著者
岡野 君江
出版者
環日本海学会編集委員会
雑誌
環日本海研究 (ISSN:13430300)
巻号頁・発行日
no.2, pp.46-63, 1996

The land force of Kanazawa played a big role in the Nanking atrocity. Old soldiers, almost all of them over 80 years old, told what they had done in Nanking in 1937. The main members of the atrocity in Nanking were the soldiers of Kanazawa. They had to ensure safety in the Nanking Safety Zone because a commander, who belonged to the Mikado family, would come there soon. A report says the soldiers of Kanazawa killed 6, 670 people. They didn't have enough time to distinguish civilians from the remnants of the defeated army. They not only cruelly murdered, but also plunderd and raped. This is an objective and reliable study of the historical materials I have gathered in Kanazawa and of the testimonies of the soldiers themselves.
著者
卯田 強
出版者
北東アジア学会
雑誌
環日本海研究 (ISSN:13430300)
巻号頁・発行日
no.9, pp.51-59, 2003-10-01

Japan was attacked two times by the Mongols during the Kamakura period; the first was the battle of Bun-ei in 1274 and the second was that of Koan in 1281. It was an article of faith that Japan was the god-blessed land because the Kamikaze, a windstorm raged by God, warded off the Mongolian invaders in these times. Documentary records on the battle of Bun-ei are alternative; some of them was described stories such as the Mongolian troops being caught by a windstorm at the night in Oct. 20 in 1274, or another as they withdrew strategically from Japan. A meteorological study on the probability of a strike of a typhoon at both time of battles is made in this paper. According to the record by the Japan Meteorological Agency, typhoons hardly ever strike the Japanese Islands and a stable weather is continued in the latest autumn such as the time of battle of Bunei. Moreover, a temperate cyclone, which has appeared to the southeastern terrestrial part of China or Eastern China Sea, is still underdeveloped when it has arrived at the northern Kyushu region and it could accompany with not windstorm but much rain. The present provides a key to find a clue of the past and present climatical condition would have unchanged during the last century. It is, consequently, difficult to conclude that the Mongols disappeared from the Hakata bay due to some meteorological phenomenon at the time of battle of Bun-ei. However, it is definite that a big typhoon made land fall on the northern Kyushu region at the time of battle of Koan judging from not only all documentary records but the circumstance estimated meteorologically. Almost of Mongolian battle ships were destroyed and sank into the Sea of Genkai-nada. This typhoon should be considered to move northward along the eastern coast of Kyushu, across Chugoku, and through into Japan Sea at the early morning of Aug.17 in 1281. Due to the strategic imperative of sending 130,000 troops across the Eastern Chine Sea, Momgolians can be considered to have had the requisite knowledge about damage that can be caused by severe weather in the typhoon season. Nevertheless, why they meet a typhoon? No speculation which goes around regarding this problem, of course, is eliminated. It is my opinion that they had no way of knowing the fact that a typhoon season shifted earlier from the late September to the middle August during the latest 13C.
著者
大島 美穂
出版者
北東アジア学会
雑誌
環日本海研究 (ISSN:13430300)
巻号頁・発行日
no.4, pp.15-27, 1998-10-25

In this paper I study three levels of actors in Baltic Sea cooperation, that is to say, international organization such as the EU, the central governments, and the local administrations, focusing on environmental problems. In Baltic Sea cooperation, which is a pioneer case of sub-regional cooperation, these three actors are in the same direction and are interdependent. This structual tendency of Baltic Sea cooperation is different from that of Japan Sea cooperation. The reason is that in Baltic Sea those three actors have the common interests in cooperation especially of environmental problems. But at the same time the cooperational system in Baltic Sea is not always top-down and the three levels are sometimes entangled in each other on environmetal issues. These animations of the trans-national activities reflects the European situation after the Cold War, but it also shows the essence of environmental problems, in which it is difficult to draw the lines among international organizations, the central governments and the local administrations. And there local administrations are in a way of grasping the regional situation and making an effective proposals, which may get over the national boundary.
著者
ハグワスレン ハムスレン
出版者
北東アジア学会
雑誌
環日本海研究 (ISSN:13430300)
巻号頁・発行日
no.12, pp.17-31, 2006-10-01

From a strategic diplomacy perspective, Russia and China worked intently to bring Mongolia into the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) out of a strong desire to avoid an infiltration of American influence. For Mongolia, the strategies of the China/Russia-led SCO meant a shift in diplomatic strategy. That is, this would force a shift from the "nonaligned/neutral" stance the country officially declared through its "Concept of National Security of Mongolia" and " Concept of Mongolia's Foreign Policy" in 1994. Instead, the China/Russia-centered SCO would result in the narrowing of Mongolia's diplomatic options. Because of this, Mongolia was faced with the necessity to rebuild a security framework that applies its uniqueness as a small state. To accomplish this, it is likely that Mongolia would have to implement the following two policies. The first is the realization of the signing of the "Mongolia/China/Russia Trilateral Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of the Mongolian Region," which Mongolia declared at the 47_<th> UN General Assembly in September 1992 and further submitted to China and Russia in 2002 in hopes of turning the declaration into a legally binding agreement. Secondly, vital to future Mongolian diplomacy would be increased participation in ongoing multilateral frameworks including United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) and improvement of national defense policies as an auxiliary aspect of the country's main diplomatic policies regarding national security. The above two points are observations of Mongolian diplomacy as it relates to the SCO.