著者
羽藤 由美
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.31-40, 1994

This paper examines 'cognitive demands' of tasks as a possible cause of interlanguage(IL) variability. It begins with the definition of cognitive demands, and goes on to investigate their influence on cognitive operations involved in speech production. It will be suggested that the level of cognitive demands may be one of the external determinants of the learner's variable use of linguistic knowledge. This paper then identifies and examines several elements of cognitive demands, while simultaneously seeking to establish an analytic frame for assessing pedagogic tasks in terms of these demands. Such aspects as the degree of abstractions which tasks require the learner to make, and the range of meanings which tasks allow the learner to express, will be discussed. Finally, this paper specifies the danger inherent in 'unrestrained' forms of task-based approaches to second language(L2) teaching, and then suggests that regulating cognitive demands may be one way of evading that danger.
著者
長 加奈子 川瀬 義清
出版者
全国英語教育学会 紀要編集委員会
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.201-215, 2011-03-31 (Released:2017-04-27)

This paper investigates the effectiveness of a cognitive linguistic approach to teaching countable and uncountable English nouns to Japanese learners of English in a classroom setting. For this study, a new teaching method and a worksheet were carefully developed for use in classroom teaching at junior and senior high school levels. Our first study investigated whether the cognitive approach led to significant gains in learning and showed that the students successfully learned the differences between countable and uncountable English nouns through a new teaching method based on the theory of Cognitive Linguistics. A second study was conducted to determine whether the new method was applicable from the teacher's point of view. This new approach was introduced to junior and senior high school teachers during a teacher-training course required for the renewal of a teaching license, and all the teachers who participated in the course were confident that they could teach countable and uncountable nouns without difficulties using this new teaching approach. Based on the results of these two studies, this paper argues that the cognitive linguistic approach to teaching countable and uncountable English nouns is more effective than traditional approaches and that the new approach is practical for administering to junior and senior high school students in Japan.
著者
村尾 玲美
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, pp.1-10, 2004

Numbers of studies on language transfer have been done at phonological, morphological, and syntactic levels, but there is relatively little research done in the area of lexico-semantic where L1 influence is considered to be the most persistent and pervasive. The present study focuses on semantic transfer of verb + noun collocation by intermediate and advanced level Japanese learners of English. Attempts are made to examine (a) whether or not learners at different proficiency levels differ in their performance of language transfer in the domain of lexical collocation, and (b) what the possibilities are that make certain collocates more transferable over other collocates. The results of the Acceptability Judgment Test performed by three different proficiency groups show that even learners at the highest level have difficulty in correctly accepting and rejecting the easy verb collocations that do not have the same patterns in their L1. The findings suggest the importance of negative evidence and the effects of the contrastive approach to teaching collocation in order to develop learners' language proficiency one step further.
著者
Yoshito NISHIMURA Yu TAMURA Kazuhisa HARA
出版者
The Japan Society of English Language Education
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.209-224, 2017-03-31 (Released:2018-04-10)
参考文献数
27

Syntactic complexity has traditionally been measured by “macro-perspective measures,” which provide a paucity of angles from which to examine how learners actually elaborate a sentence. Mixing up a large variety of clauses with only “the number of clauses” or “subordination ratios” could lead to overlooking desired relationships between complexity and proficiency or task manipulation and linguistic performance. The current study attempted to capture the features of writing syntactically complex sentences through “micro-perspective measures,” such as clause types (main clauses, coordinate clauses, adverbial clauses, relative clauses, complement clauses, and non-finite clauses), and differences in learner proficiency levels. Participants were 28 Japanese EFL learners. Proficiency was operationalized via argumentative essay scores. To elicit syntactic knowledge, we offered the participants a specialized task that restricted the number of sentences in describing a plot consisting of six related illustrations. The results revealed that coordinate clauses, relative clauses, and non-finite clauses are more frequently produced in elaborating syntactic structures, irrespective of the writer’s proficiency level. Our findings also indicated that non-finite clauses are a more practical expedient for proficient learners than less proficient ones. Some pedagogical implications are also discussed.
著者
岩中 貴裕 高塚 成信
出版者
The Japan Society of English Language Education
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, pp.121-130, 2007 (Released:2017-04-27)

This study aims to investigate how noticing forms in relevant input presented immediately after output encourages learners of English to take lexical items into their IL systems. Twenty nine university students, classified into 3 proficiency levels, took part in an experiment, in which they worked on guided composition, and then took notes of what forms they had noticed in looking at relevant input presented immediately after output. The participants were asked to work on the same guided composition in the following week to examine how they retained lexical items from the relevant input. The results are: 1) The output-input process leads advanced learners to retain more lexical items; 2) The uptake is promoted when: i) the participants analyze a form in the relevant input syntactically, and/or ii) the participants perceive a form in the model as being in contrast with its counterpart in their own output and realize ungrammatical or less appropriate status of the latter; and 3) The output-input process helps learners gain lexical knowledge on use.
著者
笠原 究
出版者
The Japan Society of English Language Education
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, pp.21-30, 2007 (Released:2017-04-27)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlations between the paper and listening tests of English proficiency administered by the National Center Test for University Admission or Daigaku Nyugakusha Senbatsu Daigaku Nyushi Center Shiken (hereafter the Center Test) in 2006, when the listening test was introduced for the first time. The analyses were conducted based on data from 244 third-grade high school students who took both tests. The results showed that there was a moderate positive correlation between the paper as a whole and the listening tests. A closer examination revealed that the listening test was also moderately correlated with two sections of the paper test: grammatical knowledge and reading comprehension of a narrative. However, there was only a very weak correlation between the listening test and the section on pronunciation, word stress and sentence stress in the paper test Other findings are as follows: (a) The listening test had the same high level of reliability as the paper test; (b) The listening test had the same level of item discrimination but (c) a lower level of item difficulty. Some suggestions for future test construction are drawn from these findings.
著者
田村 祐 原田 結以 加藤 大幾 原 和久 草薙 邦広
出版者
The Japan Society of English Language Education
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.169-184, 2016 (Released:2017-04-05)
参考文献数
26

Among foreign language teachers and researchers, it has been widely acknowledged that grammatical knowledge of a foreign language comprises two types of mental storage. One of the two, explicit knowledge, is quite likely linked to adjectives such as “slow” and “conscious,” whereas the other, implicit knowledge, is associated with words such as “fast” and “unconscious.” The present study challenges this conventional and popularized view, by addressing the consciousness and speed dimensions of Japanese EFL learners’ (N = 24) knowledge about tough movement. We conducted a grammaticality judgment task adopting two experimental paradigms: (a) a subjective measure of consciousness known as the meta-knowledge criterion, and (b) response time modeling. The participants judged the grammaticality of the stimuli under the two conditions, (a) control and (b) tough movement, and described their mental state during judgments (explainable vs. intuitive) trial by trial. We analyzed the dynamics among the recorded judgment responses, reaction times, and responses on the subjective measure. The results supported the hypothesis that the consciousness and speed dimensions intersect obliquely. This means that unconscious knowledge does not entail faster grammatical performance. Some pedagogical implications, particularly in light of English grammar teaching in Japan, are also discussed.
著者
Katsuhisa HONDA Takumi AOYAMA Takahiro TADOKORO Yusuke KIDA
出版者
The Japan Society of English Language Education
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, pp.289-301, 2017-03-31 (Released:2018-04-10)
参考文献数
23

Some Japanese universities introduce an innovative overseas teaching practicum in pre-service training, and suggest quality and ability change for students who enrol in the practicum. The study aims to explore the changes of language teachers’ possible selves (Kubanyiova, 2009; Markus & Nurius, 1986) through the experience of the overseas teaching practicum. This paper provided examples of overseas teaching practicum focused on integrating the skills and knowledge that university students need, and reported the impact of the practicum on teacher trainees’ conceptual change about teaching and on their perceptions of English education. Data were collected using open-ended interviews with the five teacher trainees who participated in the oversea teaching practicum in 2015, and analysed through steps for coding and theorization (SCAT) developed as a qualitative data analysis method (Otani, 2008). It was concluded that the trainees saw the practicum as a positive experience that caused them to increase reflection on and revitalize their teaching. Some changes were noted from pre- to post-practicum in the trainees’ ideal and ought-to selves about learning and teaching English. This paper also discussed the framework of language teacher conceptual change (LTCC) for professional development (Kubanyiova, 2012).
著者
廣森 友人
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.361-372, 2012 (Released:2017-04-24)

Recent research investigating how the motivation to learn English can be enhanced has included several studies that discussed numerous motivational strategies (i.e., methods and techniques to generate and maintain the learners' motivation). However, in order for the outcomes of these studies to be fully utilized in actual classroom settings, they need to be used diagnostically and applied directly to the subsequent educational improvement. This study examined how English learners perceive motivational strategies, and whether instructional practice in keeping with the appraisal of these perceptions influences their motivation toward English learning. The results showed that (1) learners with different motivations appraised the effectiveness of motivational strategies in different ways, and (2) less motivated learners seemed to benefit the most from the instructional practice using motivation diagnosis as references. Based on the results, some educational implications and directions for future research are provided.
著者
高田 智子
出版者
全国英語教育学会 紀要編集委員会
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, pp.231-240, 2008 (Released:2017-04-27)

Two groups of Japanese EFL learners were tracked and compared in their English communicative skills at three phases of secondary education: 7th, 9th, and 11th grades. One group learned English for three years in elementary school (ES) whereas the other did not. Quantitative analysis showed no statistical differences between the two groups at any of the three phases, suggesting that long-term effects of teaching a foreign language in elementary school (FLES) may not be expected. Qualitative analysis showed that FLES may produce mixed results. Some FLES students are willing to put efforts into language learning, whereas some others seem to have the perception that acquiring basic oral communication skills is the ultimate objective and do not seem to be motivated to go beyond that level. Thus, this paper suggests that FLES can be something of a double-edged sword.
著者
金山 幸平 笠原 究
出版者
全国英語教育学会 紀要編集委員会
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, pp.217-232, 2016 (Released:2017-04-05)
参考文献数
31

The present study aims to compare the effects of expanding and equally-spaced retrieval practice on long-term L2 vocabulary retention. Since the discovery of Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve, expanding retrieval practice has been considered more effective than equally-spaced retrieval practice. Learners have been encouraged to review target items immediately after the first learning session, and then extend intervals between study sessions gradually, rather than have the same interval period between each session. The present study challenges this assumption. Participants in Group A (n = 34) learned 20 target words under the expanding condition (Day 1, 1, 8 and 22), while those in Group B (n = 19) learned the same 20 target words under the equally-spaced condition (Day 1, 8, 15 and 22). Twenty-one days after the learning session (Day 43), both groups took a delayed post-test, where they were asked to recall Japanese meanings for the English target words. This study revealed that the expanding group showed significantly better results than the equally-spaced group just after the first review session. However, there was no significant difference in long-term retention between the two forms of spaced learning, as long as both groups were given the chance to have four learning sessions.
著者
中村 純作
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.186-200, 1990

In the field of computerized English teaching, whether CAI, CALL or CMI, there arises the problem of representing numerical data in a form which can be easily grasped by both students and teachers. This is because the amount of accumulated data becomes so huge that it sometimes is very difficult to discover the tendency hidden in the data. In this article, some ways of graphically representing numerical data already installed in the CMI system developed by the author are reviewed, and the possibilities of a new method called Chernoff Faces, introduced to deal with the problem of representing the results of questionnaires, are explored.
著者
渡邉 時夫 酒井 英樹 浦野 研
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.101-110, 1996

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the characteristics of teacher talk and the development of spontaneous production ability in the Japanese-speaking children learning English in a kindergarten immersion program. This was done by comparing the teacher talk of two different English-speaking teachers, L and R. These two classes were almost the same in terms of size, children's age, and curriculum. A comparison of the children's L2 development in the two classes revealed that the children in one class produced more creative English, whereas the children in the other used more set phrases. It was hypothesized that this difference may have been due to a difference in quality of L's and R's teacher talk. Analysis of their teacher talk confirmed this hypothesis.
著者
佐藤 大
出版者
全国英語教育学会
雑誌
全国英語教育学会紀要 (ISSN:13448560)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, pp.91-100, 2006

This study aims to investigate English writing and speaking abilities through grammatical knowledge. The first step to cultivate learners who can use English productively is to understand the use of grammatical items when they want to express something in English. Junior high school students are beginner learners of English. They always make use of the knowledge which they learned in English grammar classes. However, they can not communicate with the ALT (Assistant Language Teacher) well. In this study, I tried to focus on teaching grammar to lead to communication. After learning grammar, students were forced to make sentences and speak using the grammatical items in regular English classes. Finally, an oral test and a written test were conducted to examine whether students can write or speak English using the grammatical item correctly. The future tense and "There is ..., there are..." were used in this study. This study attempts to examine the relationship between grammatical knowledge, writing and speaking abilities in a junior high school setting. 60 oral tests and written tests by 60 students were analyzed. As a result, some features on grammar were found.