著者
谷内 悠
出版者
日本宗教学会
雑誌
宗教研究 (ISSN:03873293)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.1, pp.99-121, 2014-06-30

本稿では、「なぜ宗教的なものが科学に基礎づけられることで自らを正当化しようとするのか」という問題について、分析哲学の手法を用いて考察する。その際、創造論、とりわけ自らを「科学である」とする創造科学やID論を事例として取り上げる。それらが科学性を主張するのは、公教育を巡る建前であるだけでなく、科学の優位を前提する社会通念の反映でもあり、ここに宗教と科学の間の現代的な捻れがあると読み取れるのだ。そこで筆者はまず、宗教と科学を概念図式及び言語ゲームとして捉え、個々に分析した。そしてそれらを状況に応じて選択する母体として「メタ概念図式」を措定し、さらに概念図式及び言語ゲームとメタ概念図式との間にある循環関係も考慮した「二重の概念図式理論」を提起する。それを創造論に適用することで、宗教と科学の捻れを解消するに至った。この理論は、ウィトゲンシュタイニアン・フィデイズムのような概念相対主義を乗り越える試みでもある。
著者
谷内 悠
出版者
東京大学文学部宗教学研究室
雑誌
東京大学宗教学年報 (ISSN:02896400)
巻号頁・発行日
no.27, pp.119-136, 2009

論文/ArticlesThis paper is concerned with the construction of an original theory which explains how the worldview, including the division between "reality and fiction," is formed.//In modern times, the very time of the rise of science, the contrast between "reality and fiction" was considered to be absolute. This was because modern science excluded objects with which it could not deal with from the "real" world, so that the "reality" recognized by it became the only "reality." Things regarded as "fictions" became something that could not have influence on the "reality" at all. Thus, the contemporary "common worldview" based on the doctrine of science for science's sake was formed.//However, our actual worldview cannot possibly be fully covered by science. "Reality" is not so firm, and "fiction" obviously has some power to affect "reality." This is especially obvious in situations such as conflicts between natural sciences and various religions today. The notion of "belief" becomes complicated, because "reality" can be "reality" only when it is "believed."//Needless to say, "belief" is a very basic notion in the studies of religion, so it is important to pay special attention to the significance of this "belief," analyze and describe more precisely how it works in the formation of our worldview. (Here, the meaning of "信" or "belief" is interpreted in a unique way.)//The analytic philosophy is the basis of my theory. It is a very effective method for analyzing religious discourses because it is a stream of philosophy emerging after the Linguistic Turn, which is represented by Wittgenstein and others, and because it stands close to the philosophy of language and philosophy of science. In this study, I particularly focus on and base my argument on the philosophy of W. V. O. Quine, and start my discussion from his key terms such as "holism," "relativism" and "conceptual scheme." While expanding them theoretically, for example, by positing a notion of "meta conceptual scheme" and examining the dynamism between "conceptual schemes" and "meta conceptual scheme," I formulate an original theory which has the notion of "belief" at its core.//In conclusion, "belief" plays the role of the ground that is not there intrinsically. When fiction is "believed," "reality" arises. This is probably an important viewpoint necessary for approaching the studies of religion in this post-modern time.