- 新潟大学教育学部研究紀要 人文・社会科学編 = 新潟大学教育学部研究紀要 人文・社会科学編 (ISSN:18833837)
- vol.11, no.1, pp.69-90, 2018-10
This paper is a report of field survey on Bhutanese folk music in 2017. We have reported the details of tsangmo, the playful singing dialogues from the research of Paro, Punakha, Trongsa (Ino 2012, Ino et al. 2014a, 2014b). In Melak village in Trashigang, we found and reported a khapsho similar to tsangmo (Ino et al. 2015a). From these surveys, tsangmo was originally playing when children grazed livestock, but turned out to have disappeared with the spread of school education. On the other hand, We also learned that tsangmo's practice is being done in new forms such as school events and radio programs. So we reported about tsangmo's practice at school and media. At the same time, we held an international symposium on the succession of folk music culture (Ino et al. 2016a, Ino et al. 2017). Based on these surveys, from September 21 to 27, 2017, we conducted field research in Thimphu and Dagana. The research method is an semi-structured interview. As a result, we were able to add some new facts. 1. We interviewed Tsheten Dorji, who was born in Tibet and became a king's musician on his history of music activities. In the past trade was actively done between Tibet and Bhutan. It was an opportunity to know each other's songs. Tibetan songs were brought to Bhutan, and now it became boedra, one of the genres of Bhutanese songs. boedra, which was brought to Bhutan by Tibetan traders and beggars, is said to have spread all over Bhutan in the Third King's era. In addition, Tsheten Dorji thinks that the song he made since he came to Bhutan should be called drukdra instead of boedra. This problem is extremely important when considering Bhutanese music. From his story we learned Tibet had a song lugar similar to tsangmo. The similarity is that the lyrics are six syllable four-line poetry, melody, improvising to make lyrics, dialogue play. Also, we have learned that there is a song called Go Mo playing riddles. This song is a bet, winning or losing, the winner taking items. From this survey, we expanded the possibility of research on the relationship between play, divination, gaming and singing.2. We interviewed about how to play tsangmo in the Tseza village in Dagana. At this time, the villagers sang tsangmo for the first time in 40 years. The villagers disputed long hours about how to play and interpret lyrics. We was able to grasp the situation where the tsangmo tradition is disappearing. As in other areas, it was divided into two groups, put items, singing while pointing to items with a cane, playing fortune telling about the item (owner) hit at the end of the song. In Tseza village, men and women who became 11 years old played in tsangmo and married when they were 14 and 15 years old. Because tsangmo is accurate fortune telling, the villagers are now married, there were families and children, they could not do the same as when they were children. We understood the strength of elements as tsangmo's fortune telling. In Tseza village, we learned about daga ra mey lazhu as Dagana's old song. This song is a sad song of a woman who was taken from the village of Dagana and left in the mountain. This song is currently in a situation where parts are only sung and not all are handed down. 3. We interviewed Sonam Choden who is only one singer of Dagana's old song sham sha doley. This song sang the Zhabs Drung's cane who came to Dagana. This song is singing the process until the cane grows into trees, which is a very long and difficult contents. Londa, an opportunity for sham sha doley to sing, is an archery tournament in the village, praying for village safety once a year. Sonam Choden also forgot about tsangmo until we interviewed. When she was a child tsangmo was a game where several people gambled items. However, she remembers that her grandparents and parents used fortune telling and competition in tsangmo. We grasp the situation that tsangmo disappeared through generations. In addition to boedra and tsangmo, old songs such as daga ra mey lazhu and sham sha doley, the treasure-like culture that has made the way of life and thinking of Bhutan people has disappeared.