- 言語と文化 = Language and Culture (ISSN:09147977)
- vol.23, pp.256-271, 2011-03-01
Ninja is said to be the ancient warrior originated in Japan. Nowadays its transnational emerging has been seen globally, even in Sokoto, northern Nigeria where I have conducted field research for Nollywood kungfu film since 2001. In this article, I trace some transnational process of ninja representation outside Japan and consider ways to transform global image into a localized ninja/ninjoji of Sokoto.