著者
細川 武稔
出版者
公益財団法人史学会
雑誌
史學雜誌 (ISSN:00182478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.113, no.12, pp.2004-2024, 2004-12-20

The present article focuses on prayer rituals performed by temples of the Zen Sect in order to shed light on the relationship between that Sect and the Muromachi Bakufu and on the character of the mechanism of Bakufu-designated official temples (kanji 官寺), which tied the Zen sect, especially the five great temples of Kyoto (Gozan 五山), closely to the Bakufu. The author identifies three separate systems of prayer (kito 祈祷) : one centered on the kanji organization of the Gozan-Jissatsu-Shozan temple hierarchy, one made up of Bakufu-designated "prayer temples" (kiganji 祈願寺) and one centered around the Ashikaga family temple of Shokokuji 相国寺. At the time of the founding of the Bakufu, the kanji temples of Kyoto were ordered to conduct prayer rituals, but no preparation was made at that time to have similar rituals conducted in the provinces. The shoguns issued directives recognizing temples as kiganji to supplement the kanji organization ; and later these temples were gradually absorbed into the kanji hierarchy as they spread throughout the country, being perceived as the system of prayer for the unified aristocrat-warrior Muromachi regime. However, this prayer order went through tremendous change with the building of Shokokuji by the third shogun, Yoshimitsu, as Zen priests of this Ashikaga family temple (bodaiji 菩提寺) were requested to perform prayer rituals in honor of the shogun's birthday, pray in the Kannon Room of the Shogun's residence, and conduct specially requested ceremonies. In other words, Shokokuji was preferred to such temples as Nanzenji 南禅寺 and Tenryuji 天龍寺, which were ranked above even the kanji hierarchy. Taking the leadership in the organization of the prayer system was the Inryoshiki 蔭涼職 (the shogun's major domo) in cooperation with the Rokuon-Soroku 鹿苑僧録, the registrar and supervisor of the kanji organization. Although Shokokuji developed into the nucleus of the three prayer systems, the kanji organization was indispensable due to its traditional ties to the public and state aspects of the imperial court, thus making it possible for two different systems to stand side-by-side, indicating how the Bakufu made the Zen Sect serve its purposes in both its public and private spheres.
著者
細川 武稔
出版者
公益財団法人史学会
雑誌
史學雜誌 (ISSN:00182478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.107, no.12, pp.2083-2106, 2198-2199, 1998-12-20

In order to better clarify medieval society, its warrior class and what the shogunate was, it is necessary to consider religion. The aim of the present paper is to shed light upon the character of the Muromachi shogunate by examining the residences, temples and shrines of the Ashikaga family. The first shogun, Ashikaga Takauji first lived in Rokuhara (an eastern suburb of Kyoto), then he and his younger brother Tadayoshi built residences in the center of Kyoto, and established a new shogunate there. Tojiji temple was attached to Tadayoshi's residence the Sanjobomon-tei. Aftr his death, Takauji and the second shogun Yoshiakira decided that Tojiji temple would be the patron temple of the Ashikaga family. Takauji and Yoshiakira lived near Tojiji temple, and Gosho-Hachimangu shrine was built at Tadayoshi's Sanjobomon-tei as the guardian of the shogun's residence. Therefore, the whole Sanjobomon area belonged to the Ashikaga family. The third shogun, Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, built his residence, called the Muromachi-dono, in a northern suburb of Kyoto. He also built Shokokuji temple near Muromachi-dono, as the area became much larger than that at Sanjobomon. Yoshimitsu moved the functions of the Ashikaga family temple nearer to him, sponsoring, for example, the Hokkehakko memorial service for the former shogun, at Shokokuji temple instead of Tojiji temple. After building his residence in Kitayama to the north of Muromachi-dono, he sponsored the Hokkehakko in Kitayama. From the reign of the fourth shogun, Ashikaga Yoshimochi, the two temples of the Ashikaga family coexisted. Regardless of where the shogun lived, Hokkehakko was performed at Tojiji temple, while smaller temples of each shogun were built on the grounds of Shokokuji temple. This indicates that the Muromachi shogunate at that time came to assume a double character, one attributable to Takauji's government, the other to Yoshimitsu's.
著者
細川 武稔
出版者
公益財団法人 史学会
雑誌
史学雑誌 (ISSN:00182478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.113, no.12, pp.2004-2024, 2004-12-20 (Released:2017-12-01)

The present article focuses on prayer rituals performed by temples of the Zen Sect in order to shed light on the relationship between that Sect and the Muromachi Bakufu and on the character of the mechanism of Bakufu-designated official temples (kanji 官寺), which tied the Zen sect, especially the five great temples of Kyoto (Gozan 五山), closely to the Bakufu. The author identifies three separate systems of prayer (kito 祈祷) : one centered on the kanji organization of the Gozan-Jissatsu-Shozan temple hierarchy, one made up of Bakufu-designated "prayer temples" (kiganji 祈願寺) and one centered around the Ashikaga family temple of Shokokuji 相国寺. At the time of the founding of the Bakufu, the kanji temples of Kyoto were ordered to conduct prayer rituals, but no preparation was made at that time to have similar rituals conducted in the provinces. The shoguns issued directives recognizing temples as kiganji to supplement the kanji organization ; and later these temples were gradually absorbed into the kanji hierarchy as they spread throughout the country, being perceived as the system of prayer for the unified aristocrat-warrior Muromachi regime. However, this prayer order went through tremendous change with the building of Shokokuji by the third shogun, Yoshimitsu, as Zen priests of this Ashikaga family temple (bodaiji 菩提寺) were requested to perform prayer rituals in honor of the shogun's birthday, pray in the Kannon Room of the Shogun's residence, and conduct specially requested ceremonies. In other words, Shokokuji was preferred to such temples as Nanzenji 南禅寺 and Tenryuji 天龍寺, which were ranked above even the kanji hierarchy. Taking the leadership in the organization of the prayer system was the Inryoshiki 蔭涼職 (the shogun's major domo) in cooperation with the Rokuon-Soroku 鹿苑僧録, the registrar and supervisor of the kanji organization. Although Shokokuji developed into the nucleus of the three prayer systems, the kanji organization was indispensable due to its traditional ties to the public and state aspects of the imperial court, thus making it possible for two different systems to stand side-by-side, indicating how the Bakufu made the Zen Sect serve its purposes in both its public and private spheres.
著者
細川 武稔
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
特別研究員奨励費
巻号頁・発行日
2007 (Released:2007-04-01)

北野天満宮の神仏習合については、神宮寺だった東向観音寺(京都市上京区)について、引き続き所蔵史料の分析をおこなった。その結果、この寺が一条家の祈願寺となるきっかけを作った一条輝子について、詳しく調べることが必要になった。輝子は岡山池田氏の出身であることから、岡山県立図書館(岡山市)・林原美術館(岡山市)などで情報を収集した。中世の北野天満宮に関連して、足利義満が京都の北山で構築した空間について分析し、中世都市研究会大会において発表した。そこでは、義満が北山を選んだのは、足利氏が深く信仰する北野天満宮と、足利氏の墓所等持院に挟まれた地域だったからであると述べた。また、北山天神森の天神社(現在の敷地神社)が北野天満宮との関係で語られていた事実を指摘した。発表の準備段階では、京都市歴史資料館・京都府立総合資料館などで文献を読み込んだり、現地でのフィールドワークをおこなったりした。京都における三十三所観音については、中世の成立・近世の復興について分析を進めた。中世については、室町幕府の奉行人である飯尾氏の関与について調べた。当時の貴族の日記や五山禅僧の漢詩を分析することによって、飯尾氏が積極的に三十三所の確定に関わり、一族の菩提寺を三十三所に組み入れていったことなどがわかってきた。近世については、京都市歴史資料館・京都府立総合資料館で文献・史料を渉猟するなどして、巡礼順序が変更された事情などを考える材料を集めた。また、文政11年刊の『恵方巡京図』に、三十三所観音巡礼が記されていること、人吉藩の歴史書『嗣誠独集覧』に、近世の復興に真如堂の僧が関わったという重要な記事があることなどを見出した。