著者
Shohei Nagata Tomoki Nakaya Yu Adachi Toru Inamori Kazuto Nakamura Dai Arima Hiroshi Nishiura
出版者
Japan Epidemiological Association
雑誌
Journal of Epidemiology (ISSN:09175040)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JE20200625, (Released:2021-04-03)
参考文献数
14

Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic spread, the Japanese government declared a state of emergency on April 7, 2020 for seven prefectures, and on April 16, 2020 for all prefectures. The Japanese Prime Minister and governors requested people to adopt self-restraint behaviors, including working from home and refraining from visiting nightlife spots. However, the effectiveness of the mobility change due to such requests in reducing the spread of COVID-19 has been little investigated. The present study examined the association of the mobility change in working, nightlife, and residential places and the COVID-19 outbreaks in Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya metropolitan areas in Japan.Methods: First, we calculated the daily mobility change in working, nightlife, and residential places compared to the mobility before the outbreak using mobile device data. Second, we estimated the sensitivity of mobility changes to the reproduction number by generalized least squares.Results: Mobility change had already started in March, 2020. However, mobility reduction in nightlife places was particularly significant due to the state of emergency declaration. Although the mobility in each place type was associated with the COVID-19 outbreak, the mobility changes in nightlife places were more significantly associated with the outbreak than those in the other place types. There were regional differences in intensity of sensitivity among each metropolitan area.Conclusions: Our findings indicated the effectiveness of the mobility changes, particularly in nightlife places, in reducing the outbreak of COVID-19.
著者
Kunihiko Takahashi Hideto Takahashi Tomoki Nakaya Seiji Yasumura Tetsuya Ohira Hitoshi Ohto Akira Ohtsuru Sanae Midorikawa Shinichi Suzuki Hiroki Shimura Shunichi Yamashita Koichi Tanigawa Kenji Kamiya
出版者
Japan Epidemiological Association
雑誌
Journal of Epidemiology (ISSN:09175040)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.JE20180247, (Released:2019-06-15)
参考文献数
20

Background: After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a preliminary ultrasound-based screening for thyroid cancer was conducted to establish a baseline for subsequent evaluations. In this survey, we assessed the relationship between the proportion of non-examinees and characteristics of the target populations.Methods: After summarizing a regional difference of non-examinees among the population of 359,200 (primary evaluation) and 2,246 (confirmatory testing) individuals who were living in the Fukushima prefecture on 11 March 2011, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) for each characteristic including age, sex, area of residence, and moving after the accident, based on the proportion of non-examinees for the primary examination and the confirmatory testing, using a multivariate logistic regression model.Results: The dataset included 64,117 non-examinees (primary evaluation) and 194 (confirmatory testing). The logistic regression result indicated that girls were not likely to be non-examinees compared to boys with adjusted OR of 0.80 (95% confidence interval[CI]:0.78-0.81) for the primary evaluation. OR was the lowest for children 6-10 years old (y/o) (OR=0.26, CI:0.25-0.27), and higher for those 11-15 y/o (OR=1.28, CI:1.25-1.32) and over 16 y/o (OR=5.30, CI:5.16-5.43) when compared to children 0-5 y/o. Individuals residing in the western part of the prefecture showed higher ORs. There was a higher proportion of non-examinees among those who moved after the accident compared to those who did not in the primary evaluation (OR=1.72, CI:1.64-1.79).Conclusions: In addition to the demographic characteristics, a change of residence could be a potential factor that influenced the proportion of non-examinees. Our results will help proper interpretation of reports and prospective management of the survey.
著者
Shigeru Inoue Yumiko Ohya Yuko Odagiri Tomoko Takamiya Masamitsu Kamada Shinpei Okada Kohichiro Oka Yoshinori Kitabatake Tomoki Nakaya James F Sallis Teruichi Shimomitsu
出版者
Japan Epidemiological Association
雑誌
Journal of Epidemiology (ISSN:09175040)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.6, pp.481-490, 2011-11-05 (Released:2011-11-05)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
69 90

Background: Recent research has revealed the importance of neighborhood environment as a determinant of physical activity. However, evidence among elderly adults is limited. This study examined the association between perceived neighborhood environment and walking for specific purposes among Japanese elderly adults.Methods: This population-based, cross-sectional study enrolled 1921 participants (age: 65–74 years, men: 51.9%). Neighborhood environment (International Physical Activity Questionnaire Environmental Module) and walking for specific purposes (ie, transportation or recreation) were assessed by self-report. Multilevel logistic regression analyses with individuals at level 1 and neighborhoods at level 2 were conducted to examine the association between environment and walking, after adjustment for potential confounders.Results: Access to exercise facilities, social environment, and aesthetics were associated with total neighborhood walking. Odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.23 (1.00–1.51), 1.39 (1.14–1.71), and 1.48 (1.21–1.81), respectively. Regarding walking for specific purposes, social environment and aesthetics were consistent correlates of both transportation walking and recreational walking. Environmental correlates differed by specific types of walking and by sex. Transportation walking significantly correlated with a greater variety of environmental attributes. Sex differences were observed, especially for transportation walking. Bicycle lanes, crime safety, traffic safety, aesthetics, and household motor vehicles were significant correlates among men, while access to shops, access to exercise facilities, and social environment were important among women.Conclusions: Specific environment–walking associations differed by walking purpose and sex among elderly adults. Social environment and aesthetics were consistent correlates of both transportation walking and recreational walking. Improving these environmental features might be effective in promoting physical activity among elderly Japanese.
著者
Keiji YANO Tomoki NAKAYA Yoshitaka ISHIKAWA
出版者
The Association of Japanese Geographers
雑誌
Geographical review of Japan, Series B (ISSN:02896001)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.73, no.2, pp.165-177, 2000-12-01 (Released:2008-12-25)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
6 7

The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the spatial pattern of human migration during the second half of the 1980s, by using geographical information system (GIS) and spatial interaction models (SIMs). It should be noted that this paper is based on the full data set of the inter-municipal migration extracted from the 1990 population census of Japan. This paper firstly uses GIS to provide the features of the Japanese migration system based on municipality units. As a result, the two major migration patterns in the late 1980s are observed; influx of population to the Keihin metropolitan area from non-metropolitan areas, and to prefectural capital cities from other cities of the same prefecture. Next, Fotheringham's competing destinations models are also applied to the inter-municipal migration flows. It is found that the spatial distribution of accessibility parameter estimates has a significantly contrastive pattern: the estimates of the origins in the non-metropolitan areas are positive and show the agglomeration effect in migration process, while the ones in the metropolitan areas are negative and show the competing effect. These results suggest that accessibility parameter estimates reflect not only the spatial configuration of origins and destinations, but also the preference of migrants for the large metropolitan areas reflecting the Japanese core-periphery structure and the business cycle in the boom period of the late 1980s.