著者
Seiji YUKIMOTO Yukimasa ADACHI Masahiro HOSAKA Tomonori SAKAMI Hiromasa YOSHIMURA Mikitoshi HIRABARA Taichu Y. TANAKA Eiki SHINDO Hiroyuki TSUJINO Makoto DEUSHI Ryo MIZUTA Shoukichi YABU Atsushi OBATA Hideyuki NAKANO Tsuyoshi KOSHIRO Tomoaki OSE Akio KITOH
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90A, pp.23-64, 2012 (Released:2012-06-07)
参考文献数
157
被引用文献数
354 380

A new global climate model, MRI-CGCM3, has been developed at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI). This model is an overall upgrade of MRI’s former climate model MRI-CGCM2 series. MRI-CGCM3 is composed of atmosphere-land, aerosol, and ocean-ice models, and is a subset of the MRI’s earth system model MRI-ESM1. Atmospheric component MRI-AGCM3 is interactively coupled with aerosol model to represent direct and indirect effects of aerosols with a new cloud microphysics scheme. Basic experiments for pre-industrial control, historical and climate sensitivity are performed with MRI-CGCM3. In the pre-industrial control experiment, the model exhibits very stable behavior without climatic drifts, at least in the radiation budget, the temperature near the surface and the major indices of ocean circulations. The sea surface temperature (SST) drift is sufficiently small, while there is a 1 W m-2 heating imbalance at the surface. The model’s climate sensitivity is estimated to be 2.11 K with Gregory’s method. The transient climate response (TCR) to 1 % yr-1 increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is 1.6 K with doubling of CO2 concentration and 4.1 K with quadrupling of CO2 concentration. The simulated present-day mean climate in the historical experiment is evaluated by comparison with observations, including reanalysis. The model reproduces the overall mean climate, including seasonal variation in various aspects in the atmosphere and the oceans. Variability in the simulated climate is also evaluated and is found to be realistic, including El Niño and Southern Oscillation and the Arctic and Antarctic oscillations. However, some important issues are identified. The simulated SST indicates generally cold bias in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and warm bias in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), and the simulated sea ice expands excessively in the North Atlantic in winter. A double ITCZ also appears in the tropical Pacific, particularly in the austral summer.
著者
Philippe BARON Shoken ISHII Kozo OKAMOTO Kyoka GAMO Kohei MIZUTANI Chikako TAKAHASHI Toshikazu ITABE Toshiki IWASAKI Takuji KUBOTA Takashi MAKI Riko OKI Satoshi OCHIAI Daisuke SAKAIZAWA Masaki SATOH Yohei SATOH Taichu Y. TANAKA Motoaki YASUI
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.95, no.5, pp.319-342, 2017 (Released:2017-10-04)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
3

A feasibility study of tropospheric wind measurements using a coherent Doppler lidar aboard a super low altitude satellite is being conducted in Japan. The considered lidar uses a 2.05 μm laser light source of 3.75 W. In order to assess the measurement performances, simulations of wind measurements were conducted. The mission definition is presented in a companion paper (Part 1) while, in this paper, we describe the measurement simulator and characterize the errors on the retrieved line-of-sight (LOS) winds. Winds are retrieved from the Doppler-shift of the noisy backscattered signal with a horizontal resolution of 100 km along the orbit track and a vertical resolution between 0.5 and 2 km. Cloud and wind fields are the pseudo-truth of an Observing System Simulation Experiment while aerosol data are from the Model-of-Aerosol-Species-IN-the-Global-AtmospheRe (MASINGAR) constrained with the pseudo-truth wind. We present the results of the analysis of a full month of data in summer time for a near-polar orbiting satellite and a LOS nadir angle of 35°. Below ≈ 8 km, the ratio of good retrievals is 30-55 % and the median LOS wind error is better than 0.6 m s−1 (1.04 m s−1 for the horizontal wind). In the upper troposphere, the ratio is less than 15 % in the southern hemisphere and high-latitudes. However, the ratio is still 35 % in the northern Tropics and mid-latitudes where ice-clouds frequently occur. The upper-tropospheric median LOS-wind measurement error is between 1-2 m s−1 depending on the latitude (1.74-3.5 m s−1 for the horizontal wind). These errors are dominated by uncertainties induced by spatial atmospheric inhomogeneities.
著者
Shoken ISHII Philippe BARON Makoto AOKI Kohei MIZUTANI Motoaki YASUI Satoshi OCHIAI Atsushi SATO Yohei SATOH Takuji KUBOTA Daisuke SAKAIZAWA Riko OKI Kozo OKAMOTO Toshiyuki ISHIBASHI Taichu Y. TANAKA Tsuyoshi T. SEKIYAMA Takashi MAKI Koji YAMASHITA Tomoaki NISHIZAWA Masaki SATOH Toshiki IWASAKI
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.95, no.5, pp.301-317, 2017 (Released:2017-10-04)
参考文献数
57
被引用文献数
5

A working group is studying the feasibility of a future Japanese space-borne coherent Doppler wind lidar (CDWL) for global wind profile observation. This study is composed of two companion papers: an instrumental overview of the space-borne CDWL for global wind profile observation (Part 1), and the wind measurement performance (error and bias) investigated using a full-fledged space-borne CDWL simulator (Part 2). This paper aims to describe the future space-borne CDWL in terms of technical points and observation user requirements. The future mission concept is designed to have two looks for vector wind measurement with vertical resolutions of 0.5 (lower troposphere: 0-3 km), 1 (middle troposphere: 3-8 km), and 2 km (upper troposphere: 8-20 km) and horizontal resolution of < 100 km along a satellite. The altitude and orbit of the satellite are discussed from a scientific viewpoint. The candidate altitude and orbit of the satellite are 220 km and an inclination angle of 96.4° (polar orbit) or 35.1° (low-inclination-angle orbit). The technical requirements of the space-borne CDWL are a single-frequency 2-μm pulse laser with an average laser power of 3.75 W, two effective 40-cm-diameter afocal telescopes, a wide-bandwidth (> 3.4 GHz) detector, a high-speed analog-to-digital converter, and a systematic lidar efficiency of 0.08. The space-borne CDWL looks at two locations at a nadir angle of 35° at two azimuth angles of 45° and 135° (225° and 315°) along the satellite track. The future space-borne CDWL wind profile observation will fill the gap of the current global wind observing systems and contribute to the improvement of the initial conditions for numerical weather prediction (NWP), the prediction of typhoons and heavy rain, and various meteorological studies.