著者
吉岡 良昌 Yoshimasa YOSHIOKA
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = The Journal of the Graduate School of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.1-16, 2014-03-15

At the starting point of the educational reform after the World War Ⅱ in Japan,Shigeru Nanbara, President of the Tokyo University, continued to insist that human Revolution is needed to complete the democratic society in Japan. Although the Constitution and the Basic Act on Education has been established as the system Of Japanese government, it was the most important task that the human being oneself must be reformed toward the new person to maintain the new system. It was an ideal educational goal for Japanese to become to attain to “the full development of the personality” as written at the First article of the Basic Act on Education. Arimasa Mori who was a famous philosopher following after the Nanbara’s vision, has been trying to comlete the task of the human revolution in Japan by the way of his own philosophical way. His conclusion was that Japanese individuality and Japanese democratic society must be reformed and confirmed by the Christian Faith.
著者
今野 茂充 Shigemitsu KONNO
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = The Journal of the Graduate School of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.21-41, 2013-03-15

The debate on the origins of the First World War remains one of the most contested issues in the study of International History and International Relations (IR). Considering that almost a century has passed since the outbreak of the war, it is remarkable that the latest historiography, based on newly available primary sources, can still revitalize the debate and undermine some of the orthodoxinterpretations of the origins of the war. The controversy over the share of responsibilities for the outbreak of the war is typical of this trend. Instead of excessively focusing on Germany as the single prime mover in 1914, many recent historical researches consider a reapportionment of responsibilities among the European great powers for starting the Great War. Taking recent developments into account, this article seeks to examine and evaluate the role of Russia in the origins of the war from a theoretical perspective. The first section of the article traces the development of tensions between Russia and the Central Powers. The second section examines whether major IR theories, such as the offense-defense theory and the preventive war theory, can apply to the Russia's case from the defeat of Russo-Japanese war to the outbreak of the First World War. This article does not intend to demonstrate that Russia should bear the sole responsibility forstarting the First World War. However, even this brief study proves convincingly that Russia played a greater role on the outbreak of the First World War than is generally acknowledged in the recent literature of IR theories.
著者
小山 友 Tomo OYAMA
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
no.9, pp.95-112, 2013

The rise of the new radical right in Western European political parties started in the late 1980s and is now expanding across Europe. While causes of the rise of the new radical right vary in each county, a common characteristic of many radical right parties is their exclusive stance toward the immigration issue. Has the expanding support for these radical right parties across Europe resulted from anincreasing sense of xenophobia among European citizens against immigrants? Or has it resulted from the radical right parties' usual tactic of gaining public support by expressing negative opinions on the immigration issue in order to acquire political legitimacy? This paper aims to clarify the rise of the radical right in the Netherlands in and after 2000. Focusing on two parties, Lijst Pim Fortuyn and Partij voor de Vrijheid, the study identifies characteristics of the radical right in Netherlands. Especially, it reviews and examines changes in Dutch society, including globalization and the expansion of the EU since the 1990s, in order to trace structural changes in the Dutch political system and examine the ways in which such changes are linked to the rise of the radical right. The paper also examines causes of the expansion of public support for the new radical right: whyit has been able to gain public support by proclaiming itself to be anti-immigration and anti-Muslim, despite the fact that most radical right candidates have historically been avoided by most citizens and treated as fringe candidates since the Second World War. In addition, the paper clarifies how the immigration issue in Dutch society has affected the radical right and how the radical right has gainedthe support of voters, including the arguments used by the radical right to acquire political legitimacy for its anti-immigration and anti-Muslim stance.
著者
今野 茂充 Shigemitsu KONNO
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = The Journal of the Graduate School of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.21-41, 2013-03-15 (Released:2013-07-08)

The debate on the origins of the First World War remains one of the most contested issues in the study of International History and International Relations (IR). Considering that almost a century has passed since the outbreak of the war, it is remarkable that the latest historiography, based on newly available primary sources, can still revitalize the debate and undermine some of the orthodoxinterpretations of the origins of the war. The controversy over the share of responsibilities for the outbreak of the war is typical of this trend. Instead of excessively focusing on Germany as the single prime mover in 1914, many recent historical researches consider a reapportionment of responsibilities among the European great powers for starting the Great War. Taking recent developments into account, this article seeks to examine and evaluate the role of Russia in the origins of the war from a theoretical perspective. The first section of the article traces the development of tensions between Russia and the Central Powers. The second section examines whether major IR theories, such as the offense-defense theory and the preventive war theory, can apply to the Russia's case from the defeat of Russo-Japanese war to the outbreak of the First World War. This article does not intend to demonstrate that Russia should bear the sole responsibility forstarting the First World War. However, even this brief study proves convincingly that Russia played a greater role on the outbreak of the First World War than is generally acknowledged in the recent literature of IR theories.
著者
石津 珠子
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.17-25, 2018-03-15

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the significance of aesthetic education in art education.In general, art education has two aspects:, to get artistic skill for art works and, to cultivate personality through art.Contemporary concepts of aesthetic education rely heavily on Friedrich von Schiller’s treatise on aesthetic theory “Uber die asthetische Erziehung des Menschen, in einer Reihe von Briefen written in 1795”.We have usually a tendency to emotional feeling and rationality thinking in action.Since the ancient Greece and Rome eras, we have traditional thought of the whole human being, that is “kaloka gatia.”, “arma bella”, and “schone Seele.”.The concept of the harmony of the human being lead to the conception of aesthetic human transformation through aesthetic education in Schiller’s treatise.Schiller’s ideas exerted various influences on art education. One example is the work of Herbert Read, whose “Education Through Art was published in 1943”.The aesthetic education theory of Rudolf Seitz was also influenced by Schiller’s theory. His concept of theory is basic in very practice and creative action. Especially in childhood, a lot of experience with sensibility becomes very important basis of creativity, and makes an aesthetic human transformation through aesthetic education.
著者
清原 舞子
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = Journal of the graduate of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.95-117, 2017-03-15

The purpose of the present study is to examine aspects of creative regression from the viewpoint of ego boundary, sence of reality and superior sensation, which are supposed to be signposts of pathological regression.Based on the Graphic Rorschach test, I have newly developed a Digital Rorschach test, introducing an experimental examination for use on a tablet computer.On research focusing on artists, as the characteristic of Rorschach, the more total reaction numbers, more Dd%, less F+%, more Σc, more ΣC・SumC, more At% have appeared.As a result of using the Fisher and Cleveland (1958) “–body image boundaries score–”, the artists group is found to have higher barrier and penetration scores as well. The aspects of permeable and impermeable ego boundaries were suggested by Landis (1970) as the “–resilience of boundaries–”.Furthermore, as a result of dividing artists into three groups (musicians, painters, and performers), the musician group has a mostly equal B score and P score, the painter group has a higher B score, and the performer group has a higher P score. Also, it has been suggested that P score is related to concept-dominance – blot-dominance by D.G.R.In previous research, as the classified result of the concept-dominance of normal-adults, “the balance or imbalance between blot and concept” has mostly dominated. In this study, however, the Mx type “mixture imbalance between blot and concept,” –which is not usually seen in normal-adults, has been seen in about 65 % of the artists group. The Mx type has been associated with schizophrenia.Finally, a qualitative view has been added based on the ideas of “–deviant verbalization–” and “–confabulation– ”.
著者
松田 千広
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = The Journal of the Graduate School of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.47-65, 2015-03-15

Assuming that people have three predominant perception and sensation systems, visual, auditory and kinestic, the research examined the relationship between stress coping style and the superiority of the three respective perception and sensation systems. The research conducted a survey of 59 women college students, postgraduate students and adults varying in age from 18 to 51.First of all, it was confirmed that the women could be classified into three groups, namely “visual predominant group”, “auditory predominant group” and “kinestic predominant group.” As for the method of measuring and classifying the superiority, it was found that previous research using boththe “eye movement method” and the “questionnaire method” were inappropriate. Therefore, based on cognition linguistics, this research attempted to classify the superiority of perception and sensation by means of “predicative words,” which form a sensory language. As a result, the women could be successfully classified into the three superiority groups, “visual predominant,” “auditory predominant,” and “kinestic predominant” based on the predicative words.Then, the research used “Tri-axial Coping Scale” (Kamimura, 1995) to statistically examine the relationship between each superiority group and the stress coping actions. As per the examination, it was found that “kinestic predominant group” shows a high “activeness” for problem solving.The classification of the superiority groups of perception and sensation using predicative words has potential as an assessment method in clinical situations where other tools and devices cannot be used. This research therefore provides a new perspective that can be utilized for clinical activities in future.
著者
深井 智朗
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = Journal of the graduate of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.65-80, 2017-03-15

Although it has been well known that Erich Fromm and Paul Tillich were close in Frankfurt as colleagues and in the United States as political refugees, the sources and letters that illuminate their relationship have been few. However, recently discovered letters and sources demonstrate that they continued to form a close relationship through “the Council for a Democratic Germany” and also in private study groups in the United States. By analyzing these letters, this paper clarifies the intellectual exchanges of these two men in their period of exile.
著者
吉岡 早希 Saki YOSHIOKA
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = The Journal of the Graduate School of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.95-111, 2014-03-15

This paper describes cross-sectoral dialogues concerning history textbook revisions aimed at promoting a common historical awareness in the European Union and examines the ways in which this process has affected European integration. Initiated as a mutual assessment of textbooks in the inter-war period aimed at preventing prejudice against other European states, history textbook dialogues eventually evolved into arguments about the history education of citizens of the European community and the multilateral community in the post Cold War aimed at fostering collaborative development. By analyzing previous research and official activity reports of the respective actors involved in the process, including Germany, France, Poland, the Council of Europe, UNESCO, the Georg-Eckert Institute, and EUROCLIO, this study demonstrates the limitations of the activities aimed at enhancing a common historical awareness. This research suggests that existing difficulties and obstacles need to be overcome before history textbook dialogues can make possible the establishment of mutual understanding among the European states. It concludes that continuous observation and further study are required
著者
吉岡 早希 Saki YOSHIOKA
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
no.10, pp.95-111, 2014

This paper describes cross-sectoral dialogues concerning history textbook revisions aimed at promoting a common historical awareness in the European Union and examines the ways in which this process has affected European integration. Initiated as a mutual assessment of textbooks in the inter-war period aimed at preventing prejudice against other European states, history textbook dialogues eventually evolved into arguments about the history education of citizens of the European community and the multilateral community in the post Cold War aimed at fostering collaborative development. By analyzing previous research and official activity reports of the respective actors involved in the process, including Germany, France, Poland, the Council of Europe, UNESCO, the Georg-Eckert Institute, and EUROCLIO, this study demonstrates the limitations of the activities aimed at enhancing a common historical awareness. This research suggests that existing difficulties and obstacles need to be overcome before history textbook dialogues can make possible the establishment of mutual understanding among the European states. It concludes that continuous observation and further study are required
著者
三上 章 Akira MIKAMI
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.1-19, 2013-03-15

This article aims to clarify how Platonism functioned in the thinking of John Smith in his theological and philosophical work, A Discourse Concerning the True Way or Method of Attaining to Divine Knowledge. Smith's Platonism consists not so much in a legalistic and petrified ideology as in incessant motion and ascent, driven by the love of wisdom and the ultimate truth. This basic mentality is reflected in Smith's understandings of "innate ideas" as being by nature resident within everyone's soul and making it possible to know God, of "Divinity" or "Theology" as "a Divine life" rather than "a Divine science," of the seat and place where the divine truth lies as having to be sought within man's soul, not outside of man, of the purification of man's soul as a prerequisite for attaining to divine knowledge, of warning against premature judgments in order not to fall into errors of dogmatism and fanaticism, and of the way of virtue as the formation of virtue and goodness within man's soul, a true living sense of them, and the vision of God with the eyes of a purified intellect (nous). Smith elucidates the ascents to divine knowledge in accordance with the explanation of the Stoic Platonist Epictetus. He shows that a man's soul progresses step by step to the upper dimensions ofcontemplating the truth in parallel with the degrees of the purification of the soul. Ascents start from the stage of an obscure opinion (doxa) to the stage of a more distinct opinion, then proceed to the lower level of science (episte-me-), and ultimately attain to divine knowledge. This is the way upward which is to be trodden by "the true and sober Christian who lives in Him who is Life itself, and is enlightened by Him who is the Truth itself, and is made partaker of the DivineUnction, and knoweth all things." This was nothing other than the way that John Smith, Platonist Christian, trod and that took him to the home above.
著者
三上 章 Akira MIKAMI
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
no.9, pp.1-19, 2013

This article aims to clarify how Platonism functioned in the thinking of John Smith in his theological and philosophical work, A Discourse Concerning the True Way or Method of Attaining to Divine Knowledge. Smith's Platonism consists not so much in a legalistic and petrified ideology as in incessant motion and ascent, driven by the love of wisdom and the ultimate truth. This basic mentality is reflected in Smith's understandings of "innate ideas" as being by nature resident within everyone's soul and making it possible to know God, of "Divinity" or "Theology" as "a Divine life" rather than "a Divine science," of the seat and place where the divine truth lies as having to be sought within man's soul, not outside of man, of the purification of man's soul as a prerequisite for attaining to divine knowledge, of warning against premature judgments in order not to fall into errors of dogmatism and fanaticism, and of the way of virtue as the formation of virtue and goodness within man's soul, a true living sense of them, and the vision of God with the eyes of a purified intellect (nous). Smith elucidates the ascents to divine knowledge in accordance with the explanation of the Stoic Platonist Epictetus. He shows that a man's soul progresses step by step to the upper dimensions ofcontemplating the truth in parallel with the degrees of the purification of the soul. Ascents start from the stage of an obscure opinion (doxa) to the stage of a more distinct opinion, then proceed to the lower level of science (episte-me-), and ultimately attain to divine knowledge. This is the way upward which is to be trodden by "the true and sober Christian who lives in Him who is Life itself, and is enlightened by Him who is the Truth itself, and is made partaker of the DivineUnction, and knoweth all things." This was nothing other than the way that John Smith, Platonist Christian, trod and that took him to the home above.