著者
小山 友 Tomo OYAMA
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = The Journal of the Graduate School of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.95-112, 2013-03-15

The rise of the new radical right in Western European political parties started in the late 1980s and is now expanding across Europe. While causes of the rise of the new radical right vary in each county, a common characteristic of many radical right parties is their exclusive stance toward the immigration issue. Has the expanding support for these radical right parties across Europe resulted from anincreasing sense of xenophobia among European citizens against immigrants? Or has it resulted from the radical right parties’ usual tactic of gaining public support by expressing negative opinions on the immigration issue in order to acquire political legitimacy? This paper aims to clarify the rise of the radical right in the Netherlands in and after 2000. Focusing on two parties, Lijst Pim Fortuyn and Partij voor de Vrijheid, the study identifies characteristics of the radical right in Netherlands. Especially, it reviews and examines changes in Dutch society, including globalization and the expansion of the EU since the 1990s, in order to trace structural changes in the Dutch political system and examine the ways in which such changes are linked to the rise of the radical right. The paper also examines causes of the expansion of public support for the new radical right: whyit has been able to gain public support by proclaiming itself to be anti-immigration and anti-Muslim, despite the fact that most radical right candidates have historically been avoided by most citizens and treated as fringe candidates since the Second World War. In addition, the paper clarifies how the immigration issue in Dutch society has affected the radical right and how the radical right has gainedthe support of voters, including the arguments used by the radical right to acquire political legitimacy for its anti-immigration and anti-Muslim stance.
著者
松田 千広
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = The Journal of the Graduate School of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.47-65, 2015-03-15

Assuming that people have three predominant perception and sensation systems, visual, auditory and kinestic, the research examined the relationship between stress coping style and the superiority of the three respective perception and sensation systems. The research conducted a survey of 59 women college students, postgraduate students and adults varying in age from 18 to 51.First of all, it was confirmed that the women could be classified into three groups, namely “visual predominant group”, “auditory predominant group” and “kinestic predominant group.” As for the method of measuring and classifying the superiority, it was found that previous research using boththe “eye movement method” and the “questionnaire method” were inappropriate. Therefore, based on cognition linguistics, this research attempted to classify the superiority of perception and sensation by means of “predicative words,” which form a sensory language. As a result, the women could be successfully classified into the three superiority groups, “visual predominant,” “auditory predominant,” and “kinestic predominant” based on the predicative words.Then, the research used “Tri-axial Coping Scale” (Kamimura, 1995) to statistically examine the relationship between each superiority group and the stress coping actions. As per the examination, it was found that “kinestic predominant group” shows a high “activeness” for problem solving.The classification of the superiority groups of perception and sensation using predicative words has potential as an assessment method in clinical situations where other tools and devices cannot be used. This research therefore provides a new perspective that can be utilized for clinical activities in future.
著者
吉岡 良昌 Yoshimasa YOSHIOKA
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = The Journal of the Graduate School of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.1-16, 2014-03-15

At the starting point of the educational reform after the World War Ⅱ in Japan,Shigeru Nanbara, President of the Tokyo University, continued to insist that human Revolution is needed to complete the democratic society in Japan. Although the Constitution and the Basic Act on Education has been established as the system Of Japanese government, it was the most important task that the human being oneself must be reformed toward the new person to maintain the new system. It was an ideal educational goal for Japanese to become to attain to “the full development of the personality” as written at the First article of the Basic Act on Education. Arimasa Mori who was a famous philosopher following after the Nanbara’s vision, has been trying to comlete the task of the human revolution in Japan by the way of his own philosophical way. His conclusion was that Japanese individuality and Japanese democratic society must be reformed and confirmed by the Christian Faith.
著者
今野 茂充 Shigemitsu KONNO
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = The Journal of the Graduate School of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.21-41, 2013-03-15

The debate on the origins of the First World War remains one of the most contested issues in the study of International History and International Relations (IR). Considering that almost a century has passed since the outbreak of the war, it is remarkable that the latest historiography, based on newly available primary sources, can still revitalize the debate and undermine some of the orthodoxinterpretations of the origins of the war. The controversy over the share of responsibilities for the outbreak of the war is typical of this trend. Instead of excessively focusing on Germany as the single prime mover in 1914, many recent historical researches consider a reapportionment of responsibilities among the European great powers for starting the Great War. Taking recent developments into account, this article seeks to examine and evaluate the role of Russia in the origins of the war from a theoretical perspective. The first section of the article traces the development of tensions between Russia and the Central Powers. The second section examines whether major IR theories, such as the offense-defense theory and the preventive war theory, can apply to the Russia's case from the defeat of Russo-Japanese war to the outbreak of the First World War. This article does not intend to demonstrate that Russia should bear the sole responsibility forstarting the First World War. However, even this brief study proves convincingly that Russia played a greater role on the outbreak of the First World War than is generally acknowledged in the recent literature of IR theories.
著者
横倉 聡
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = The journal of the Graduate of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
no.16, pp.59-74, 2020

With the adoption of the Restructuring Plan for Mental Healthcare and Medical Welfare in September 2004, regional transition and support for the elderly with mental disorders in their community life have been implemented. These measures encourage the discharge of the elderly from hospitals and settlement in their local communities.This paper describes the present situation and problems concerning support given to the elderly living in nursing homes, which became one of the destinations in regional transition for the mentally-handicapped elderly with a long hospitalization.It is clear that such nursing homes are providing the elderly with ingenious support, despite great difficulties resulting from staff shortage.
著者
小坂 和子
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.45-51, 2008

アイヌ文化において、 「神(カムイ)の世界」と「人間の世界」の相互透過性には、中沢の「対象性」理論が機能していることが認められる。この二者関係の心理的変転のなかに、無意識由来の「交流不可能なるエネルギー対象」の出現がみられる。生活することの主体としての意識が、全体性のバランスを回復する方向性にあって、これを受け入れ、享受し、送り届ける、という内的作業の象徴的意味を拡充させつつ、分析心理学的考察を試みた。
著者
陶山 義雄
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.43-56, 2007-03-15

"Do not give dogs what is holy; and do not throw your pearls before swine, lest they trample them underfoot and turn to attack you. "Matthew 7:6 (RSV) This enigmatic aphorism, which appears in the New Testament only in Matthew (a second form is also preserved in Thomas 93:1~2) has frequently been discussed because of its inimical nature and in the context of the Sermon on the Mount, or of the Gospel of Matthew. This saying betrays Jewish esoteric instructions to set them apart from the Gentiles : namely the holy rituals of the Jews must not be profaned by dogs and swine (gentiles). If the author of the Gospel received this saying from independent source material either oral or written, it must have been transmitted in the Jewish Christian community where he was raised. Matthew 7:6 is significantly so dissimilar to the teachings of Jesus, and of the contents of the Gospel of Matthew, that it is regarded as the crux interpretum. The first half of the saying, "Do not give what is holy to the dogs..." is cited in the Didache: The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles 9:5. In order to sanctify their rite of eucharist, the author of this Christian instructional manual asserts that the unbaptized are dogs and are not accepted at the table of the Lord's Supper. The difficulty is whether the author of Matthew held intolerant sectarian beliefs and set it in the Sermon on the Mount. U. Luz and several other scholars abandoned their efforts on its interpretation, because it had no apparent connection to the rest of the Gospel of Matthew. A majority of the scholars, however, regard 7:6 functioning as a footnote to the preceding pericope, vv. 1~5 ("Judge not"). By placing 7:6 after the stern precept of not judging others, the evangelist attempts to neutralize extreme interpretations of the saying. From those (dogs and swine) who are not ready to accept the authentic teaching of Jesus (what is holy=pearls), it must be kept secret. This essay attempts to shed new light on 7:6 from the perspective of the Golden Rule (7:12). The author of this essay will investigate the evangelist's editorial work, and clarify what he intended to convey. The author of Matthew places this prejudiced sectarian aphorism prior to the Golden Rule : 1. An Intolerant Custom to be transformed (Dogs and Swine) by the Golden Rule (7:6) 2. Exhortation to Constant Pursuit and Prayer in Response to the Grace of God, the Father (7:7~11) 3. The Golden Rule (7:12) Presumably the evangelist grew up among Jewish Christians, therefore he could share the esoteric view of 7:6, but as the Christianity and its gospel message spread into the gentile world, he recognized the need of a more accepting and open fellowship. In order to respond to the situation of his community, the evangelist seemed to have two goals : one primarily for the Jews, and another for the gentiles (Matt.15:21~28). He sought to overcome the intolerance of the Jewish Christians, and transform it to embrace world mission. This explains why he concludes his Gospel with the Great Commission of the risen Christ for world mission (28:16~20). and This also clarifies the section on Galilee of the Gentiles (Matt.4:15; Isaiah 9:1~2), where Jesus started his ministry. Likewise, the Gospel of Matthew describes astrologers, undoubtedly gentile, from the East who came to worship the infant Jesus when he was born (2:1~12). After 7:6 is seen through the Golden Rule, the esoteric saying fits in well with the entire message of the Sermon on the Mount as follows : The Scene and the Audience (5:1~2) I. Invitation to the Blessings of Jesus (Beatitudes) (6:3~12) II. Remarkable Features of the Followers (Christians) (5:13~16) Discipleship as the Salt of the Earth (5:13), and the Light of the World (5:14~16) III. Christian Righteousness (5:17~6:18) 1. Prologue (A Greater Righteousness Supplanting an Old Jewish One) (5:17~20) 2. Exposition of the Greater Righteousness (5:21~6:18) A. The New Orders versus the Old Commandments (5:21~5:48) i) Against Anger (5:21~26) ii) Against Adultery and Divorce (5:27~32) iii) Against Oaths (5:33~37) iv) Against Retaliation (5:38~42) v) Love of One's Enemies (5:43~48) B. The New Rituals versus the Old Ones (6:1~6:18) i) On Giving to Charity (6:1~4) ii) On Prayer (6:5~15) (The Lord's Prayer6:9~13) iii) On Fasting (6:16~18) IV. The Christian Ethics (6:19~7:11) 1. Serve God, and not Mammon (6:19~24) 2. The Highest Way of Life (Responding Life to the Care of God) (6:25~34) 3. Unlimited Pursuit of Internal Sanctions (7:1~5) 4. An Intolerant Custom to be Transformed (7:6) 5. Exhortation to Constant Pursuit and Prayer in Response to the Grace of God (7:7~11) Concluding Summary THE GOLDEN RULE (7:12) V. Finale (7:13~27) 1. Enter this Narrow Gate for Salvation, or Else to Destruction (7:13~14) 2. Beware of the False Prophets(7:15~16) 3. How to tell Good Trees (Prophets) from the False Trees (7:17~20) 4. Final Judgment (The Kingdom of Heaven, or Hell) (7:21~23) 5. Concluding Exhortation with the Parable of the Two Houses (the House Built on Rock, and the House Built on the Sand) (7:24~27) Concluding Rubric: Reaction of the Crowds 7:28~29 Adherence to the Golden Rule has the potential to end hostilities, enmities, or strife by intolerant religious sects throughout the world. We learn this from the survey of Matthew 7:6 as the author of Matthew places it before the Golden Rule.
著者
小山 友 Tomo OYAMA
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
no.9, pp.95-112, 2013

The rise of the new radical right in Western European political parties started in the late 1980s and is now expanding across Europe. While causes of the rise of the new radical right vary in each county, a common characteristic of many radical right parties is their exclusive stance toward the immigration issue. Has the expanding support for these radical right parties across Europe resulted from anincreasing sense of xenophobia among European citizens against immigrants? Or has it resulted from the radical right parties' usual tactic of gaining public support by expressing negative opinions on the immigration issue in order to acquire political legitimacy? This paper aims to clarify the rise of the radical right in the Netherlands in and after 2000. Focusing on two parties, Lijst Pim Fortuyn and Partij voor de Vrijheid, the study identifies characteristics of the radical right in Netherlands. Especially, it reviews and examines changes in Dutch society, including globalization and the expansion of the EU since the 1990s, in order to trace structural changes in the Dutch political system and examine the ways in which such changes are linked to the rise of the radical right. The paper also examines causes of the expansion of public support for the new radical right: whyit has been able to gain public support by proclaiming itself to be anti-immigration and anti-Muslim, despite the fact that most radical right candidates have historically been avoided by most citizens and treated as fringe candidates since the Second World War. In addition, the paper clarifies how the immigration issue in Dutch society has affected the radical right and how the radical right has gainedthe support of voters, including the arguments used by the radical right to acquire political legitimacy for its anti-immigration and anti-Muslim stance.
著者
稲垣 大紀
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, pp.121-135, 2006-03-15

This thesis summarizes fact-finding studies and the history of disputes concerning the Nanking Massacre that broke out in 1937. The center of the dispute today concerns the scale of damage (the number of those killed) in the massacre, but there is more to it than that. The author made a thorough investigation into the truth of the atrocity by tracing its cause back to the Second Shanghai Incident and focusing attention upon the Nanking occupation and post-conquest activities by the Japanese Army. The author estimates the number of people slain to be approximately 40,000 at the maximum, and discusses the essence of and questions raised by the subject matter by taking account of the history of relevant disputes to date.
著者
Sippel Patricia
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.23-41, 2007-03-15

1909年(明治42年)夏、秋田県内の3新聞社が、東京などの新聞雑誌記者十数名を秋田県に招待した。目的は、秋田県の経済的・文化的な状況を実際に見て、読者に伝えてもらう機会を提供することであった。一行のうち新渡戸稲造、中野正剛、永田新之允など15名が約束通り体験記を記し、これは同年『知られたる秋田』として刊行された。この秋田観光記者団はいくつかの観点から興味深い。第一、全国的に傑出した記者らの旅行記が即座にアピールされた点である。第二、秋田県の近代経済・文化の発展のつぶさな観察にある。第三に最も興味深いのは、1909年の観光は、近代日本における中心(中央政権・主要都市)と地方の関係についての問題を提起するという点である。明治時代の秋田を含め東北地方として知られるようになった6県は、全国的にあまり認識も理解もされていなかった。中央政府や専門家らは東北地方の経済成長が遅いことを懸念し、いわゆる「東北問題」について論じた。東北地方内の識者は自立と繁栄をもたらす発展モデルを見出して「後進」のイメージを払拭しようと必死になった。本稿は、1909年の秋田観光とは、秋田県の指導者らが「東北問題」の根強い認識を克服するために講じた試みであったとを論ずる。彼らは「問題」ある地方の一部としての秋田に対するネガティブな認識を払拭し、豊かな自然と目覚ましい産業発展というポジティブな認識に変えようとした。世界中の経済先進国で地方の生き残りが議論されている今日、1909年の秋田観光は、地方が活力を持つことは当然でも簡単でもなく、地方の内外における多大な努力の成果であったことを語っている。
著者
今野 茂充 Shigemitsu KONNO
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = The Journal of the Graduate School of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.21-41, 2013-03-15 (Released:2013-07-08)

The debate on the origins of the First World War remains one of the most contested issues in the study of International History and International Relations (IR). Considering that almost a century has passed since the outbreak of the war, it is remarkable that the latest historiography, based on newly available primary sources, can still revitalize the debate and undermine some of the orthodoxinterpretations of the origins of the war. The controversy over the share of responsibilities for the outbreak of the war is typical of this trend. Instead of excessively focusing on Germany as the single prime mover in 1914, many recent historical researches consider a reapportionment of responsibilities among the European great powers for starting the Great War. Taking recent developments into account, this article seeks to examine and evaluate the role of Russia in the origins of the war from a theoretical perspective. The first section of the article traces the development of tensions between Russia and the Central Powers. The second section examines whether major IR theories, such as the offense-defense theory and the preventive war theory, can apply to the Russia's case from the defeat of Russo-Japanese war to the outbreak of the First World War. This article does not intend to demonstrate that Russia should bear the sole responsibility forstarting the First World War. However, even this brief study proves convincingly that Russia played a greater role on the outbreak of the First World War than is generally acknowledged in the recent literature of IR theories.
著者
島 創平
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.43-51, 2005-04-01

In the scene of Paul's trial before the members of Sanhedrin, Paul called out, "Brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees."(Acts of the Apostles 23:6). Some scholars comment on this statement as Paul's tactics. But J. Jervell says that this statement is not tactics but "Zeugnis". That is, Luke, the author of Acts, depicts Paul as a "Pharisaic Christian". So after his conversion, Paul remained faithful to the Jewish law and he had the hope in the resurrection of the dead. On the other hand, in his own letter, Paul looks on his former life as a Pharisee as "rubbish" (The Letter to the Philippians 3:8). But E. P. Sanders says that Paul did not have one single theology regarding the law. In The Letter to the Romans Paul regards the law as Sin (chapter 6). But on the other hand, for the most part he agrees with the behavior which the law requires. His own views of proper behavior, both 'ethical' and 'cultic'. were Jewish to the core. Paul the Apostle shared many of the characteristics of Paul the Pharisee. Thus, early Christianity and Judaism of those days did not always oppose each other. The relationship between them should be re-examined more carefully.
著者
飽戸 弘
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.13-23, 2005-04-01

The author tries to discuss and analyze the impact and influence that mass media reporting had on the decision - making processes of people's voting behavior in the United States presidential election in 2004, primarily through the use of polling data. First, I would like to describe the various events prepared and produced by both the Democratic and Republican Parties and their campaigners and the electorates' responses to them, at the time of the primary elections in each state, at the time of the national conventions of both parties, and at the time of the three successive TV debates, focusing on the impact of these media events and their media coverage. Second, I will discuss the election results and the reporting of popular votes in November. It is said that there were considerable discrepancies between the predictions over the election tumouts by mass media and the actual tumouts. I will try to discuss some reasons of these gaps. In concluding these discussions, we can analyze the enormous impact of media on the decision - making processes of the electorate. Furthermore, through this analysis, we will be able to propose some revisions and reforms of the present system of the U.S. Presidential Election, following the discussion of a previous study on presidential election on 2000 <cf. Akuto, 2002>.
著者
山元 恵理子
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
no.4, pp.67-80, 2008

Japan and Russia are in dispute over the Northern Territories (Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai Shoto) in the Chishima Archipelago held by Russia since 1945. Although this issue will be solved by the governments of both Japan and Russia, there has also been since 1992 a system of so-called "Interchange without Passports / Visas", or unofficial diplomacy by citizens of Japan and Russia in the Northern Territories. This system has been crowned with great success, especially after the Hokkaido Tohooki Earthquake occurred in 1994. The first group to deliver necessities of life to Russians in Shikotan was not the Russian government, but the group of Japanese former residents. Since that time, the Russian residents have changed their sentiment and now say that they may be able to live a life together there. We can say that this "Interchange without Passports / Visas" has helped to improve their mental infrastructure. This thesis is not only makes use of the academic analysis of the former research, but it is also based on original interviews of former residents, diplomats, Russian residents, and Japanese teachers. Moreover, it reflects the author's own inspection, conducted through participation in the "Interchange without Passports / Visas" in 2005 and 2006.
著者
清原 舞子
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
no.13, pp.95-117, 2017

The purpose of the present study is to examine aspects of creative regression from the viewpoint of ego boundary, sence of reality and superior sensation, which are supposed to be signposts of pathological regression.Based on the Graphic Rorschach test, I have newly developed a Digital Rorschach test, introducing an experimental examination for use on a tablet computer.On research focusing on artists, as the characteristic of Rorschach, the more total reaction numbers, more Dd%, less F+%, more Σc, more ΣC・SumC, more At% have appeared.As a result of using the Fisher and Cleveland (1958) "–body image boundaries score–", the artists group is found to have higher barrier and penetration scores as well. The aspects of permeable and impermeable ego boundaries were suggested by Landis (1970) as the "–resilience of boundaries–".Furthermore, as a result of dividing artists into three groups (musicians, painters, and performers), the musician group has a mostly equal B score and P score, the painter group has a higher B score, and the performer group has a higher P score. Also, it has been suggested that P score is related to concept-dominance – blot-dominance by D.G.R.In previous research, as the classified result of the concept-dominance of normal-adults, "the balance or imbalance between blot and concept" has mostly dominated. In this study, however, the Mx type "mixture imbalance between blot and concept," –which is not usually seen in normal-adults, has been seen in about 65 % of the artists group. The Mx type has been associated with schizophrenia.Finally, a qualitative view has been added based on the ideas of "–deviant verbalization–" and "–confabulation– ".
著者
島 創平
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 = The Journal of the Graduate School of Toyo Eiwa University (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, pp.1-9, 2015-03-15

Nero, the 5th Roman emperor, has often been regarded as a “tyrant”. He was the first persecuter of Christians in A.D. 64 when a major fire broke out in the City of Rome. Tacitus, the Roman historian, reports that in order to deny the rumour that Nero himself had orderd the fire to be set , Nero ascribed the crime to Christians and punished them cruelly. However, Tacitus also says that Christians were convicted not so much on the count of arson as for “hatred of the human race” (Annales, 15.44). To consider the question why Christians were persecuted by Nero, we must depend mainly on the descriptions of Roman historians ─ Tacitus and Suetonius. These historians lived in the early part of the 2nd century, when the distinction between Christianity and Judaism had became more apparent. But in the days of Nero’s reign, the middle of the 1st century, the distinction was not so apparent. Christianity was regarded as a sect of Judaism. In The Acts of the Apostles, Christianity was called “the sect of the Nazarenes” by an anti-Christian Jew (Acts, 24.5). On the other hand, early Christian missionary work caused division and discord among Jewish people and often provoked disturbance between people who accepted the Christian faith and those who rejected it. In the reign of Claudius, Jews were expelled from Rome because they often created disturbances at the instigation of “Chrestus” (Suetonius, Claudius, 24.4). The Christian people of the Neronian days were thus regarded as a Jewish splinter group and troublemakers who often caused disturbances. Therefore, it is more accurate to view the persecution of Christians by Nero as persecution of a particular Jewish sect ─ “the sect of Nazarenes”.
著者
島 創平
出版者
東洋英和女学院大学大学院
雑誌
東洋英和大学院紀要 (ISSN:13497715)
巻号頁・発行日
no.11, pp.1-9, 2015

Nero, the 5th Roman emperor, has often been regarded as a "tyrant". He was the first persecuter of Christians in A.D. 64 when a major fire broke out in the City of Rome. Tacitus, the Roman historian, reports that in order to deny the rumour that Nero himself had orderd the fire to be set , Nero ascribed the crime to Christians and punished them cruelly. However, Tacitus also says that Christians were convicted not so much on the count of arson as for "hatred of the human race" (Annales, 15.44). To consider the question why Christians were persecuted by Nero, we must depend mainly on the descriptions of Roman historians ─ Tacitus and Suetonius. These historians lived in the early part of the 2nd century, when the distinction between Christianity and Judaism had became more apparent. But in the days of Nero's reign, the middle of the 1st century, the distinction was not so apparent. Christianity was regarded as a sect of Judaism. In The Acts of the Apostles, Christianity was called "the sect of the Nazarenes" by an anti-Christian Jew (Acts, 24.5). On the other hand, early Christian missionary work caused division and discord among Jewish people and often provoked disturbance between people who accepted the Christian faith and those who rejected it. In the reign of Claudius, Jews were expelled from Rome because they often created disturbances at the instigation of "Chrestus" (Suetonius, Claudius, 24.4). The Christian people of the Neronian days were thus regarded as a Jewish splinter group and troublemakers who often caused disturbances. Therefore, it is more accurate to view the persecution of Christians by Nero as persecution of a particular Jewish sect ─ "the sect of Nazarenes".