著者
Kentaro Araki Teruyuki Kato Yasutaka Hirockawa Wataru Mashiko
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021-002, (Released:2020-12-24)
被引用文献数
1

This study investigated characteristics of atmospheric environmental fields in the occurrence of quasi-stationary convective bands (QSCBs) in Kyushu, western Japan during the July 2020 heavy rainfall event. We performed case studies of extreme rainfall subevents in the Kumamoto and Kagoshima prefectures on 3-4 July (2020KK) and northern Kyushu on 6-7 July 2020 (2020NK), compared with two heavy rainfall events in northern Kyushu in 2017 and 2018.Nine QSCBs were objectively extracted during the July 2020 heavy rainfall event, causing hourly precipitation amounts exceeding 100 mm twenty times. In 2020KK, the environmental field with extremely large precipitable water due to low-level and middle-level humidity was affected by the upper-level cold airflow, which resulted in favorable condition for the deep convection development. Consequently, the lightning activity became high, and cloud tops were the highest in comparison to previous events. QSCBs in 2020KK and 2020NK were located along a low-level convergence line/zone associated with an inflow that had extremely large water vapor flux on the south side of the mesoscale Baiu frontal depressions. In most of the QSCB cases in 2020, mesoscale depressions were observed and enhanced horizontal winds, which led to extremely large low-level water vapor flux to produce short-term heavy rainfall.
著者
Yasutaka Hirockawa Teruyuki Kato Kentaro Araki Wataru Mashiko
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-044, (Released:2020-12-10)

In early July 2020, an extreme rainfall event generated precipitation exceeding 1000 mm in Kyushu district, southwestern Japan. Especially, an elongated and stagnated mesoscale convective system formed around the Kuma River in central Kyushu district produced localized heavy rainfall with precipitation over 600 mm in 13 hours. Characteristics of this extreme rainfall event were investigated using distributions of radar/raingauge-analyzed precipitation amounts (RAP) that were statistically compared with those during the warm seasons (April–November) in 2009-2019. The results are as follows: (1) nine heavy rainfall areas of linear-stationary type (LS-HRAs) were extracted, (2) spatial and temporal scales of two LS-HRAs among the nine exceeded 270 km and 10 hours, respectively, (3) the maximum RAP exceeding 100 mm in LS-HRAs were comparable to those in previous extreme rainfall events, (4) large accumulated three-hour precipitation amounts exceeding 200 mm were more frequently observed than those in previous events, and (5) the accumulated five-day precipitation amount integrated around Kyushu Island was the largest since 2009. This study also showed that a large area-integrated precipitation amount was produced mainly from widespread precipitation systems associated with the Baiu front, while the nine LS-HRAs significantly contributed to localized heavy rainfall.
著者
Yasutaka Hirockawa Teruyuki Kato Kentaro Araki Wataru Mashiko
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.265-270, 2020 (Released:2020-12-24)
参考文献数
25

An extreme rainfall event brought precipitation amounts exceeding 1000 mm in Kyushu district, southwestern Japan, in early July 2020. Especially, an elongated and stagnated mesoscale convective system formed around the Kuma River in central Kyushu district produced localized heavy rainfall with precipitation amounts larger than 600 mm in 13 hours. Characteristics of this extreme rainfall event were investigated using distributions of radar/raingauge-analyzed precipitation amounts (RAP) and statistically compared with those during the warm seasons (April–November) in 2009-2019. The results are shown as follows; (1) nine heavy rainfall areas of linear-stationary type (LS-HRAs) were extracted, (2) spatial and temporal scales of two LS-HRAs among them respectively exceeded 270 km and 10 hours, (3) the maximum RAP exceeding 100 mm in LS-HRAs were comparable to those in previous extreme rainfall events, (4) large accumulated three-hour precipitation amounts exceeding 200 mm were more frequently observed than those in the previous events, and (5) the accumulated five-day precipitation amount integrated around Kyushu Island was the largest since 2009. This study also showed that the large area-integrated precipitation amount was produced mainly from widespread precipitation systems associated with the Baiu front, while the nine LS-HRAs significantly contributed localized heavy rainfall.
著者
Wataru MASHIKO
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.97, no.1, pp.39-54, 2019 (Released:2019-02-07)
参考文献数
41

In this study, the characteristics of wind gusts in Japan in the period from 2002 to 2017 were examined using surface meteorological data recorded at 151 weather observatories throughout Japan. This study does not focus on particular phenomena, such as tornadoes and downbursts, which cause wind gusts. A wind gust is defined on the basis of the gust factor and the amount of increase and decrease of the 3-s mean wind speed from the 10-min mean wind speed. A total of 3,531 events were detected as wind gusts. The frequency of wind gusts with more than 25 m s−1 averaged across all observatories is 0.97 per year, which is four or five orders of magnitude higher than the tornado encounter probability in Japan. The frequency of wind gusts in the coastal region is approximately three times higher than that in the inland area. Wind gusts occur most frequently in September and least frequently in June. Wind gusts have high activities during daytime, especially in the afternoon. Approximately half of the events are the typhoon-associated wind gusts (WGTYs), which occurred within a radius of 800 km from the typhoon center. Most of the WGTYs occur from August to October. Approximately half of the WGTYs occur in the right-front quadrant of a typhoon with respect to the typhoon motion. The frequency of WGTYs is high in western Japan, whereas the northern and eastern parts of Japan are characterized by a high frequency of wind gusts without a typhoon. In addition, persistent strong winds, which meet the same conditions as wind gusts but without a rapid decrease in the wind speed, were investigated. The frequency of such strong winds is high on the Japan Sea coast, especially in December. The effects of the observational environment on the frequency of wind gusts were also discussed.
著者
Wataru Mashiko Hiroshi Niino
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.135-139, 2017 (Released:2017-07-31)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
2

A super high-resolution simulation of the 6 May 2012 Tsukuba supercell tornado with a horizontal grid spacing of 10 m is conducted to investigate its fine-scale structure under realistic environmental conditions including surface friction. The simulated tornado repeatedly exhibits evolutions from one-cell to two-cell vortex, and subsequently to a multiple-vortex structure, where the vortex structure is sensitive to a swirl ratio. Subvortices in the multiple-vortex structure are located on the immediate inside of the radius of the maximum tangential wind speed, and cyclonically rotate around the tornado center with a slower speed less than half of the maximum tangential wind speed. The subvortices have a feature of a suction vortex accompanied by strong horizontal convergence and strong updraft near the surface. Although a superposition of the swirling winds associated with the subvortices and the parent tornado vortex causes locally intensified winds, the maximum horizontal and upward winds over the tornado's lifetime occur at the stage of shrinking of the vortex radius right before a transition to a multiple-vortex structure.