著者
小林 忠雄
出版者
北陸大学
雑誌
北陸大学紀要 = Bulletin of Hokuriku University (ISSN:21863989)
巻号頁・発行日
no.41, pp.61-73, 2016-12-31

北陸大学未来創造学部 教授 小林忠雄先生の『文化人類学』最終講義(2016年1月29日)を掲載。巻末に、未来創造学部 国際教養学科 教授 長谷川孝徳先生より「小林忠雄先生の最終講義にあたって」の謝辞を記載。
著者
福江 充
出版者
北陸大学
雑誌
北陸大学紀要 = Bulletin of Hokuriku University (ISSN:21863989)
巻号頁・発行日
no.49, pp.97-141, 2020-09-30

Tateyama in Etchū province was well known by Heian-era Japanese people as a sacredmountain that contained an actual hell. It was believed that all Japanese who committedsins during their lifetimes would fall into Tateyama's hell, and that Tateyama was a sacredsite where the living could meet the dead.Among the many works published during the second half of the Edo period by the popularand prolific playwright and novelist Jippensha Ikku (1765~1831) are two that took upthe theme of Etchū's Tateyama. Ikku published Etchū Tateyama Yūrei-mura Adauchi in1808 and "Etchū Tateyama sankei kikō" in the eighteenth volume of Shokoku dōchū kaneno waraji in 1828.The latter work has been transcribed and annotated by a number of scholars, and somehave studied it in the context of Tateyama belief; to some extent it has been introduced tothe academic world. The former work, however, has not received the same attention interms of transcription--it has only been quoted by a few scholars--and there has been nointroduction or analysis of the work as a whole.It is thought that Ikku travelled to Echigo, Etchū, and Kaga in 1826, and that he basedShokoku dōchū kane no waraji (1828) on that experience. Like one of his most famousworks, Tōkai dōchū hizakurige , it is comedic. By contrast, Etchū Tateyama Yūrei-muraAdauchi of 1808, published twenty years earlier, was composed with then-popular revengenovels in mind, as Ikku himself indicated at the beginning of the volume. In Ikku's novel,a young couple falls in love, the woman gets pregnant out of wedlock, they elope, the manis murdered by a middle-aged male stalker, and the victim appears as a ghost to thewoman he loves. Ikku further incorporated an old story about Tateyama's ghost town. Hethereby combined various motifs and genres to create this popular and entertaining novel.Ikku's two Tateyama-related works can be classified into different genres, but bothindicate a shift in perception of Tateyama from a sacred site of intense religious practiceduring the classical period to a mountain that welcomes tourism and offers entertainmentduring the Edo-period.In 1814, six years after the publication of Etchū Tateyama Yūrei-mura Adauchi, while under the rulership of Kaga domain's Maeda family, what had long been Tateyama'smountain-meditation route was circumvented. At the same time, the facilities at theTateyama hot-springs (close to the mountain's caldera and the many mountain peaks in thearea) were restored and a direct route was established from the mountains to the hotsprings.It was the start of a thriving hot-springs business. As a result of thesedevelopments, priests of the town Ashikuraji in Tateyama's foothills, who until then hadhosted pilgrims who climbed the mountain as religious practice, had to adjust to an increasein secular tourists and pleasure hikers. The sudden decrease in pilgrims put Ashikurajipriests into a very difficult practical and economic position. They had to rethink theirdoctrinal teachings and customs, such as appealing to women who had been excluded fromthe sacred mountain. Kaga domain's strategies for stimulating the local economy duringthe latter half of the Edo period threatened the older economy of Tateyama as a sacred site.Etchū Tateyama Yūrei-mura Adauchi reveals that Ikku witnessed these socio-economicchanges and that he was aware of--and poked fun at--Tateyama's traditional sacredcharacter. We also sense from this work that Ikku was prescient about the mountain's future.In this article I first transcribe and introduce Etchū Tateyama Yūrei-mura Adauchi .Then I analyze its contents and contribute to a deeper understanding of this work as ahistorical source important to research of Tateyama's religious history.江戸時代後期の人気作家・十返舎一九(1765~1831)の膨大な著作の中で、越中国立山を題材としたものに、文化5年(1808)刊行の『越中楯山幽霊邑讐討』と文政11年(1828)刊行の『諸国道中金草鞋』第18編の2冊がある。このうち後書は、これまで数人の研究者によって翻刻や解説及び立山信仰史研究における史料的位置づけが行われており、ある程度世に紹介されている。ところが前書については、数人の研究者による若干の言及はあるものの、基本となる翻刻書・翻訳書が全く見られない。もちろん史料分析も皆無である。小説といえども江戸時代の文化情報を多分に含み、史料価値が極めて高い『越中楯山幽霊邑讐討』をまずは翻刻・意訳し、紹介したい。なお、本格的な内容分析や立山信仰史研究の分野における同書の史料的位置づけは、論文の分量が多くなるため、稿を改めたい。
著者
福江 充
出版者
北陸大学
雑誌
北陸大学紀要 = Bulletin of Hokuriku University (ISSN:21863989)
巻号頁・発行日
no.47, pp.57-76, 2019-09-30

In April of 2018 the author acquired a two-scroll Tateyama mandara through Yahoo!Japan's auction website, Yafuoku! It arrived from an antique-art dealer in Shizuoka Citywith no additional information about its provenance. As it is currently in the author'scollection, it is herein referred to as the Fukue-ke Tateyama mandara.The two scrolls are probably remounted fragments that survive from what wasoriginally a set of four hanging scrolls. The fragments depict scenes of Tateyama's "hell"and of a ritual that was held in Tateyama's foothills called the Cloth-bridge Consecration(Nunobashi kanjō-e). The placement of that ritual within the overall composition indicatesthat it is an Ashikuraji-type Tateyama mandara. Closer inspection reveals resemblance tothe oldest extant Tateyama mandara versions, leading the author to speculate that it toois a relatively old Tateyama mandara.In this article the author first analyzes the composition and iconography of theFukue-ke version. Then he compares it to the Raigōji, Tsuboi-ke A, and Konzōin Tateyamamandara versions in order to establish its historical placement among these earlyAshikuraji-type Tateyama mandara.The Raigōji Tateyama mandara has long been regarded as the oldest amongAshikuraji-type Tateyama mandara versions. This comparison of early representations ofthe Cloth-bridge Consecration Rite, however, suggests that the Fukue-ke Tateyamamandara may be an even older work.新出の立山曼荼羅『福江家本』の構図や図像を詳しく分析し、次にその内容をもとに、これまで最も古いとされてきた芦峅寺系立山曼荼羅の『來迎寺本』、『坪井家A本』、『金蔵院本』の構図や図像と相互に比較し、それらの異同の意義を考察しながら、芦峅寺系立山曼荼羅の諸本における同作品の史料としての位置づけを提示した。その結果『福江家本』が、芦峅寺系立山曼荼羅諸本のなかで、前掲の『來迎寺本』などの3作品よりも、古い成立作品であることが判明した。