著者
林 伯原
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.2, pp.59-75, 2014-01-31 (Released:2015-01-31)
参考文献数
38

Prior to the times of Jiajing (A.D.1521-1566), Japanese swords were often imported into China as tributes, trading goods and complimentary gifts, but there was no record that Chinese troops or civilians had learned and widely used Japanese swordplay, except for the imperial guards. Since the year of Jiajing 31 (A.D.1552), the massive Japanese invasion of the southeast coast of China made Chinese people notice the advantage of Japanese swordplay. Meanwhile Chinese army and civilians who loved Chinese wushu needed better sword skills,therefore Japanese swordplay became rapidly known and absorbed by them and spread among the folk people. At that time some members of the Chinese army were equipped with Japanese long swords; the warriors used cane shields, and the archers and the cavalry were equipped with Japanese waist broadswords. Training involved the repetition of solo patterns or routines first, followed by matches with other people. Some civilians who learned Japanese swordplay exercised mainly the routines, others mainly practiced a single pose or stance. The kind of Japanese swordplay that spread among civilians could be divided into two types: in one, people were trained by original Japanese swordplay; in the other one, people practiced Japanese swordplay with Chinese swordsmanship together, integrating Chinese swordplay and Japanese swordplay into a new kind of swordplay. In both cases, the practice of Japanese swordplay introduced into China was characterized by the use of patterns or routines.But the routines used by the Chinese army and the folk people were greatly different. In the army, the routine was laid out from the perspective of group training, so it was brief and simple; while the folk routine was laid out from an individual point of view, so it was long and complicated.
著者
浅見 裕 横山 直也 百鬼 史訓 田中 幸夫 田中 秀幸 大矢 稔 山神 眞一
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.1, pp.12-19, 1994-08-31 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
14

For the purpose of determining the technical characteristics of the Kendo strike with the Jodan-no-Kamae in Kendo, we measured the impact force of the one-hand Shomen-and Kote-uchi using as subjects five college Kendo club students. And analyzed the data by a motion analysis system with a video tape recorder. We also measured the impact force of the two-hand Chudan-no-Kamae strike for comparison. The following are the results obtained from a biomechanical examination of the data.1. The downward maximum magnitude of the impact force of the one-hand Kote-Uchi (150.03 ± 21.35kgf) was greater than that of the one-hand Shomen-Uchi (120.99 ± 11.55kgf). This difference was a characteristic of the one-hand strike but not of the two-hand strike.2. The angular motion at the left shoulder, from which the Shinai is brought down, was greater for the one-hand Kote-Uchi than for the one-hand Men-Uchi. This will explain why the vertical component force of the one-hand Kote-Uchi was greater than that of the one-hand Men-Uchi.3. With respect to the vertical movement of the Kensen, the maximum speed was greater for the one-hand Kote-Uchi than for the one-hand Men-Uchi while the opposite was the case with respect to the forward movement. This was in accord with the observation that the maximum magnitude of the impact force was greater for the one-hand Kote-Uchi than for the one-hand Men-Uchi with respect to the vertical movement whereas the opposite was the case with respect to the forward movement.4. The correlation coefficient between the impact time and the maximum magnitude of the impact force was small whereas the correlation coefficient between the impact time and the impulse value was great.5. There was not an appreciable difference in the magnitude of the impact force between the one-hand and two-hand Men-Uchi. However, with respect to the right Kote-Uchi, the maximum magnitude of the impact force was greater in every direction for the one-hand strike than for the two-hand strike. Most notably, with respect to the downward movement, the maximum magnitude of the impact force of the one-hand Kote-Uchi was greater than that of the two-hand Men-Uchi.
著者
榎本 鐘司
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.44-53, 1980-12-15 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
23

It will be Kenjutsu that underwent transfiguration most of the budo in the last days of the shogunate. In the evolution of 'the theory of the practical bugei', Kenjutsu was forced to change in quality in the position between the hojutsu (the Japanese gunnery) raising its head and the declining kyujutsu (the Japanese archery)and jujutsu.Now in this paper, mainly considering the various materials related to Sugane Kubota and Nobutomo Odani which were cleared up in the research, and refering to the documents related to the Itto-ryu Kenjutsu, positively I discussed the inclination of the change in guality of Kenjutsu in the last days of the shogunate.I will arrange them in order next.Shinai Uchicomi Shiai Kenjutsu (the Kenjutsu by the matches hitting each other with shinai) whose systematization of the technics had been immature was weeded out taking it as an opportunity long shinai's coming into vogue, and, the disciplining and practical Kenjutsu was groped by Kenjutsuka (the proffssor of Kenjutsu), with it, the systematization of the teechnics of Shinai Uchicomi Shiai Kenjutsu had progressed.
著者
前田 シン子
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.1, pp.59-61, 1985-01-30 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
5
著者
塩入 宏行 木田 尚武
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.18-26, 1995-01-31 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
48

There seems to exist a prejudice, among the Japanese people, especially those who are not familiar with the history of European style of fencing, that it is too defensive or technical aspect of the fencing is too much emphasized when compared with the offensive Japanese Kendo in which the traditional straight downward cut, for example, the “Kiri-otoshi” or “Hitotsu-gachi” in Itto-ryu school has been respected. It may partly be because of the difference in their fighting styles. Meanwhile, it is an undeniable fact that the term “fencing” derives from “defencing” by losing its suffix “de”, and the French word, “escrime”, which corresponds to the English fencing, comes from the Frankish “skirmjan” meaning defence through “escremie” or “eskermie”.Originally, of course, fencing was really based on the fight of life or death and it is not so deffensive as we Japanese generally suppose. Even after the World war II (in 1958 & 19687), duels with a real sword were fought. They have pursued this art of fencing very seriously.But historically speaking, as Egerton Castle pronounced in his School and Masters of fence, 'Paradoxical as it seems, the development of the “Art of Fence” was the result of the invention of firearms. Its history need not therefore be taken up higher than the fifteenth century.' We may safely say that modern fencing marked its first step is fencing history in the 15th century with the invention of firearms and has developped technically as the weight of the sword deminished. It was not until the latter half of the 17th century that core techniques in modern fencing, such as <parade-riposte> in two times or <on guare position> closing the line of attack, etc. appeared.In this study the authors tried to clarify the characteristic features in styles of four representative masters of fence in the 16th century Italy where systematic teaching of fencing first appeared and the theories of fencing masters were published in printed treatices. Their names are Achille Marozzo, Camillo Agrippa, Giacomo di Grassi and Angelo Viggiani.
著者
山本 純子
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.25-35, 1990-07-31 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
32

“BUGEI-ZUFU-TSUUSHI (Korean, Muye-Tobo-Tongji)” was published in 1790. This has been the most representative book of material arts in Korea. Some sword arts, for example, SOUSHUTOU (Ssangusudo), EITOU (Yedo), WAKEN (Oegum), KOUSENFU (Gyojoenbo), TEITOKUKEN (Jedoggum)(Jedoggum) and HONGOKUKEN (Bongukgum) are found in this book. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between these sword arts and Japan between the ones and China.The Results can be summarized as follows.1. SOUSYUTOU was affected by WAKOU (Japanese pirates), KOUWA (Japanese prisoners of the Invasion of Korea by Toyotomi Hideyoshi) and the drillmasters of Ming China army in the process of its formation.2. EITOU was affected by Japanese-Korean trades in the process of its formation.3. WAKEN and KOUSENFU were affected by CHOUSEN-TSUUSHINSHI (Korean missions to Japan) in the process of their formation.4. TEITOKUKEN was affected by the drillmasters of Ming China army.5. HONGOKUKEN was affected by the thought of Korean nationalism in those days.
著者
菅波 盛雄 川村 禎三 石島 繁 井浦 吉彦 浅見 高明
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.21-31, 1982-10-30 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
9

It is a common knowledge that the motion of the head plays an important role in applying the Judo throwing techniques. It greatly influences the retention of the posture in the process of the applying the techniques, and also affects the making full use of the power which is needed in the throwing.In this study, we regard the motion of the head, the shoulders, and the hip, which affect very much the throwing, as the rotary motion against the median line; and we try to explain in what way the head, the shoulders, and the hip move and how thiw rotary motion affects the motion of the head in the throwing.The following results was obtained.1) It was observed that in the case of well-trained the body had turned round before the head began to turn at the completion of “Taisabaki” (body turning) and the motion of the head was restrained; but in the case of middle-trained and untrained, the head had turned round before the shoulders at the completion of “Taisabaki” (body turning).2) In the phase of “Kake” (attack) of well-trained, the head turned round at a time, and a angle difference could be observed between the head, the shoulders and the hip; i. e. the head had turned first, the followed the shoulders, and the hip: and this angle difference between the head and the body was smaller than the case of middletrained and untrained. Therefore we could say that the head, the shoulders, and the hip co-ordinated well in this case. But in the case of middle-trained and untrained the angle difference which was observed at the completion of “Taisabaki” (body turning)continued, and it became even larger than it was at the completion of “Taisabaki”(body turning). So in the case of middle-trained and untrained, it was observed that only the head turned round too much in the throwing.3) In the case of middle-trained and untrained, it was observed at the phase of “Kake”(attack) that the position of the hip was too high, so therefore the direction of “Hikite”(pulling hand) was not correct, and “Tsurite” (lifting hand) did not work well, so that the motion of the shoulders was restricted. The motion of the shoulders is important to the effective motion of the head. This motion of the shoulders is influenced by the correct position of the hip and the correct direction of “Hikite” (pulling hand)and the correct way of “Tsurite” (lifting hand).
著者
小林 義雄 中村 民雄 長谷川 弘
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.24-33, 1993-08-31 (Released:2012-11-27)

In this historical study on the formation of modern kendo, we explore the system of techniques and its technical contents for shinai uchikomi geiko kendo practice, which is different from the performance of forms and styles called kata or kumitachi. We focus, among others, on master Chiba Shusaku, who constructed the practicing method and perfected the techniques into “68 winning techniques”. Further, we explore the thoughts behind and technical contents of the master's techniques, and compare the differences in techniques of “68 techniques” and what is considered to be its prototype, kumitachi of Onoha Ittoryu.In Ono School, most of the strokes are made to respond to the opponent's strokes, while “68 winning techniques” are primarily offensive, aiming at blowing or thrusting the opponent as quickly as possible to score men, tsuki, kote, or do. Thus, in both of the schools there are only three common techniques:1. Hitotsugachi and Kiriotoshitsuki, which are to cut down opponent's stroke and to thrust;2. Suriage and Suriagemen, which are to knock away opponent's sword and to blow opponent on the head;3. Tsubawari and Nukizuki, which are to duck opponent's blow by stepping back and to thrust the opponent after pulling your sword.Further, there are only seven techniques which are partially common:1. Chishou and Chishoumen, which are to put the point of the sword in opponent's arms who his trying to blow you on the head;2. Chishou and Chishouzuki, which are the same as above;3. Kobushi-no-harai and Kirikaeshimen, which are to blow opponent's head quicker than opponent's blowing you on the head;4. Uragiri and Sasoihikigote, which are to invite opponent's strike on your forearm;5. Aiha and Makiotoshimen, which are to twist down opponent's stroke and to blow opponent's head;6. Aiha and Makiotoshizuki, which are to twist down, rightward or leftward, opponent's stroke;7. Hariaiba and Harimen, which are to strike opponent's sword hard.From this it is clear that “68 winning techniques” were unique in its system of techniques and its technical contents, which were very different from Kumitachi of Onoha Ittoryu.
著者
金 炫勇
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.2, pp.87-98, 2014-01-31 (Released:2015-01-31)
参考文献数
31

The purpose of this study is to examine through available documents and previous research how kendo was introduced and developed in Korea in the modern Joesen period. The study results are as follows.In general the leading role in the international spread of kendo was played by the emigration of Japanese people and the martial arts organization known as the Dai Nippon Butokukai. However in the case of Korea, kendo or gekken (as it was called then) was introduced as part of the late Joseon dynasty’s modernization policy. The reason for the introduction at that time was the victory of Japanese army in the Sino-Japanese War.At that time, namely in 1895, gekken was first introduced as a training exercise in the police force. Then in 1904 it became a subject in the military academy training. Because at that time of the Joseon dynasty the military academy was under the Ministry of Education, gekken came to be seen as a part of school physical education.But since the Ulsa treaty of 1905 and the growth of nationalism with the crisis of the loss of national sovereignty, kendo as school physical education developed characteristics of the patriotic movement.
著者
酒井 利信
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.3, pp.12-22, 1995

This article aims at analyzing the view of swords in the traditional books of Kenjutsu in the Edo period. The view of swords in the traditional books of Kenjutsu reffers chiefly to myth. From the mythological image may begathered. The purpose of this paper, based on the standpoint of structuralism, is to clarify the constitutive position of the mythological image in the view of swords as a whole in the traditional books of Kenjutsu.<br>Several new findings might be summarized as follows:<br>1. A (system), connected with the Three Sacred Regalia, has carried weight with the view of swords of Kenj utsu.<br>2. The former-mentioned (system) has risen above its own level (i. e. latent consciousness level·common understanding level·real activities level) and forged newly transcendental (sysem).<br>3. This mechanism can be explained that the (structure) of the forme (system), connected with the Three Sacred. Regalia, is a mold of the latter (system).<br>4. The mythological image tied two (systems) together.<br>5. Being accompanied by a major assumption of the formation of a new (system), the mythological image had (inductive property).
著者
湯浅 晃
出版者
日本武道学会
雑誌
武道学研究 (ISSN:02879700)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2, pp.1-13, 2000-02-29 (Released:2012-11-27)
参考文献数
60

It was for aim of this paper to study the role which Eujutsu (martial arts) served in the liberty and people's rights movement organized at Meiji earlier period in Japan.I will show the result found with this paper in the following.1. Bujutsu as a political cultureThe liberty and people's rights movement was the political movement that succeeded problems of revolutin of Meiji Restoration, and this had continued from 1874 that they demanded establishment of democratically elected House (Diet) to about 1890 of Diet establishment. The main activities of this movement's peoples were announcements of their principles on journals and speeches in their address meetings at first. However, Meiji government issued several laws and ordinances which regulated holding of address and publication of journals, and oppressed their movement. The side of association of the democratic movement produced a unique political culture that unified athletic meets, a social gathering and address meeting in order to evade the crackdown. And the associations of the democratic movement frequently took Bujutsu, especially Kenjutsu in the athletic meets.Many of the forms of these Bujutsu performances were collective conflicts. And the performances amplified “mob mentality” of peoples anticipating in the democratic movement, and raised an emotion of revolting against the government.2. Bujutsu for training “champions” of the liberty and people's rights movementA lot of associations of the democratic movement took Bujutsu in order to not only amplify the “mob mentality” but also train “champions” of the democratic movement that fight for their associations and this nation. In other words they were going to train the talent which have spirits for political conflict.Because we know that 2055 number associations at least promoting the movement for democatic rights existed in all over Japan, we can suppose that enormous peopls trained Bujutsu with the movement.On the history of Bujutsu in Japan as before, we know that the Bujutsu were encouraged in police at after 1877. However, the measures of encouraging Bujutsu in police should be considered in relation with this liberty and people's rights movement as the antagonism axis. In addition, it may be said that the hosts of Bujutsu trainers adding the police side and the democratic movement side built basis for Bujutsu to spread after. We will not be able to think the reason that “Dainippon Butokukai” (general control association of Bujutsu) established in 1895 could get enormous members during short period except for thinking in this way.