著者
Seiji Yukimoto Kunihiko Kodera Rémi Thiéblemont
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.53-58, 2017 (Released:2017-04-04)
参考文献数
29

A delayed response of the winter North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) to the 11-year solar cycle has been observed and modeled in recent studies. However, the mechanisms creating this 2-4-year delay to the solar cycle have still not been well-understood. This study examines the effects of the 11-year solar cycle and the resulting modulation in the strength of the winter stratospheric polar vortex. A coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model is used to simulate these effects by introducing a mechanistic forcing in the stratosphere. The intensified stratospheric polar vortex is shown to induce positive and negative ocean temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean. The positive ocean temperature anomaly migrated northward and was amplified when it approached an oceanic frontal zone approximately 3 years after the forcing became maximum. This delayed ocean response is similar to that observed. The result of this study supports a previous hypothesis that suggests that the 11-year solar cycle signals on the Earth's surface are produced through a downward penetration of the changes in the stratospheric circulation. Furthermore, the spatial structure of the signal is modulated by its interaction with the ocean circulation.
著者
Kunihiko KODERA Nawo EGUCHI Jae N. LEE Yuhji KURODA Seiji YUKIMOTO
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.89, no.3, pp.283-290, 2011-06-25 (Released:2011-06-30)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
7 8

In mid-January 2009, sudden changes in circulation occurred in the tropical troposphere and stratosphere. Convective activity situated over the equatorial Maritime Continent showed an abrupt weakening, whereas that over the South American to African sectors became stronger. Changes also occurred in the latitudinal structure; convective activity in the Northern Hemisphere became weaker, whereas that in the Southern Hemisphere became stronger. The change in convective activity took place in association with a change in tropical circulation, from east–west to north–south type (i.e., from Walker- to Hadley-type circulation). Almost simultaneously with these events in the troposphere, a change in meridional circulation occurred in the stratosphere during a record-breaking stratospheric sudden warming event in January 2009. Stratospheric tropical temperature showed a decrease in response to a strengthening of the hemispherical meridional circulation. In the present study, we show how the stratospheric and tropospheric circulation changes are dynamically coupled.
著者
Kazuo Kurihara Koji Ishihara Hidetaka Sasaki Yukio Fukuyama Hitomi Saitou Izuru Takayabu Kazuyo Murazaki Yasuo Sato Seiji Yukimoto Akira Noda
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.97-100, 2005 (Released:2005-09-14)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
36 38

The Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) projected climate change over Japan due to global warming using a high-resolution Regional Climate Model of 20 km mesh size (RCM20) developed in MRI. Projection was made for 2081 to 2100 following a SRES-A2 scenario. Precipitation projected by RCM20 indicated that increased daily precipitation will be seen during the warm season from June to September. Except for this period, the precipitation amount will not change much or will slightly decrease around Japan. The increase during the warm season will be seen only in the western part of Japan. A possible cause of the increase is an El Niño-like SST pattern in the future. Due to the future increased summer SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific, anti-cyclonic circulation to the south of Japan will intensify and will induce a strong water vapor flux along the rim of the anti-cyclonic anomaly. The intensified flux will converge over the western part of Japan and may increase precipitation. Surface air temperature is projected to increase more than 2°C around Japan in January. In summer, the temperature increase will be lower by about 1°C than in winter.