著者
兒島 峰 Kojima Mine
出版者
神奈川大学人文学会
雑誌
人文研究 (ISSN:02877074)
巻号頁・発行日
no.178, pp.81-129, 2012

This paper analyzes how movies can showcase experiences during historical moments and evoke the consciousness of people throughfeature films such as "Even the Rain" (Icíar Bollaín, 2010), inspired by the "Water War" that broke out in Cochabamba, Bolivia in 2000. First, I elaborate on the film's story and indicate the different reception it received in Spain, where the film was made, and Bolivia,where it was shot. It was well received in Spain because it depicted the parallelism in history between the Conquest era and present day,and the resistance of a united people against oppression. In contrast,in Bolivia, it was received with a polemic because it was considered to be plagiarized from the Bolivian film "To Hear the Birds Singing"(Jorge Sanjinés, 1995)and accused of having a colonial view of the film.Second, to clarify the bases of such contrasting critiques, I attempt to examine the historical and social visions of both societies, one suzerain and the other colonized. Third, I explain the historical process, politicoeconomic background, and the impact of ochabamba's "Water War" on Bolivian and international societies, and clarify how this crucial historical subject is reconstructed and what message is conveyed through the film. Finally, I suggest how we can learn the history and facts through the films.
著者
熊谷 謙介 Kumagai Kensuke
出版者
神奈川大学人文学会
雑誌
人文研究 (ISSN:02877074)
巻号頁・発行日
no.178, pp.1-29, 2012

This paper focuses on the question of "chance" in Mallarmé's Un coup de dés, in relation to the figures of the woman(siren)and man (Hamlet)who appears in the second half of this poem. Quentin Meillassoux's The Number and the Siren: A Decipherment of Mallarmé's Coup de dés(2011)shows that the ambiguous relation of chance and necessity in this poem titled A Throw of the Dice Will Never Abolish Chance, is not contained in a Master's choice: whether to throw a pair of dice or not, but in the count of this poem's words (707). I argue against this view that the choice of throwing dice or not, the central question of Igitur, remains in Un coup de dés, and that "the unique Number that cannot be another" is 12, the number of the two dices of Igitur and of alexandrine syllables, or rather the visual principle of verses applied to both traditional poetic forms and a radical type such as Un coup de dés. The difference between Igitur and Un coup de dés lies in the fact that the hero Igitur got lost in this alternative logic in an attempt to fulfill in vain the destiny of his ancestors, but Un coup de dés has two heroes, namely the Master and his child("childlike shade")who tries to answer the question of chance in a different way from his father and Igitur : to combine chance with infinity. It is true that Meillassoux's iscussion poses the question of infinityin relation to siren, but it doesn't examine closely the opposition of thefemale figure("siren")with the male figure("bitter prince of reef")in view of gender and literary texts : Ophelia and Hamlet, mobility and immobility, fluidity and solidity, horizontality and verticality, curved lineand straight line. Therefore, the child of the Master is composed of these two characters who contradict but complete each other to challenge the question of chance. After the tradition of "romantic" interpretation of Un Coup de dés, according to which the human being tries to abolish chance between abyss and sky even if in a fictional manner, it is time to reflect on the multiple signification of this poem as a chimera-siren, in relation to its formal features and Mallarmé's poetics.
著者
鳥越 輝昭 Torigoe J. I. Teruaki
出版者
神奈川大学人文学会
雑誌
人文研究 (ISSN:02877074)
巻号頁・発行日
no.176, pp.1-29, 2012

I have focused on a representation of Venice as a city of death and attempted to show the reasons why this remarkable image emerged. The lagoon extending from the northern edge of Venice is called "laguna morta"(=dead lagoon), in which there is a cemetery island called San Michele, and there can also be found a haunted house named "Casa degli Spiriti" on the northern edge of the city. The zone formed by the "dead" lagoon, the cemetery island, and the northern edge of the city presents an image of a death zone. Interestingly, however, the same zone had been regarded not as a deathly place but rather one of cheerfulness until the end of the eighteenth century. The direct cause for engendering this association of death was the fact that the island of San Michele was changed from a monastic island into a cemetery island at the beginning of the nineteenth century. There were, however, other important causes. The Republic of Venice collapsed in 1797, followed by a long period of political and economic decline. Metaphorically speaking, Venice itself died. The city, lying on the lagoon, also seemed to be soon engulfed by water. Thus it seemed to be in danger of physical death, too. A similar sudden change is noticeable regarding the image of coffins in association with Venetian gondolas. Gondolas were likened to coffins probably for the first time by Goethe just before the extinction of the Republic of Venice, which was already in a state of decline both politically and economically. After Goethe, Venetian gondolas were represented repeatedly as coffins. Interestingly, however, gondolas had been regarded as either beautiful grand vehicles or joyous boats before Goethe. Therefore, the association of gondolas with coffins came not from their physical appearance but from the political, economic, and physical decline of the city.