the first by genetic drift, migrating only grayish indusium strain with self mating, the second by progenesis, shorten the life cycle from three years or more to one or two years. Most widely spread B type growing the coastal forest edge with apogamous reproduction evolved by hybridization at several times or by hybrid cycle from A2 and A1 types under competition environment. The C type growing warm temperate wetly forest floor evolved under K-selection, by hybridization between A2 type and unknown another species of Cyrtomium. Taxonomy of basic 4 types on Cyrtomium falcatum complex was as follows by examination of two holotype specimens. Cyrtomium devexiscapulae (Koidz.) Ching (C type) C. falcatum (L. f.) C. Presl subsp. falcatum (B type) subsp. littorale S. Matsumoto (A1 type) subsp. australe S. Matsumoto (A2 type)