著者
酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.12-22, 1995

This article aims at analyzing the view of swords in the traditional books of Kenjutsu in the Edo period. The view of swords in the traditional books of Kenjutsu reffers chiefly to myth. From the mythological image may begathered. The purpose of this paper, based on the standpoint of structuralism, is to clarify the constitutive position of the mythological image in the view of swords as a whole in the traditional books of Kenjutsu.<br>Several new findings might be summarized as follows:<br>1. A (system), connected with the Three Sacred Regalia, has carried weight with the view of swords of Kenj utsu.<br>2. The former-mentioned (system) has risen above its own level (i. e. latent consciousness level·common understanding level·real activities level) and forged newly transcendental (sysem).<br>3. This mechanism can be explained that the (structure) of the forme (system), connected with the Three Sacred. Regalia, is a mold of the latter (system).<br>4. The mythological image tied two (systems) together.<br>5. Being accompanied by a major assumption of the formation of a new (system), the mythological image had (inductive property).
著者
酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.1, pp.1-20, 2003-07-31 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
52

The “concept of a double-edged sword, ” which we often hear about in kendo and swordsmanship, is a symbolic reference to the sacred sword (Kusanaginotsurugi) of the three sacred treasures. The three sacred treasures themselves have very unique circumstances surrounding them, and the image of Kusanaginotsurugi, which is one of the three treasures comprising the imperial regalia, represents the “concept of a double-edged sword” and describes this most symbolically. The “concept of a double-edged sword”itself departed from the field of faith and religion in ancient Japan, and had another value system differing from that of the martial art. Then, in the Edo period, the “concept of a double-edged sword” was determined as a benchmark that symbolized the cultural nature of the martial art. Namely, that the “concept of a double-edged sword” passed through various changes during the medieval era, and it was the Kusanaginotsurugi, one of the sacred treasures, that represented this notion.This study aims to identify the circumstances surrounding the “concept of a double-edged sword” from the perspective of the three sacred treasures, paying special attention to the medieval era.In this research, the circumstances in which “the concept of a double-edged sword” came to combine with the martial art, and the subsequent directionality are clarified by examining the notions regarding the three sacred treasures in the medieval era. The contents are described as follows and are summarized for each period.(Heiancho Period or before)*The sacred treasures symbolized gods prior to the Imperial Throne, and without this structure, they could not symbolize the Imperial Throne adequately. In other words, a dual structure existed, in which the sword was a ritual utensil and simultaneously a ceremonial arm.*At that time, the structure in which the sacred treasures symbolized the Imperial Throne was not as significant as the role played in society.<Kamakura Period>*The samurai class represented by Genji and the Heike considered the three sacred treasures to be very important symbols of the Imperial Throne. The role this idea played in society became very influential.*Such tendencies were originated in the samurai's adherence to positions of the Emperor's military (Imperial army), because only the adherence affirmed their usage in military force.*Since only the Kusanaginotsurugi was lost among the three sacred treasures, this sacred sword conversely attracted more attention and was regarded as important; consequently, it began to be treated as a special object. Though the sword was originally a ritual utensil and a ceremonial arm, it came to be treated as an element of the martial art.< Nanbokucho/Muromachi Period>*The three sacred treasures of the Imperial House became common.*Symbolism without the actual existence of Kusanaginotsurugi began to appear.
著者
屈 国鋒 藤堂 良明 酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.27-38, 2007-07-31 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
43

This study aims to clarify the transition process from Chenshi Quanfa to Yangshi Taichi. In examining the transition process, we considered the following four questions.1. Why did the change from actual fighting to the concept of improving health and fitness occur in the minds of these two martial arts leaders?2. Did Yang try to establish Taichi with the purpose of improving health in mind from the very beginning?3. Why did Yang, who was an excellent fighter himself, make his Quanfa known as a health management method?4. What specific changes occurred over the three Yangshi generations?The answer to the first question is thought to lie in differences in social conditions, geographical factors, and the purpose of instruction. The same is true of the third question.As to the answer to the second question, we found that Yang Luchan initially tried to publicize his Taichi as an actual fighting martial art rather than designating it as a method of improving health and fitness.Based on the above analysis, we can summarize the transition process from Chenshi Quanfa to Yangshi Taichi as follows. Chenshi Quanfa, which was characterized both as an actual fighting technique and for improving health, was exported to the world outside Chen Jia Gou through the efforts of Yang Luchan. Yang Luchan and Yang Banhou lived in turbulent times, and they initially contributed much to the character of the actual fighting that featured Chenshi Quanfa. As they developed Chenshi Quanfa, however, they increasingly emphasized its usefulness for improving health to cope with social conditions, geographical factors, and differences in instruction methods. Yang Chengfu, who was Yang Luchan's grandson, established the current Yangshi Taichi, which focuses on the concept of improving health and fitness. It is the writer's belief that this process is the answer to the fourth question.
著者
酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.40-54, 1998-12-30 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
52

In ancient Japan, the concept of gods had been changed as passing of time. From this fact, it is expected that Japanese primitive faith had been changed, as sword culture was transmitted from China. In this paper, we describe transformation of primitive belief and foundation of unique Japanese sword culture, in the process of accepting sword culture.The summary is as follows:1. Sword culture influenced ancient Japanese mental world, and changed belief in the fire. This belief in the fire changed from destructive to constructive and part of this had been absorbed in the concept of sword.2. Originally, ancient people believed in god of snake that supported farming. But, as the time went by, power of god of snake had declined, and this faith was absorbed in the concept of the sword.3. Power of god of thunder had decline, too. The belief in this had concentrated at peculiar god “Takemikazuchi”, and this had been related to sword.4. The sword came to absorb concepts of fire and snake. And related to “Takemikazuchi”, it was recognized as god itself.5. From the above discussion, it is assumed that there is a unique Japanese way of thinking that sword is related to god. This is thought to be a foundation of concept of sword in Japan.
著者
大石 純子 酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.2, pp.87-107, 2012-12-25 (Released:2014-04-04)
参考文献数
82

The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of acceptance regarding the characteristics of Japanese swords in Ji-Xiao-Xin-Shu “紀效新書”. Ji-Xiao-Xin-Shu is a Chinese book on martial arts that was written in the 16th century. There were two editions of this book, one was published around 1560-1566 (the earlier edition), and the other was published in 1584 (the later edition).In this paper, we focused on the yao-dao “腰刀” and the chang-dao “長刀” in those two editions of the book. The conclusions of our study are :1. The yao-dao in the earlier edition has some special features that were adopted from the Japanese sword such as a single edge, a long thin edge, and an edge that is longer than the hilt, and a slightly curved edge. The yao-dao was used with a shield made of cane in the earlier edition of Ji-Xiao-Xin-Shu. In the traditional Chinese military idea, a sword was used with a wooden shield, and both the sword and shield were very heavy. The yao-dao and a shield made from cane were lighter than the traditional Chinese swords and shields, therefore, these new weapons replaced the old ones. Through this process, some features of the Japanese sword were accepted in the earlier edition of Ji-Xiao-Xin-Shu.2. In the later edition of Ji-Xiao-Xin-Shu, the yao-dao and the chang-dao were described. There was an explanation about how to make the yao-dao, and some special features that came from the Japanese sword were described in the explanations. While both the yao-dao and the chang-dao have special features that come from Japanese sword, they are distinguished from each other by the total length of the sword with the chang-dao being longer than the yao-dao. The yao-dao was used with a shield made from cane, and the chang-dao was used with a rifle in the later edition of Ji-Xiao-Xin-Shu. In the earlier edition of Ji-Xiao-Xin-Shu, the chang-dao and rifle were also described, however, there were no explanations in detail. In addition, there was no guidance given on how to use the chang-dao with a rifle. In the later edition of Ji-Xiao-Xin-Shu, the special features of the Japanese sword were accepted through the military idea such as using the chang-dao with a rifle.
著者
酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.2, pp.1-15, 2006-12-31 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
92

This research aims to clarify the magical power of the bow and arrow that appear in ancient Japanese myths, including ‘Kojiki’and‘ Nihon shoki.’In my the previous study, I clarified the following in relation to the magical power of the sword that appears in ancient Japanese myths:1. the magical power of the sword2. the relationship between the sword and gods (when discussing the magical power of the sword, the sword must be sacred; this is the basis of why the sword is sacred)3. the attribute of the sword that connects the celestial world of the gods and the terrestrial world of human beings (this provides an assumption for the relationship between the sword and the gods).In this research, I investigated whether the magical power of the bow and arrow has the same structure as that of the sword, by comparing the findings of the previous study, and confirmed the following:In the myth of Arnenowakahiko, three points were found: 1. the magical power of the bow and arrow; 2. the relationship between the gods and the bow and arrow; and 3. the bow and arrow's attribute connecting between the celestial world of the gods and the terrestrial world of human beings, suggesting that the magical power of the bow and arrow has the same structure as that of the sword.· A difference from the magical power of the sword was revealed in the myth of Ninuriya.·Besides the magical power of Hekija (exorcising evil gods and demons), I found the magical power of Seisei (creating).·Although arrows themselves originally had magical power, the red color of Ninuziya represents the magical power of the blood, by which the magical power of the arrow was enhanced.·In the Ninuriya myth, I could not find the magical power of the bow, but found only the magical power of the arrow.·In the Ninuriya myth, the arrow flows down the river to the terrestrial world as the god's incarnation. This implies that the world of gods lies in the horizontal direction of the terrestrial world. However, in the Kilo myths a view of the world is expressed in a form that basically stands solid in the vertical direction. The sword and arrow of the Arnenowakahiko myth connected the celestial world of the gods to the human world on Earth. The view of the world in this vertical direction was, however, created by a new ideology, and the world view was originally horizontal. The arrow was previously understood as something that connected the comparatively old transcendence axis in the horizontal direction.
著者
酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.36-44, 1990

The thought that recognizes swords to be transcendent existed in the ancient times, and the swords had the character of ceremonial outfit. In the Middle Ages, common swords that were used as a practical weapon, also had this thought.<br>The purpose of this study is to consider a view of swords in the Middle Ages from "GUNKIMONOGATARI", and to make it clear what existed in the bottom of people's consciousness that formed this view, and what is features of this view.<br>The results can be summarized as follows.<br>1. Image of the myth, that existed in the bottom of people's consciousness, formed a view of swords in the Middle Ages.<br>2. In the Middle Ages, swords themselves suggested the metaphorical God that existed behind.
著者
軽米 克尊 酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.3, pp.119-138, 2015-03-31 (Released:2016-03-31)
参考文献数
29

The aim of this study is to clarify as much as possible the process of formation of the Jikishinkage-ryū, and by comparing that to the lineage and transmission from after its formation, to show how it has changed. Specifically, we verified whether the lineage and transmission mentioned in the scrolls written after the Jikishinkage-ryū’s formation agree with those in the formation process. First, we examined the lineage and transmission in the scrolls written after the formation of Jikishinkage-ryū, and analyzed the formation process to clarify rewritten points in its lineage. We clarified the following six points:1.Yamada Heizaemon Mitsunori referred to himself as the second generation head of Jikishinseitō-ryū, not Jikishinkage-ryū. Therefore, it is after Naganuma Shirōzaemon Kunisato that Jikishinseitō-ryū was renamed Jikishinkage-ryū. This means there is a discrepancy between the period of the Jikishinkage-ryū’s formation and its transmission.2.Multiple discrepancies regarding names and meanings can be spotted between historical materials written by the people mentioned in the lineage of Jikishinkage-ryū, and the transmission mentioned in the scrolls written after Jikishinkage-ryū was formed. This indicates that parts of the transmission were rewritten after the formation of Jikishinkage-ryū.3.It is in the “Jikishinkage-ryū Mokuroku Kudensh” (Catalogue of techniques and oral transmission of Jikishinkage-ry) by Naganuma Shirōzaemon Kunisato that Matsumoto Bizen-no-Kami was first recognized as the founder of Jikishinkage-ryū.4.The Enpi kata of Shinkage-ryū that originates from Kage-ryū can also be confirmed in the catalogue of techniques of Shinshinkage-ryū, although written with different kanji. Therefore, Shinshinkage-ryū can be said to have been affected by Kage-ryū via Shinkage-ryū.5.The name and meaning of each school (ryū) found in the lineage of Jikishinkage-ryū were interpreted with the consideration that the tradition bestowed by the deity of martial arts was inherited from generation to generation. This was from Matsumoto Bizen-no-Kami, the founder, to Yamada Heizaemon Mitsunori, who changed the name of the school to Jikishinkage-ryū.6.It is after Naganuma Shirōzaemon Kunisato that the colophon “Kashima Shinden,” which shows that the style was bestowed by the deity Takemikazuchi, started to be used. It is also after Kunisato that Takemikazuchi was recognized as the originator of the school.
著者
酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.1, pp.1-14, 2016-08-18 (Released:2018-03-12)
被引用文献数
2

Numerous studies have been made in the field of budo studies concerning the “Body and Mind Theory”. These previous studies point out that the influence religion has in the Body and Mind Theory of early-modern period budo was actually Zen Buddhism’s “Doctrine of Self Discipline”.This paper, utilizing prior research conducted by this author on the ideology of the sword, reveals another side to the history of budo previously unexplored in the aforementioned studies. This research will also delve into the significance, background, and circumstantial formation of the concept of budo throughout the principle countries of the Far East, namely Japan, China, and Korea.The results are as follows:・The concept of “Divine Gifts”, or divinely-granted power, can be seen in the process of acquiring secret teachings from the most distinguished swordsmen in the Muromachi period of the Middle Age, and yields a thread of commonality, as stated below:1) Ascetic prayer at Shinto shrines2) Penance as a prerequisite3) Acquiring divine gifts through dreams・The techniques of acquiring divine gifts or power find their place in the Shinto world where magic can eliminate evil. These techniques affect both the external and internal side of a twofold reality, where the killing of an actual enemy is correlated to eliminating the evil present in one’s own mind.・Regarding magic in swordsmanship, the connection between the sword and the divine is important, and this connection was authorized by mythical imagery.・The conceptual roots of the sacred sword were thought to originate in the kingdoms of Wu and Yue during the Spring and Autumn periods in ancient China.・The concept of a sacred sword to vanquish evil (Bi Xie Sword for the elimination of evil) was first put into practice with sword use in Chinese Taoist rituals. These concepts then spread to Korea, as represented in the practices of the Hwarang, and later to Japan, further expanding upon the connected lineage amongst these three Far East Asian countries.・The manner in which a sword’s sanctity was recognized followed ancient China’s Tian Ming Ideal (Mandate of Heaven), where stars were sacred and sanctified the sword through direct inscription. This practice was subsequently seen in the Korean Hwarang, where it was believed that through such sanctification a sword could channel mysterious powers from the stars or from Taoist gods, and in ancient Japan, where the mythical imagery that a sacred sword itself was brought down to Earth by deities was formed. This cites a particular transition from corporeal thinking to abstract thinking.・The concept of a sword granted with divine power was formed in a flow of thinking stemming from ancient Korea and later connecting to Japanese sword ideology. This seemingly absurd belief in divine gifts was not as widespread in ancient China, where precise and rational thought was preferred, as opposed to Korea and Japan that had predispositions toward abstract thinking.
著者
軽米 克尊 酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.3, pp.119-138, 2015

The aim of this study is to clarify as much as possible the process of formation of the Jikishinkage-ryū, and by comparing that to the lineage and transmission from after its formation, to show how it has changed. Specifically, we verified whether the lineage and transmission mentioned in the scrolls written after the Jikishinkage-ryū's formation agree with those in the formation process. First, we examined the lineage and transmission in the scrolls written after the formation of Jikishinkage-ryū, and analyzed the formation process to clarify rewritten points in its lineage. We clarified the following six points:<BR>1.Yamada Heizaemon Mitsunori referred to himself as the second generation head of Jikishinseitō-ryū, not Jikishinkage-ryū. Therefore, it is after Naganuma Shirōzaemon Kunisato that Jikishinseitō-ryū was renamed Jikishinkage-ryū. This means there is a discrepancy between the period of the Jikishinkage-ryū's formation and its transmission.<BR>2.Multiple discrepancies regarding names and meanings can be spotted between historical materials written by the people mentioned in the lineage of Jikishinkage-ryū, and the transmission mentioned in the scrolls written after Jikishinkage-ryū was formed. This indicates that parts of the transmission were rewritten after the formation of Jikishinkage-ryū.<BR>3.It is in the "Jikishinkage-ryū Mokuroku Kudensh" (Catalogue of techniques and oral transmission of Jikishinkage-ry) by Naganuma Shirōzaemon Kunisato that Matsumoto Bizen-no-Kami was first recognized as the founder of Jikishinkage-ryū.<BR>4.The Enpi kata of Shinkage-ryū that originates from Kage-ryū can also be confirmed in the catalogue of techniques of Shinshinkage-ryū, although written with different kanji. Therefore, Shinshinkage-ryū can be said to have been affected by Kage-ryū via Shinkage-ryū.<BR>5.The name and meaning of each school (ryū) found in the lineage of Jikishinkage-ryū were interpreted with the consideration that the tradition bestowed by the deity of martial arts was inherited from generation to generation. This was from Matsumoto Bizen-no-Kami, the founder, to Yamada Heizaemon Mitsunori, who changed the name of the school to Jikishinkage-ryū.<BR>6.It is after Naganuma Shirōzaemon Kunisato that the colophon "Kashima Shinden," which shows that the style was bestowed by the deity Takemikazuchi, started to be used. It is also after Kunisato that Takemikazuchi was recognized as the originator of the school.
著者
酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.36-44, 1990-07-31 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
16

The thought that recognizes swords to be transcendent existed in the ancient times, and the swords had the character of ceremonial outfit. In the Middle Ages, common swords that were used as a practical weapon, also had this thought.The purpose of this study is to consider a view of swords in the Middle Ages from “GUNKIMONOGATARI”, and to make it clear what existed in the bottom of people's consciousness that formed this view, and what is features of this view.The results can be summarized as follows.1. Image of the myth, that existed in the bottom of people's consciousness, formed a view of swords in the Middle Ages.2. In the Middle Ages, swords themselves suggested the metaphorical God that existed behind.
著者
酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.1, pp.1-15, 2008-07-30 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
103

Myths are important in the study of Japanese martial arts, such as today's martial arts, the modern military arts on which today's martial arts are based, and military arts in the medieval age. It is rather interesting to note that Japanese myths were discussed in the literature of military arts throughout every period. This is because Japanese myths have a certain kind of power.The Japanese mentality was originally controlled by mythical concepts. The mentality of military arts, which plays an important role in the history of the Japanese mentality, is more or less affected by the unaccountable power of Japanese myths. The main theme of this paper is the issue of military arts in Japanese myths.I have so far clarified the following points:1. The magical power of the sword as Hekija (exorcising evil gods and demons),2. Relation between the sword and gods (when discussing the magical power of the sword, the sword must be sacred; this is the basis of why the sword is sacred. ),3. The attribute of the sword that connects the celestial world of the gods and the terrestrial world of human beings. (This provides an assumption for the relation between the sword and the gods.)Likewise, the magical power of the bow and arrow as Hekija, relation between gods and the bow and arrow, and the bow and arrow's attribute connecting between the celestial world of the gods and the terrestrial world of human beings.For the bow and arrow, the magical power of Seisei was found in addition to that of Hekija. Based on the above research findings, I set the following subjects for this paper:1. Is there anything other than the bow and arrow that has the magical power of Seises?2. If there is anything, what is it?3. When its magical power of Seisei is clarified, can I find something new if I see the magical power of Hekija again?For the analysis, I selected the myth of Ninuriya, the myth of Kuniumi, the myth of Ukei, the myth of Yamatanoorochi, the myth of the God of Fire, Yamatotakeru's Expedition to the East, the myth of Yominokuni, and the Legend of Jnmu's Expedition to the East.I obtained the following research results:1. The magical power of Seisei of the spear and the sword was found in addition to that of the bow and arrow.2. The magical power of Seisei of these military arts is closely related to water.3. The magical power of Hekijya involving fire was found in the sword, as well as in the bow and arrow.
著者
酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.3, pp.26-34, 1992-03-31 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
28

In the Middle ages, Kenjutsu schools were formed by a man of genius who played an active part in the Warring States period. And with this formation, a view of swords that involved skills was formed. This did not exist before the Middle ages.The purpose of this study is to clarify a view of swords in the 16th and 17th centuries. In order to clarify this whole structure, I analyzed the structure that symbolized swords.The results can be summarized as follows.1. As time passed, symbolic swords became abstract, but the object of representation became concrete.2. A view of swords in this time can be divided into three classes, those are that of a subconscious awareness, that of common understanding, and that of real activities. The feature of this time is the class of real activities, that is, a view of swords that involved skills. This structure also has relation to mindcontrol.
著者
酒井 利信
出版者
武道学研究
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.1, pp.1-20, 2003

The &ldquo;concept of a double-edged sword, &rdquo; which we often hear about in kendo and swordsmanship, is a symbolic reference to the sacred sword (Kusanaginotsurugi) of the three sacred treasures. The three sacred treasures themselves have very unique circumstances surrounding them, and the image of Kusanaginotsurugi, which is one of the three treasures comprising the imperial regalia, represents the &ldquo;concept of a double-edged sword&rdquo; and describes this most symbolically. The &ldquo;concept of a double-edged sword&rdquo;itself departed from the field of faith and religion in ancient Japan, and had another value system differing from that of the martial art. Then, in the Edo period, the &ldquo;concept of a double-edged sword&rdquo; was determined as a benchmark that symbolized the cultural nature of the martial art. Namely, that the &ldquo;concept of a double-edged sword&rdquo; passed through various changes during the medieval era, and it was the Kusanaginotsurugi, one of the sacred treasures, that represented this notion.<br>This study aims to identify the circumstances surrounding the &ldquo;concept of a double-edged sword&rdquo; from the perspective of the three sacred treasures, paying special attention to the medieval era.<br>In this research, the circumstances in which &ldquo;the concept of a double-edged sword&rdquo; came to combine with the martial art, and the subsequent directionality are clarified by examining the notions regarding the three sacred treasures in the medieval era. The contents are described as follows and are summarized for each period.<br>(Heiancho Period or before)<br>*The sacred treasures symbolized gods prior to the Imperial Throne, and without this structure, they could not symbolize the Imperial Throne adequately. In other words, a dual structure existed, in which the sword was a ritual utensil and simultaneously a ceremonial arm.<br>*At that time, the structure in which the sacred treasures symbolized the Imperial Throne was not as significant as the role played in society.<br><Kamakura Period><br>*The samurai class represented by Genji and the Heike considered the three sacred treasures to be very important symbols of the Imperial Throne. The role this idea played in society became very influential.<br>*Such tendencies were originated in the samurai's adherence to positions of the Emperor's military (Imperial army), because only the adherence affirmed their usage in military force.<br>*Since only the Kusanaginotsurugi was lost among the three sacred treasures, this sacred sword conversely attracted more attention and was regarded as important; consequently, it began to be treated as a special object. Though the sword was originally a ritual utensil and a ceremonial arm, it came to be treated as an element of the martial art.<br>< Nanbokucho/Muromachi Period><br>*The three sacred treasures of the Imperial House became common.<br>*Symbolism without the actual existence of Kusanaginotsurugi began to appear.
著者
酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, no.2, pp.40-54, 1998

In ancient Japan, the concept of gods had been changed as passing of time. From this fact, it is expected that Japanese primitive faith had been changed, as sword culture was transmitted from China. In this paper, we describe transformation of primitive belief and foundation of unique Japanese sword culture, in the process of accepting sword culture.<br>The summary is as follows:<br>1. Sword culture influenced ancient Japanese mental world, and changed belief in the fire. This belief in the fire changed from destructive to constructive and part of this had been absorbed in the concept of sword.<br>2. Originally, ancient people believed in god of snake that supported farming. But, as the time went by, power of god of snake had declined, and this faith was absorbed in the concept of the sword.<br>3. Power of god of thunder had decline, too. The belief in this had concentrated at peculiar god "Takemikazuchi", and this had been related to sword.<br>4. The sword came to absorb concepts of fire and snake. And related to "Takemikazuchi", it was recognized as god itself.<br>5. From the above discussion, it is assumed that there is a unique Japanese way of thinking that sword is related to god. This is thought to be a foundation of concept of sword in Japan.