著者
Kosuke Ito
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.247-252, 2016 (Released:2016-09-16)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
8

Tropical cyclone (TC) intensity forecasts issued by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) Tokyo - Typhoon Center are systematically compiled to analyze the long-term behavior of errors and to explore the potential for improvement in the forecast accuracy using a statistical correction approach. In this study, a dataset is constructed from annual statistics and every single forecast listed on annual reports on the activities of the RSMC Tokyo. This study found that (1) the accuracy of annual mean forecast has not improved over 26 years and that (2) forecast errors tend to be larger in the rapidly developing TCs. Further analysis reveals that recent forecast output (2008-2014) contains biases associated with the magnitude of the vertical shear of horizontal wind, convective available potential energy, upper ocean temperature, maximum potential intensity (MPI) and ocean coupling potential intensity (OC_PI). To evaluate the adverse effect of such biases in the current forecast system, a simple statistical correction is applied. It improved TC intensity forecast by 7.8-16.9% when an OC_PI is employed.
著者
Kosuke Ito Hiroyuki Yamada Munehiko Yamaguchi Tetsuo Nakazawa Norio Nagahama Kensaku Shimizu Tadayasu Ohigashi Taro Shinoda Kazuhisa Tsuboki
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.105-110, 2018 (Released:2018-07-28)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
1

The inner core of Tropical Cyclone Lan was observed on 21-22 October 2017 by GPS dropsondes during the first aircraft missions of the Tropical Cyclones-Pacific Asian Research Campaign for the Improvement of Intensity Estimations/Forecasts (T-PARCII). To evaluate the impact of dropsondes on forecast skill, 12 36-h forecasts were conducted using a Japan Meteorological Agency non-hydrostatic model (JMA-NHM) with a JMA-NHM-based mesoscale four-dimensional data assimilation (DA) system. Track forecast skill improved over all forecast times with the assimilation of the dropsonde data. The improvement rate was 8-16% for 27-36-h forecasts. Minimum sea level pressure (Pmin) forecasts were generally degenerated (improved) for relatively short-term (long-term) forecasts by adding the dropsonde data, and maximum wind speed (Vmax) forecasts were degenerated. Some of the changes in the track and Vmax forecasts were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. It is notable that the dropsonde-derived estimate of Pmin was closer to the real-time analysis by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) Tokyo than the RSMC Tokyo best track analysis. The degeneration in intensity forecast skill due to uncertainties in the best track data is discussed.
著者
Seiji Yukimoto Kunihiko Kodera Rémi Thiéblemont
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.53-58, 2017 (Released:2017-04-04)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
1

A delayed response of the winter North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) to the 11-year solar cycle has been observed and modeled in recent studies. However, the mechanisms creating this 2-4-year delay to the solar cycle have still not been well-understood. This study examines the effects of the 11-year solar cycle and the resulting modulation in the strength of the winter stratospheric polar vortex. A coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model is used to simulate these effects by introducing a mechanistic forcing in the stratosphere. The intensified stratospheric polar vortex is shown to induce positive and negative ocean temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean. The positive ocean temperature anomaly migrated northward and was amplified when it approached an oceanic frontal zone approximately 3 years after the forcing became maximum. This delayed ocean response is similar to that observed. The result of this study supports a previous hypothesis that suggests that the 11-year solar cycle signals on the Earth's surface are produced through a downward penetration of the changes in the stratospheric circulation. Furthermore, the spatial structure of the signal is modulated by its interaction with the ocean circulation.
著者
Yuhei Yamamoto Hirohiko Ishikawa
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.179-184, 2018 (Released:2018-11-20)
参考文献数
22

This paper provides the first attempt to investigate the spatial variability of diurnal change patterns of land surface temperature (LST) in urban areas of Japan by applying principal component analysis on LST data retrieved from Himawari-8 geostationary satellite data. The Tokyo and Osaka metropolitan areas were the focus of the analysis, and the target days were days with zero cloud cover in summer and winter. The results of the analysis showed that diurnal cycles of LST are mainly formed by two temporal change patterns in both seasons. For the summer case, the first two principal components (PCs) represented the temporal change patterns related to the amplitude and phase, respectively. For the winter case, the first two PCs represented the temporal change patterns related to the amplitude and gradual change in LST throughout the day, respectively. Results suggest that these temporal change patterns in both seasons have spatial variability partially dictated by land use and wind speed/direction.
著者
Nawo Eguchi Kunihiko Kodera
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.137-140, 2010 (Released:2010-10-22)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
10 11

The impact of stratospheric sudden warming event in September 2007 on the tropics was investigated based on satellite data (CALIOP, MLS and TRMM PR). Equatorial temperature and water vapor at 100 hPa decreased by about 1 K and 1 ppmv within 10 days, respectively. Changes in tropical clouds are observed together with the occurrence of the SSW as i) frequent formation of higher-level cirrus clouds over the Maritime Continent, to where water vapor was transported from Asian Monsoon and where the lowest temperature occurred, ii) intensification of deep convective activity in the TTL over African continent, and iii) southward shift of the convective clouds over South American continent.
著者
Akira Kuwano-Yoshida
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.199-203, 2014 (Released:2014-12-06)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
3 7

The “Local deepening rate (LDR)”, the local surface pressure tendency, which is normalized by the sine of latitude and similar to the definition of an explosive cyclone, is introduced to extratropical cyclone activity analysis. The LDR has the advantage of being much simpler than conventional methods such as cyclone tracking and time filtering. The time average of positive LDR, which implies cyclone deepening, captures not only individual explosive cyclone's deepening but also the mid-latitude storm track climatology. The probability of explosive deepening, defined as LDR ≥ 1 hPa h-1 and based on ensemble forecasts, accurately represents the deepening potential and provides information regarding the influence area of storms—analogous to the strong wind area used in typhoon forecasts. The LDR can also be used to assess the quality of storm tracks in reanalyses products. In the 20th century reanalysis, the storm track activity, calculated from ensemble mean surface pressure, is too weak before 1910 in the North Pacific, and in the South Pacific low activity is observed up to the end of the 20th century, because of large ensemble spread due to few surface pressure observations.
著者
Tetsuya Takemi Toshiya Yoshida Shota Yamasaki Kentaro Hase
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.22-27, 2019 (Released:2019-02-06)
参考文献数
27

An intense tropical cyclone, Typhoon Jebi (2018), landed the central part of Japan and caused severe damages. Quantitative assessment of strong winds in urban districts under typhoon conditions is important to understand the underlying risks. As a preliminary study, we investigate the influences of densely built urban environments on the occurrence of wind gusts in an urban district of Osaka City during Typhoon Jebi by merging mesoscale meteorological and building-resolving large-eddy simulations (LES). With the successful reproduction of the track and intensity of the typhoon in meteorological simulations, the simulated winds at the boundary-layer top of the LES model are used to quantitatively estimate the wind gusts in the urban district. The maximum wind gust in the analysis area of Osaka was estimated as 60-70 m s−1, which is comparable to the wind speed at the height of about 300 m.
著者
Toshiya Yoshida Tetsuya Takemi
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.174-178, 2018 (Released:2018-11-18)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
2

Effects of obstacle-height variability on mixing length and dispersive stress are investigated by conducting large-eddy simulations of airflows over arrays of roughness obstacles with variable height. We evaluate differences among three simulations of flows over obstacles with no, moderate, and high obstacle-height variability. Within the canopies, effective mixing length shows one local maximum and minimum in the simulation with no obstacle-height variability but two maxima and minima in the simulations with obstacle-height variability. The number of the local maxima and minima corresponds to that of the shear layers seen at the heights of obstacle tops. Enhanced dispersive stress appears within the canopy between the heights of the lower- and higher-obstacle tops in the simulations with obstacle-height variability. Particularly in the simulations with high obstacle-height variability, the magnitude of dispersive stress becomes comparable to that of the Reynolds stress at the height of the lower-obstacle top. These results suggest that actual urban areas with high building-height variability should significantly affect properties of mixing length and dispersive stress.
著者
Meiji Honda Akira Yamazaki Akira Kuwano-Yoshida Yusuke Kimura Katsushi Iwamoto
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.259-264, 2016 (Released:2016-09-22)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

Synoptic conditions causing an extreme snowfall event in the Kanto-Koshin district occurred on 14-15 February 2014 are investigated through a reanalysis data set. Associated with a developing cyclone passing the south coast of Japan, persistent snowfall exceeding more than 24 hours over the Kofu-Basin resulted in 112 cm snowfall at Kofu. Slow progress of the south-coast cyclone also contributed to the long snowfall duration. An anticyclone developed over the northern Japan (∼1032 hPa) also contributed to this extreme snowfall. This anticyclone brought warm and moist air inflow by southeasterlies forming moisture flux convergence over the Kanto-Koshin district on the morning of 14th when snowfall started in the Koshin district in spite that the south-coast cyclone was located to the south of Kyushu. Further, ageostrophic cold northerlies with high pressure extension from the anticyclone by “cold-air damming (CAD)” would suppress warming with the approaching south-coast cyclone and keep snowfall until the morning of 15th. In other four heavy snowfall events at Kofu, snowfall durations were almost 12 hours. Although anticyclone to the north and CAD were identified in each case, the moisture transport from the southeast was not evident and moisture flux convergence was not formed earlier.
著者
Hirotaka Kamahori Osamu Arakawa
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.165-169, 2018 (Released:2018-11-09)
参考文献数
18

Tropical cyclone (TC) induced precipitation (TCP) over Japan is evaluated with the rain gauge observation based gridded dataset APHRO_JP. The TC–influenced frequency reaches a maximum in the Nansei Islands and decreases monotonically with latitude. On the other hand, the distribution of TCP indicates different characteristics from the one of TC–influenced frequency. The largest annual TCP, 500 mm yr−1 or more, occurs over eastern Kyushu (E-Kyushu), southern Shikoku (S-Shikoku), and the eastern Kii peninsula (E-Kii), where it accounts for 15% or more of the total precipitation. The maximum daily TCP amounts to 200 mm d−1 in those three areas, which are all located on the eastern side of Japan and correspond to eastward or southeastward topographic inclines. A significant relationship is found between the amount of annual TCP and topographic incline, and the large amount of TCP concentrates in the eastward or the southeastward inclines. The extreme daily TCP once every 50 years is also evaluated. The extreme daily TCP is estimated to be 500 mm d−1 comparable to the climatological annual TCP in E-Kyushu, S-Shikoku, and E-Kii. These three areas appear to be the most hazardous part of Japan in terms of TCP.
著者
Haruka Ishizaki Hiroshi Matsuyama
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.192-196, 2018 (Released:2018-12-14)
参考文献数
23

Radar/Raingauge-Analyzed Precipitation (RA) represents 1 km-grid precipitation after 2006 created by combining radar precipitation and ground precipitation, i.e., Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) of Japan Meteorological Agency along with ground data observed by other organizations. Although RA is slightly greater than ground precipitation, no earlier studies investigated the spatial distribution of this accuracy across Japan using 1 km grid data, as clarified in this study. We selected hourly data of RA and AMeDAS located closest each other, for which miss rates were less than 10% in 2006-2010. We then investigated the distribution of the annual precipitation ratio (RA/AMeDAS). The ratio diverged in the smaller annual precipitation, but converged to ca. 1.2 for larger annual precipitation. By setting the observational area of 46 radars across Japan using Thiessen method, we investigated the relation between the annual precipitation ratio and the distance from the radar to AMeDAS station. We found only negative relation was statistically significant. As a possible reason for this relation, we considered that RA far from the radar is affected by the attenuating and shadowing effect of heavy rainfall near the radar.
著者
Masatake E. Hori Kazuhiro Oshima
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.69-73, 2018 (Released:2018-06-26)
参考文献数
15

We use two groups of 100-member ensemble AGCM experiment to investigate the robustness and probabilistic nature of the Warm Arctic/Cold Eurasian (WACE) pattern with or without strong warming SST trend and sea-ice reduction. Model ensembles successfully simulate a distribution of trend coefficients close to that of observation. Results show that the recent trend in WACE pattern is driven by the warming of the Arctic SST, but the pattern itself is not amplified between the warming and non-warming experiment and cannot explain the current cooling trend of the mid-latitudes. We argue that the difference in sea-ice condition regulates the more extreme cases of the pattern thereby contributing to the positive trend in WACE pattern similar to that of observation.
著者
Hiroyuki Yamada Tomoe Nasuno Wataru Yanase Masaki Satoh
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, pp.203-208, 2016 (Released:2016-08-03)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1 7

Typhoon Fengshen (2008) was marked by a persistent track toward the northwest, which was poorly predicted by an operational hydrostatic model, which indicated a significant northward bias. Using a global nonhydrostatic model with finer grid spacing, we have simulated a reliable track of this typhoon. The purpose of this study is to clarify the causes of the northward bias by comparing the output of the two models. This typhoon was marked by the asymmetry of rainfall concentrating in the downshear side. While both models could reproduce the asymmetric structure, a significant difference between them was found in the vertical structure. In the hydrostatic model, the vortex tilted to the downshear side with a displacement from lower to upper levels exceeding 100 km. This tilt was related to weak updrafts of, at most, 0.5 m s−1. Diagnosis using vorticity budget demonstrated that the tilt of the vortex resulted from a lack of vertical coupling that was too weak to withstand differential advection between the lower and upper levels. These results suggest the importance of reproducing inner-core updrafts for better track prediction of a typhoon in an environment with strong vertical shear.
著者
Akifumi Nishi Hiroyuki Kusaka
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.17-21, 2019 (Released:2019-02-05)
参考文献数
34

In this study, we use observational data and numerical models to reveal whether foehn wind affects the record-breaking high-temperature event (41.1°C) at Kumagaya on July 23, 2018. On this day, the weather conditions at Kumagaya satisfied the conditions described in Takane et al. (2014) for a likely extreme high temperature (EHT) day: a “whale-tail” pressure pattern, no precipitation for 6 days, a high potential temperature at 850 hPa, and northerly surface winds. Our back-trajectory analysis shows that the air parcels came to Kumagaya from heights up to 3.0 km above sea level over the Sea of Japan. The Lagrangian energy budget analysis shows that adiabatic heating accounts for about 87.5% of the increase of the thermal energy given to the air parcel, with the rest from diabatic heating. The diabatic heating is caused by heating associated with surface sensible heat flux and the mixing by turbulent diffusion. The adiabatic and diabatic heating are calculated to have raised the temperature of air parcel by 14 and 2.0 K, respectively, for this EHT event. We conclude that the dynamic foehn effect and diabatic heating from the surface, together with mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer, affected the formation of this EHT event.
著者
Kentaro Araki Masataka Murakami Hiroshi Ishimoto Takuya Tajiri
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.108-112, 2015 (Released:2015-08-11)
参考文献数
45

Ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR) has been used for high-frequency retrievals of thermodynamic environments. However, raindrops on the radome of MWR and in the air cause errors in retrievals during precipitation events. Although a recent study has noted that off-zenith observations with neural networks (NN) reduce the retrieval errors, the effect of off-zenith observations with one-dimensional variational (1DVAR) technique, which is known to be more accurate than other methods, has not been studied. We developed a new 1DVAR technique that considers the effect of cloud liquid water. We statistically investigated the accuracy of vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and water vapor retrieved by NN and 1DVAR techniques by using zenith and off-zenith observation at 15° elevation angle under no-rain and rainy conditions and compared them with results of radiosonde observations. The results showed that the 1DVAR technique outperforms NN and numerical model simulation in the estimation of thermodynamic profiles under no-rain conditions. The results also indicated that the error in retrieved profiles in the low-level troposphere can be reduced by the 1DVAR technique by using off-zenith observations even under rainy conditions with rainfall rate less than 1.0 mm h−1, especially when the environment cannot be accurately reproduced by a numerical model.
著者
Tomoro Yanase Tetsuya Takemi
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.116-120, 2018 (Released:2018-08-21)
参考文献数
29

This study investigates the representation of the diurnal variation of cumulus convection in radiative-convective equilibrium states in an area of 200 km by 200 km without large-scale forcing by using a non-hydrostatic model with sub-kilometer horizontal resolutions. The experiment with the horizontal resolution of 200 m successfully reproduced the diurnal variability of the trimodal characteristics of cumulus convection. We demonstrated that the horizontal resolution dependence largely affects the trimodal structure of clouds and the characteristics of precipitation and its diurnal variation. With the coarse resolution of 1600 m, a signature of convective aggregation appeared and the diurnal variation of convection was not clearly seen. We further examined the mechanisms for the diurnal variation of cumulus convection by focusing on the temporal and vertical variations of radiative and latent heating anomalies. The diurnal variability of the static stability caused by both radiative and latent heating plays a role in characterizing the diurnal variation of the cumulus convection.
著者
Masatake E. Hori Jun Inoue Takashi Kikuchi Meiji Honda Yoshihiro Tachibana
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.25-28, 2011 (Released:2011-02-10)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
16 21

In the winter of 2009/2010, Japan and the East Asian region experienced a frequent occurrence of cold air outbreaks. Although the winter average temperature in the Japan main islands was slightly positive (+0.81°C for DJF average and +0.71°C for NDJFM average), repeated decline in temperature was notable throughout the season. One explanation for this abnormal winter season is the extremely negative condition of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) that persisted from December to mid-January. However, AO alone does not provide sufficient explanation for the cold air outbreak during November or its intraseasonal periodicity. A case study of the cold air outbreak that reached Japan on Dec. 18 reveals an anomalous ridge forming over the Barents-Kara Sea, which leads to the cold air accumulation over western Siberia. The pressure anomaly subsequently shifted westward to mature into a blocking high which created a wave-train pattern downstream, advecting the cold air eastward towards East Asia and Japan. The sequence of events was also apparent in multiple cases throughout the season. This study suggests that there is a strong and systematic linkage in the intraseasonal timescale between the atmospheric condition over the Barents-Kara Sea and the cold air accumulation over the Eurasian continent, leading to the anomalous cold air outbreak over East Asia and Japan. The mechanism may also provide explanation to extreme winter conditions such as those observed during the winter of 2010/2011.
著者
Seika Tanji Masaru Inatsu
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.32-36, 2019 (Released:2019-02-13)
参考文献数
31

Blowing snow potential is diagnosed for typical cases around Sapporo, Japan, as snow concentration and visibility based on dynamically downscaled data with 1-km resolution. The results are consistent with the blowing-snow records on time and place of traffic disruption, when the dynamical downscaling (DDS) reproduced wind speed well for a case. The diagnosis with mesoscale model analysis with 5-km resolution does not reproduce the blowing snow events in most area, however. Hence, the DDS potentially, not perfectly, adds the value to estimate blowing snow potential, despite a large scale-gap from an explicit representation of small-scale turbulence related to blowing snow. Sensitivity tests clarify that blowing snow requires strong wind and freezing temperature at the surface.
著者
Akifumi Nishi Hiroyuki Kusaka
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.12-16, 2019 (Released:2019-02-05)
参考文献数
24

This study uses a numerical model to examine how a convex feature and a gap feature in a mountain range affect the leeward wind field. In the “convexity case”, the mountain ridge has a convex feature (viewed from above). In the “gap case”, the mountain ridge has a gap. The results show that both cases have local winds at the surface exceeding 8 m s−1, and both have similar spatial flow-patterns. However, the momentum budgets at the strong-wind regions differ between the cases. In the convexity case, the downdrafts are important in the momentum balance, whereas in the gap case, both the downdrafts and the pressure-gradient force are important. Thus, although their spatial patterns of surface wind are similar to each other, their mechanisms for producing a strong local wind differ.Sensitivity experiments of Frm show that strong-wind appears in both the convexity and gap cases when Frm is between 0.42 and 1.04. In contrast, when Frm is 0.21, strong winds only appear in the gap case because the flow can go around the gap. When Frm exceeds 1.25, strong surface winds appear in the entire leeward plain.
著者
Tetsuya Takemi
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.iii, 2019 (Released:2019-02-01)
参考文献数
1

The Editorial Committee of Scientific Online Letters on the Atmosphere (SOLA) gives The SOLA Award to outstanding paper(s) published each year. I am pleased to announce that The SOLA Award in 2018 is going to be presented to the paper by Dr. Kosuke Ito et al., entitled with “Analysis and forecast using dropsonde data from the inner-core region of Tropical Cyclone Lan (2017) obtained during the first aircraft missions of T-PARCII” (Ito et al. 2018). Importance of dropsonde observations in the analysis and forecast of tropical cyclones (TCs) is well known, and such observations were operationally performed for the Atlantic hurricane. After the termination of the operational dropsonde observations in late 1980s, Dvorak technique has been used to estimate the intensity of TCs. However, uncertainties of Dvorak technique have been discussed for a long time, and dropsonde observations are essentially important for the precise information on TCs. The authors conducted dropsonde observations from an aircraft for TC Lan (2017) and, by assimilating the observed data, performed forecast experiments of the TC. They demonstrated potentially a positive impact of the dropsonde observations on the analysis and forecast of the TC. This study has demonstrated the importance of the dropsonde observations for TCs and is expected to enhance further studies investigations on the improvement of the analysis and forecast of TCs. Therefore, the Editorial Committee of SOLA highly evaluates the excellence of the paper.