著者
北村 まゆみ
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.169-184, 2011-03-31

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether errors affect the quality of essay writing by Japanese EFL university students. Using a decision tree analysis, a total of 134 essays on two topics from a corpus written by Japanese university students were selected and analyzed. The results showed that the ratio of errors per word was not an influential predictor affecting writing quality in essays on the topic "school education," whereas it was a predictor of essay scores in the case of the other topic, "money." Our qualitative analysis also revealed that students at the Middle level produced sentence fragments and even learners at the High level made frequent errors in subject-verb agreements. These results suggest that errors have some influence on essay evaluation.
著者
笠原 究
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.91-100, 2010-03

The purpose of the study is to investigate whether learning a two-word collocation is superior in retention and retrieval of meaning to learning a single word. The focus is on the effect of a two-word collocation consisting of a known word and a new word for learners, such as school janitor. This study employed 39 high school students. They were asked to remember the Japanese meanings of 20 low-frequency English words, half of which were turned into two-word collocations by attaching high-frequency cues. In short, they tried to remember the Japanese equivalents of 10 single words and 10 two-word collocations. Two types of recall test were conducted. Test 1 presented all the items as single words by removing the cues from the two-word collocations (without the cue condition). Test 2 presented all the items as they were on the list (with the cue condition). Both of the tests were given to the same participants just after the learning phase and one week later. The main results were: (a) two-word collocations showed better retention of meaning than single words and, (b) two-word collocations showed better results in the recall tests with cues in the retrieval phase, whereas the opposite results were obtained without cues in the retrieval phase. Some pedagogical implications were drawn from these findings.
著者
羽藤 由美
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.31-40, 1994

This paper examines 'cognitive demands' of tasks as a possible cause of interlanguage(IL) variability. It begins with the definition of cognitive demands, and goes on to investigate their influence on cognitive operations involved in speech production. It will be suggested that the level of cognitive demands may be one of the external determinants of the learner's variable use of linguistic knowledge. This paper then identifies and examines several elements of cognitive demands, while simultaneously seeking to establish an analytic frame for assessing pedagogic tasks in terms of these demands. Such aspects as the degree of abstractions which tasks require the learner to make, and the range of meanings which tasks allow the learner to express, will be discussed. Finally, this paper specifies the danger inherent in 'unrestrained' forms of task-based approaches to second language(L2) teaching, and then suggests that regulating cognitive demands may be one way of evading that danger.
著者
深澤 清治 前田 啓朗 鬼田 崇作 山内 優佳 辰己 明子
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.125-140, 2015-03-31

The purpose of the present research is to examine how quickly and accurately Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) learners can make appropriateness judgments for second language (L2) requests. Previous studies in interlanguage pragmatics are limited in that they did not distinguish between types of pragmatic inappropriateness and also in that they used only offline measurement through questionnaires. The present study therefore distinguishes two types of pragmatic inappropriateness in L2 utterances (under-polite and over-polite) and measures the reaction time of learners' appropriateness judgments. The participants were 45 Japanese university students; they were asked to judge whether the presented L2 requests were appropriate or not in the situation, as quickly and accurately as possible. Six appropriate requests, five under-polite requests, and five over-polite requests were judged. Further, the degree of inappropriateness in under- and over-polite requests was manipulated from slightly inappropriate to very inappropriate. As a result, it was found that speed and accuracy of appropriateness judgments depend on the degree of (in)appropriateness of requests. In particular, extremely over-polite utterances were difficult for L2 learners to process.
著者
飯村 英樹
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.361-376, 2011-03-31

This paper presents an analysis of whether performance in multiple-choice (MC) listening tests is influenced by the way in which questions and options are presented. We developed four test formats and analyzed the performance of our study participants-219 Japanese university students-having taken different formats of the tests. The results of the study demonstrated that the way in which questions were presented significantly affected test-taker performance-listeners performed better when questions were presented in writing rather than verbally. The second part of this study examined which characteristics of a test item (text, question, and options) were related to item difficulty in the context of our different test formats. Our results indicated that text-related variables (infrequent vocabulary, lexical diversity, word familiarity, grammatical complexity, text length, and speaker's role) were significantly correlated with item difficulty regardless of which test format was used and that task-processing variables (explicitness of question, necessary information, and lexical overlap between text and questions) were significantly correlated with specific formats. The implications of these findings on test validity are discussed.
著者
赤松 信彦 田中 貴子
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.81-90, 2008-03

This study examined Japanese university students' knowledge of English articles. Specifically, the study investigated (a) Japanese university students' knowledge (i.e., accuracy) in their usage of English articles, (b) their meta-cognitive knowledge (i.e., confidence) in their usage of English articles, (c) the relationships between accuracy and confidence, and (d) the relationships between English proficiency and accuracy. Results showed that Japanese university students' knowledge varied in accuracy among the three types of articles: definite, indefinite, and no articles. Definite-articles were most properly used, while the accuracy in the usage of no articles was the lowest. It was also found that accuracy in the use of English articles was correlated with English proficiency and confidence. These results appear to suggest that (a) Japanese university students with higher English proficiency had more accurate knowledge in their usage of English articles, and (b) they used English articles with accurate meta-cognitive knowledge to a certain extent.
著者
草薙 邦広 山下 淳子
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.205-220, 2013-03-31

The present study investigated effects of agreement type and morphosyntactic regularity on L1-Japanese learners' acquisition of explicit and implicit grammatical knowledge of the English plural morpheme. We adopted a timed grammaticality judgment task (TGJT) to measure implicit knowledge and an untimed grammaticality judgment task (GJT) for explicit knowledge in order to observe differences between learning difficulties in each type of knowledge. Twenty six participants completed the two tasks, and the scores were submitted to a three-way ANOVA (task types, agreement types, and morphosyntactic regularity). Only the main effect of morphological regularity was statistically significant in TGJT, while the interaction between agreement type and morphosyntactic regularity was observed in GJT. This result indicated that the two linguistic factors affect the acquisition of explicit and implicit knowledge in different ways.
著者
吉村 雅仁 後藤 美知子
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.111-121, 1995-07

This paper reports the results of an investigation into the intonational influence on politeness judgements of requesting forms in English and Japanese through a questionnaire survey. The result confirmed the hypotheses which were presented in our last article that (1) intonation has a greater influence on politeness judgements in English than in Japanese and (2) the rising tone has a tendency to be perceived as more polite than the falling tone in English, but such a tendency is not observed in Japanese. Moreover, the uniformity of the informant-group enabled us to demonstrate the relative tendency of English male/female and elder/younger group concerning the perception of intonation. The female and the younger group tended to distinguish between the rising and falling tones more clearly than the opposite group in informal situations. This tendency was not found in the Japanese group.
著者
廣森 友人
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, pp.281-290, 2009-03

The English Education Center at Ehime University has been carrying out a series of studies in order to establish achievement goals and standards for evaluating achievement in General Education English classes. Based on preliminary questionnaires given to instructors and students, we have created tentative "Can-Do Lists" (benchmarks for evaluating English language proficiency) for four language skills. This paper, focusing especially on the benchmark of the writing skill, reports the current attempt to elaborate and validate the "Can-Do Lists", and suggests some effective ways to make good use of them. Although there has conventionally been a strong need for learning support that is based on achievement goals, this paper takes a specific perspective that provides effective guidance for that purpose.
著者
村尾 玲美
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.1-10, 2004

Numbers of studies on language transfer have been done at phonological, morphological, and syntactic levels, but there is relatively little research done in the area of lexico-semantic where L1 influence is considered to be the most persistent and pervasive. The present study focuses on semantic transfer of verb + noun collocation by intermediate and advanced level Japanese learners of English. Attempts are made to examine (a) whether or not learners at different proficiency levels differ in their performance of language transfer in the domain of lexical collocation, and (b) what the possibilities are that make certain collocates more transferable over other collocates. The results of the Acceptability Judgment Test performed by three different proficiency groups show that even learners at the highest level have difficulty in correctly accepting and rejecting the easy verb collocations that do not have the same patterns in their L1. The findings suggest the importance of negative evidence and the effects of the contrastive approach to teaching collocation in order to develop learners' language proficiency one step further.
著者
卯城 祐司 森 好紳 細田 雅也 田中 菜採 ダウズ エレノア 多田 豪 中川 弘明
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
アレレ (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.81-96, 2016

This study examined whether and how Japanese EFL readers maintain coherent narrative comprehension in their memory representations. If readers can successfully maintain coherence in their text comprehension despite encountering coherence breaks, their text memory is enhanced, but if they fail, their text memory can suffer (Otero & Kintsch, 1992). In this study, 48 Japanese EFL university students read 8 experimental narratives and performed a recall task. In each narrative, a character performed an action (e.g., "Mary ordered a cheeseburger") that was either consistent or inconsistent with a prior description of him or her (e.g., "Mary loved junk food" or "Mary was a vegetarian"). The results showed that participants recalled more descriptions and actions of the characters in the inconsistent texts than in the consistent texts, indicating that they selectively reprocessed the inconsistent information in order to maintain coherence. Moreover, most readers chose to edit the later character actions, rather than the preceding descriptions, by substituting the inconsistent actions with more neutral actions (e.g., "Mary ordered food"). These findings suggest that L2 readers slightly edited subsequent information in order to maintain coherence. Pedagogical implications are argued in terms of developing autonomous readers who can self-monitor coherence in their text comprehension.
著者
廣森 友人
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.361-372, 2012 (Released:2017-04-24)

Recent research investigating how the motivation to learn English can be enhanced has included several studies that discussed numerous motivational strategies (i.e., methods and techniques to generate and maintain the learners' motivation). However, in order for the outcomes of these studies to be fully utilized in actual classroom settings, they need to be used diagnostically and applied directly to the subsequent educational improvement. This study examined how English learners perceive motivational strategies, and whether instructional practice in keeping with the appraisal of these perceptions influences their motivation toward English learning. The results showed that (1) learners with different motivations appraised the effectiveness of motivational strategies in different ways, and (2) less motivated learners seemed to benefit the most from the instructional practice using motivation diagnosis as references. Based on the results, some educational implications and directions for future research are provided.
著者
卯城 祐司 土方 裕子 清水 真紀 院南 洋 笠原 究 下田 彰子 溝下 肇 佐藤 臨太郎
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.71-80, 2005-03

A translation test is one of the most common reading test methods in Japan, although its reliability and validity have been quite controversial. This study investigated the reliability and validity of translation tests as a measure of reading comprehension in Japanese university entrance examinations, with a particular focus on two research questions: (a) In terms of reliability, what types of translation materials cause difference in rating severity? (b) In terms of validity, what types of sentence can make great differences between translation and comprehension tasks? In order to examine the first research question, four experienced teachers scored English-to-Japanese translations made by 102 university students. Results showed that rating divergence is attributable to raters' different points of scoring (holistic vs. partial), and raters' leniency for inappropriate Japanese expressions or careless mistakes. The second research question was examined by administering 18 sets of translation and reading comprehension tasks to the same participants as above. Results showed that 4 out of 18 English sentences used in Japanese university entrance examinations were considered to be inappropriate as materials for translation tasks when examinees' reading comprehension was intended to be measured.
著者
平井 明代 藤田 亮子 伊藤 牧子 大木 俊英
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.31-45, 2013-03-31

In 2006, an English listening test was added to the National Center Test for University Admissions (NCT) in Japan. We investigated whether including the Center listening test on the NCT has had positive washback on students' listening skills and attitudes toward studying listening. In Study 1, test scores of university freshmen dating back to 2002 were analyzed to investigate the improvement in students' listening skills. In Study 2, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate students' motivational aspects. The results revealed three findings. First, the test scores did not show a marked improvement in listening skills after the Center listening test was introduced. Second, the Center listening test might influence students in different majors to a different degree. Third, the majority of students favored the introduction of the Center listening test, and most were encouraged to study listening and felt their preparation had a positive effect on their score.
著者
森本 由子
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.211-220, 2008-03

The aim of this study was to investigate whether attractive distractors differed by proficiency level in the multiple-choice sentential gap-filling test. In each item, apart from one correct choice, three distractors were prepared: a distractor which had a paradigmatic relationship with the correct answer, a distractor which had a syntagmatic relationship with a word in the context, and a distractor which had no relationship with either the correct answer or the context. The result of a chi-square analysis demonstrated that the lower group was attracted more to distractors with no relationship, but the upper group was likely to select syntagmatically-related distractors. In terms of distractors with paradigmatic relationship, there was no difference among proficiency groups, which was supported by low discriminability of paradigmatically-related distractors. These results provided an implication that using distractors with a syntagmatic relationship with the context or with no relationship makes tests more effective.
著者
水本 篤 浦野 研 前田 啓朗
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.33-48, 2014-03-31

This study reviewed three representative aspects (themes, methods, and outcomes) of the published articles in ARELE, volumes 1 to 24. The review of 450 ARELE articles revealed the following results: (a) the 24 ARELE volumes could be divided into two periods (the first 12 and the second 12); (b) articles in each period have characteristic words to represent the themes peculiar to the period; (c) research themes have shifted from teaching to learning, with reading, vocabulary, assessment/testing, and motivation coming to the forefront; (d) articles are predominantly empirical studies, targeting learners at secondary and tertiary levels, and hypothesis generating, with a quantitative approach, while intervention studies are not common; (e) medium strength of effect size was obtained with a meta-analytical approach; (f) the effect size decreases toward more recent volumes, which may be a sign of theoretical refinement; (g) the statistical power of most studies is lower than it should be. A number of suggestions are offered for improving the quality of future research practice.
著者
板垣 信哉 杉山 恵 久保田 佳克
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.31-40, 2003-03

This paper reports the results of analyses of learner metatalk about Japanese language, English language, and English grammar while attempting to perform two types of "output-oriented" grammar exercises. Subjects were asked to write down their "retrospective reports" on how they performed the exercises. The data was then analyzed on the basis of the theoretical framework of the Output Hypothesis (Swain, 1985, 1998). It was found that the type and amount of metatalk were largely dependent on the type of grammar exercises and the English proficiency level of subjects. The results are also discussed in reference to grammar teaching as well as the three language learning functions of output; "noticing," "hypothesis-testing," and "metatalk."
著者
森田 光宏
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.1-10, 2010-03

The purpose of the present study is to investigate how Japanese learners of English store and process derived words in their mental lexicon. L1 research in word recognition has given rise to three hypotheses. The affix stripping hypothesis claims that derived words are accessed by their component morphemes, while the full listing hypothesis claims that they are accessed as full forms. Hybrid hypotheses such as the Meta Model claim that the lexical properties of suffixes determine how derived words are processed. Our data show that Japanese learners of English with larger vocabulary sizes tend to decompose highly productive, semantically and phonologically transparent Level 2 suffixes, but not less productive, semantically and phonologically opaque Level 1 suffixes. On the other hand, the learners with smaller vocabulary sizes tend to process both kinds of suffixes by the Decompose Route. It is argued that the learners may have not acquired the meanings and phonology of the derived words with the less semantically and phonologically transparent suffixes. These results support hybrid hypotheses, even for L2 learners.
著者
小島 ますみ
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.151-160, 2010-03

This study investigated the significance of the effects of word-recognition speed, accuracy, and automaticity on three different English-reading proficiency groups: two groups of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners and one group of native English speakers. In addition, whether the effects of word-recognition speed, accuracy, and automaticity varied according to word frequency levels was examined. Automaticity of word recognition was measured in terms of the coefficient of variation of reaction times (CV_<RT>), proposed by Segalowitz and Segalowitz (1993). Overall results showed that word-recognition accuracy and speed had significant effects in differentiating among the three reading proficiency groups, while moderate effects were observed for word-recognition automaticity on them. In other words, the more proficient a person becomes in reading, the more quickly, accurately, and automatically he or she can recognize words. Interestingly, the effects of word-recognition accuracy and speed grew larger when word frequency decreased, while such changes were not observed for word-recognition automaticity. These results suggest that learners need to recognize words with a wider range of frequency--not only accurately but also rapidly and automatically.
著者
前田 啓朗
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
ARELE : annual review of English language education in Japan (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.253-262, 2008-03

This paper reports the practice of English language teaching for the first year university students in a listening class, intending to cooperate classroom teaching and individualized learning. A Web-Based Training (WBT) system is involved in order to overcome some problems which will be easily observed in the classroom teaching. Since each learner has different aptitudes, a certain instruction may be effective for some but ineffective for the others. It is true that instructions should be flexible so as to balance out the students' aptitudes. However, as far as a teacher controls the lessons, there still would be some difficulties for students to commit themselves to learning. Therefore, the present courses are planned to utilize the WBT system, named Gyuto-e, for the purpose of involving students into self-learning. Three kinds of questionnaires, which investigate learner beliefs, learning motivations, and vocabulary learning strategies, are conducted in the beginning and the end of the course. A hierarchical cluster analysis reveals the fact that the TOEIC test scores show there seem to be the positive tendencies compared with the students in other classes as well as that there are successful and unsuccessful learners who seem to show some particular tendencies of learner factors.