著者
竹内 康浩 西崎 恒男 高城 晋 馬淵 千之
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.6, pp.563-571, 1972 (Released:2011-03-04)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
1 1

Large amount of organic solvents is used in the processing industries and most of these industries are medium or small enterprises. Therefore, health of workers working there is liable to be disturbed by organic solvents. And as the workers exposed to organic solvents usually complain of indefinite oilments, recently health of workers exposed to organic solvents became to be studied endocrinologically and neurologically.Two workers exposed to organic solvents in a paints industry consulted us and complained of dizziness, headache, tinnitus, insomnia, slight fever, disturbance of appetite, decrease of body weight, cramp of lower extremities, etc. And in our clinical examination, hypofunction of diencephalon-hypohysis-adrenal cortex system, hypesthesia on one side, continuous slight fever, slight orthostatism, abnormal EEG etc. were found and diagnosed as diencephalon syndrome.Working conditions were investigated. This paints industry is medium enterprise but the work room where the two patients were working was small and ventilated not sufficiently. And it was found that the two worker were being exposed to toluene vapor of which concentration ranged from several hundred ppm to one thausand and several hundred ppm and to smaller concentration of other organic solvents. Therefore, it was thought that the disorders of these two patients were caused chiefly by exposure to toluene vapor.The two patients were detached from the work place and treated in our hospital, but disorders of them were not rapidly improved.In view of these serious health disorders of the two workers, we think it is very important that the toxicity of organic solvents should be still more studied especially concerning the effect to the endocrine and nervous systems, and that the working conditions in work place using organic solvents should be still more improved for prevention of organic solvent poisoning.
著者
岸 玲子 三宅 浩次
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.3-17, 1990 (Released:2009-03-26)
参考文献数
86

Neurotoxicity of organic solvents is one of the most important emerging issues in the field of occupational health. Psychological testing has been proven useful not only in clinical diagnosis but also in experimental and epidemiological studies. Although various psychobehavioral performance test batteries have been applied in the study of neurotoxicity of organic solvents during these last two decades among European countries and America, only few studies have been made on these in Japan. It is therefore considered very important to review the major papers published to date, clarify the issues being currently discussed, and propose important studies for future.The present paper provides a review of the results obtained by the application of behavioral performance tests in the study of solvent toxicity. The studies reviewed are classified into the follwoing five parts: 1. psychological test batteries developed to date, 2. human experimental studies and experimental field studies on the acute toxicity of organic solvents, 3. epidemiological studies on industrial workers, 4. characteristics of the central nervous system dysfunction caused by organic solvents, and 5. prognosis of workers diagnosed as chronic organic solvent intoxication. The paper also discusses the applicability of psychobehavioral techniques and addresses issues in data collection in the study of the effects of solvent exposure on the nervous system.
著者
山村 行夫 高倉 淳 平山 二三夫 山内 博 吉田 稔
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.4, pp.223-235, 1975 (Released:2011-03-04)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
2

Two cases of tetraethyl lead (TEL) poisoning are described. Both subjects had been exposed to TEL in the process of scaling using high pressure water stream during the cleaning work inside the aviation fuel tank. The aviation fuel contains TEL in a concentration of 1. 12 g lead per liter. The affected men failed to wear respirators during the cleaning work because the explosimeter indicated a negative reading for petrol. After one hour of tank cleaning work they suffered from lacrimation, running rhinorrhea and vomiting.Case 1. A 54-year-old man was admitted to a general hospital 3 days after the exposure to TEL and complained of hand tremors, amnesia and disorientation. He was restless, violent and confused in the night. On 12th day after the exposure to TEL, the condition bacame worse with marked agitation, delirium, convulsion, fever and coma. He died on 18th day after the exposure to TEL. During the admission, urinary coproporphyrin and basophilic stippling cells were normal ; no blood and urinary lead determination were done.Case 2. A 48-year-old man, on 2nd day after the exposure to TEL complained of chills, tremors, marked nausea and vomiting which persisted all night. Next morning he was admitted to another hospital. He had generalized tremors, ataxia, disorientation and at night he was suspicious, restless and violent. On 9th day after the exposure to TEL, his insomnia and restlessness gradually improved and he was discharged two months later.In this case, urinary lead determinations were done serially from 20 days to 196 days after the accident and blood lead determination was done once a week. On 20th day after the exposure, blood lead level was 52.3μg/100g, urinary lead concentration 586 μg/l and erythrocyte ALA dehydrase (ALA-D) activity was markedly reduced to 0.11μ mole PBG/ml RBC/hr. On 196th day after the exposure to TEL, his condition was both physically and mentally normal but his blood lead level was slightly elevated to 26. 1 μg/100 g and the urinary lead concentration was still at 37.0μg/l (81μg/24hr). Blood triethyl lead levels were found to be 5.8μg Pb/100g after 56 days, steadily decreasing thereafter to 1.3μg Pb/100 g up to 196 days.In this case, the reactivation of erythrocyte ALA-D and the fall of blood lead levels occurred simultanously in a manner similar to that observed in men exposed to inorganic lead. The regression line for erythrocyte logarithmic ALA-D activities and blood lead levels in this case is identical to that obtained from workers exposed to inorganic lead and the control group occupationally unexposed. These results suggest that the reduced erythrocyte ALA-D activities found in the TEL poisoning was due to inorganic lead resulting from the decomposition of TEL.Workmen handling antiknock additives were investigated regarding potential hazardous effects of tetraalkyl lead (TAL). The subjects consisted of workmen who engaged in mixing TAL into petrol, transportation of TAL by trucks or barges and storage tank cleaing. There were no abnormal values of blood lead levels, erythrocyte ALA-D activities or excreted urinary lead in those workmen.
著者
松本 一弥 笹川 七三子 川森 正夫
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.81-93, 1978 (Released:2011-03-04)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
7 4

A survey was made on nurses working in a certain university hospital, with regard to night shifts and short off-duty period incorporated in the system. Of the 115 nurses working in the wards studied, 84 were working a three-shift system, 18 a two-shift system and 7 a permanent night shift system. The three-shift system consisted of a day shift (8.30-16.30), an evening shift (16.30-0.30) and a night shift (0.30-8.30), which was performed in a very irregular way with no fixed cycle of rotation. The number of night shifts averaged 10 per month for nurses working by the three-shift system, and 20 for nurses in permanent night duty. According to the rotation schedule, each nurse was obliged to have off-duty periods of about 8 hours about 5 times a month on the average and to work two consecutive night duties once or more a month, while nurses working the permanent night duty had two consecutive services 10.7 times a month. Results of time study of nurses revealed that a large portion of time was spent for contact with patients, either directly looking after them or indirectly assisting medical treatments, and that during most of the duty hours the working posture was either standing, walking, or forward bending. The frequency of fatigue complaints after a shift was higher in the order of day shift < evening shift < night shift. Especially after the night duty, symptoms of drowsiness and dullness and symptoms of difficulty in concentration increased markedly. It was shown that the drowsiness-dullness symptoms were always higher in frequency after a day shift following an off-duty period of 8-hour than that following off-duty hours of 16 or more hours. In the case of a night duty, the fatigue complaints were more frequent after a shift following an 8-hour or 16-hour off-duty period. As for flicker fusion frequency (CFF) and body temperature changes in different shifts, they remained at extremely low levels during a night shift, and especially low between 4.00-6.00 a.m., both CFF and body temperature being elevated afterwards. At the end of a night duty, however, CFF was 2-3 Hz lower than before a day shift. The decrease of the CFF level in the late afternoon of a day-shift was more marked after a shift following an off-duty period of 8-hour than after a shift following longer off-duty hours. In the case of night duty, the lowering rate was in the descending order of 8, 16 and 24 hours of the off-duty period, the CFF level being the lowest between 4.00-6.00 a.m. When the nurses had to take the next shift after a short off-duty period of 8 hours, they were in debt of sleeping hours, which otherwise could be paid off by a following night sleep. Further the meal time of shift workers was very irregular on days of evening- or night-shift, reduction in frequency of meals per day being frequent among them. On the basis of the results obtained, it is concluded that nurses are adversely affected by the frequent short off-duty period and consecutive night shifts and that their shift system should be corrected so as to avoid these conditions.
著者
鈴木 秀吉
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, no.8, pp.421-425, 1968-08-20 (Released:2008-04-14)
参考文献数
3

As the determination of the maximum allowable concentration of organic solvents requires investigations of the physical responses of man to specified gas concentrations, a gas chamber for that purpose was constructed. The chamber is 2.23 m wide, 3.55 m long, and 2.80 m high, the cubic space being about 23 m3, and it is large enough for two or three men to work to a certain extent at a time. All the walls are shielded with wire netting for undisturbed electrophysiological experiments. The inside of the chamber is furnished like an ordinary living room lest the subject should be strained unnecessarily. Gas generators, concentration measuring apparatus, and electro-physiological apparatus are all equipped outside so that the experimenter may easily operate them observing the inside through the window. To produce a constant gas concentration a method is adopted in which a constant fresh air flow is kept through the air duct in which the solvent vapour is being shot with a spray gun; the quantity of the vapour is adjustable with a screw. An experiment on the function of the chamber under conditions, that tow men were working moderately within and 3.5 m3/min acetone gas was kept sending in, obtained a satisfactory result in which no liability of CO2 accumulation was noticed and the concentration of the solvent kept its stability throughout 6 hours' operation after the first 40 minutes of variation. The range of the concentration to be adjusted with comparative ease was 100&sim;2000 p.p.m. Though the result of the experiment was pretty satisfactory, the points required for further improvement are: 1) that the noises caused by a fan and by the spray- gun be abated, 2) that a climate adjuster be installed, 3) that the adjustment for concentrations lower than 100 p.p.m.or higher than 2000 p.p.m. be further contrived, 4) that an anemometer for gauging the quantity of the air flow be equipped, and 5) that a gas-chromatograph for the measurement of solvent concetrations be equipped.
著者
三角 順一 小山 和作 三浦 創
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.1, pp.3-9, 1983-01-20 (Released:2008-04-14)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
4 5

An occupational disease in tobacco cultivating farmers has been reported in Florida, North Carolina, and India. This disease is termed "Green-tobacco sickness" with characterized symptomsdizziness, nausea, and generalized weakness. The symptoms develop after the exposure to wet and raw tobacco leaves, and are probably caused by absorption of nicotine through the skin from the leaves. No case of this disease has been reported in Japan until now. In the present study, two cases of the disease were detected in the southern part of Kumamoto Prefecture. These cases, who were tobacco harvesters, have exhibited the "green symptoms" after cropping wet tobacco leaves every year since 7-8 years ago. One was a man aged 55, the other a 42-year-old woman. They were non-smokers and non-drinkers. These cases were diagnosed as the Green-tobacco sickness by the following reasons: 1) They showed the characteristic symptoms of the disease after cropping tobacco leaves in rainy days. 2) Those symptoms have repeatedly observed since 7-8 years ago under the same circumstances; i.e., they handled wet and raw tobacco leaves without rain coats, and were exposed to dew on tobacco leaves. They had no evidence to handle any other toxic substances at that time. 3) The symptoms usually disappeared on the next morning. 4) Food poisoning was neglected. 5) Efforts to avoid the contact with wet tobacco leaves made them free from the disease. An additional experiment using animals revealed that minimum toxic dose of nicotine through the skin was less than 21 mg/kg of body weight in the rat. Furthermore, analysis of the literatures on the Green-tobacco sickness permitted the suggestion that the toxic dose of nicotine through the skin in humans might be less than 1.96 mg/kg of body weight.
著者
原 登 本間 克典
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.3, pp.245-249, 1973 (Released:2011-03-04)
参考文献数
7

Atmospheric concentrations of cyanides in various kinds of plating workshops were determined, and it was cleared that there was an intimate relation between the atmospheric concentration of cyanides and pH of the plating solutions. The more alkaline the solution, the less became the concentration of cyanides. Cyanides contained in the overflowed solution from the plating bath changed to hydrogen cyanide gas while the solution dried up spontaneously, and this gas diffused into the workshop.For sampling cyanides in the air, impinger should be used. The sampling ability of the sampling solution was closely related with its alkalinity. If the aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide is used as the sampling solution, the alkalinity of the solution should be more than 0.2 normal for long time bubbling and more than 0.02 normal for short time bubbling. During the bubbling procedure, the alkalinity of the sampling solution decreased gradually. And the solution should not be used for sampling cyanides if its alkalinity is less than 0.001 normal. If the alkalinity of the sampling solution is exhausted, this solution can not preserve the captured cyanides any more.
著者
岸 玲子 原渕 泉 池田 聰子 三宅 浩次
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.101-113, 1986
被引用文献数
1

有機溶剤トルエンの中枢神経系への急性影響を「濃度・暴露時間積と生体のパフォマンス変化」の面から明らかにすることを目的として行動中毒学的手法を用いて検討した. Wistar系ラットを光警告つき条件回避反応で訓練し,一定の回避成績を示すようになった時点でトルエンに125~4,000 ppmの6段階の濃度におのおの4時間単回暴露し,暴露前後7時間のレバー押し数,回避数,有効回避率,光刺激に対する反応潜時を測定した.<br>得られた結果は以下のとおりである.<br>1) トルエン125, 250, 500 ppm暴露では,暴露開始後20分間は有効回避率の有意の減少が見られた. 125 ppm暴露では暴露240分目の有効回避率が対応コントロールに比べて低かった.<br>2) トルエン1,000 ppmと2,000 ppmでは濃度と暴露時間に比例してレバー押し反応数の顕著な増加と有効回避率の低下が認められた. 2,000 ppm 4時間目には反応数は暴露前の150%を越え,有効回避率は暴露前のパフォマンスの70%に低下していた. 1,000 ppmおよび2,000 ppmトルエン暴露時には,いずれも暴露後2時間目以降は光刺激に対する反応潜時の有意の短縮も認められた.<br>3) 4,000 ppm暴露の場合は,最初の40分間は反応数の著しい増加を示すが,その後次第に麻酔性の行動抑制を示し, 8匹中6匹のラットは痙攣および運動失調を呈した. 4,000 ppm暴露終了後は全ラットの反応数は増加し興奮状態を示した.有効回避率は暴露打ち切り2時間後も回復しなかった.<br>低濃度および高濃度トルエン暴露の行動影響について,考察を加えるとともに,方法についての検討を行って,有機溶剤の中枢神経系への影響を明らかにするうえでラットの弁別条件回避行動の有用性を示した.
著者
石垣 尚男 宮尾 克
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.3, pp.181-182,A44, 1994 (Released:2009-03-26)
参考文献数
5
著者
荒記 俊一 川上 憲人
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.88-97, 1993 (Released:2009-03-26)
参考文献数
96
被引用文献数
5 5

In order to clarify the health effects of work stress and possible strategy for its prevention and treatment, we reviewed the literature on work stress as follows:1) Review was made on 12 major psychosocial work stressors, 4 acute reactions to stress, disease outcome of work stress, measurement methods of those variables, and theoretical models of work stress.2) Epidemiological studies of the effects of work stressors on cardiovascular diseases, psychological distress and mental disorders in Japan were reviewed. Also, work stress in specific occupations such as software engineers, nurses and female researchers was reviewed.3) The following strategies for the prevention and treatment of the health effects of work stress were reviewed: i) surveillance of work stress, ii) improvement of psychosocial work environment, iii) education and information dissemination, and iv) reinforcement of occupational mental health services.Finally, the need for further investigation on the health effects of work stress and on the possible programs for the prevention and treatment in occupational health care system was discussed.
著者
井上 俊 竹内 康浩 竹内 寿和子 山田 信也 鈴木 秀吉 松下 敏夫 宮垣 仁実 前田 勝義 松本 忠雄
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.3, pp.73-84, 1970-03-20 (Released:2008-04-14)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1 2

In 1967 there occurred many polyneuropathy cases in household vinyl sandal manufacturers at F-disrict in Mie prefecture. In this district among 3, 210 people (788 families) most of them engaged in vinyl sandal manufacture (as of Oct, 1967). Ninety three patients suffering from polyneuropathy were found by our survey. Out of these 93 patients those suffering from sensory polyneuropathy were 53, from sensorimotor polyneuropathy 32 and from sensorimotor polyneuropathy with muscle atrophy 8 (cf. Tab. 1). The work conditions and the factors contributing to the intoxication's were investigated, and the method of prevention was suggested. The results are as follows. (1) The patients occurred in 1961 at first and the number of them increased rapidly from 1965 and showed a peak in 1967 (cf. Tab. 2). This increase was in parallel with the amount of adhesives containing "n-Hexane" used in this district (cf. Tab. 3, 4). Outbreak of many patients in winter and spring may due to poor ventilation in winter. (2) The causative substance was considered to be "n-Hexane". But "n-Hexane" on sale contains 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, n-hexane, and methylcyclopentane, and the quantity of n-hexane in "n-Hexane" is about 60% (cf. Fig. 6). (3) The work conditions of the vinyl sandal manufacturers among whom many cases of "n-Hexane" intoxication occurred were as follows. 1) The work was primitive household manufacture and living rooms were used as the working place (cf. Fig. 1, 3). 2) As adhesives containing a large quantity of highly volatile "n-Hexane" were used in narrow rooms, the concentration of "n-Hexane" vapor became high and reached about 500-2500 ppm in the work room. The vapor concentrations were especially high in winter because of closed windows. (cf. Fig. 7, 8, 9). 3) Since the workers (subcontractors) were paid by the number of manufacturedgoods, their working period was unrestrictedly long and some worked for 14 hours per day (cf. Fig. 10). 4) The work intensity was high and some starched 3, 000 times per day. It seems that the more the times of starching, the heavier the degree of symptoms (cf. Fig. 11). 5) As the adhesives were used with hand brushes, the vapor concentrations were high at the site near the noses of the workers, so that they inhaled the organic solvent vapor at high concentrations. 6) As the organic solvents vapor ignite easily, the work rooms were not heated and they were working at quite low temperatures in winter (cf. Tab. 5). 7) The workers were not instructed as to the toxicity and the handling method of the organic solvents. 8) Usual health supervision was not performed at all. (4) The chief cause of the occurrence of intoxications was that a large amount of the organic solvents was used under very poor work conditions as above mentioned combined with neglected supervision. Moreover, that which gave impetus to the occurrence of the intoxication was that the easily drying adhesives containing a large quantity of "n-Hexane" were used in order to increase the number of the manufactured goods, because the pay per one of the goods was not increased for these several years in spite of the recent inflation. (5) As the urgent measure for the prevention, though instruction on the toxicity and the handling method of the organic solvents, improvement of the ventilation and the working methods, guidance by the health center and so on were made, these are only certain aspects of measures for the prevention. The danger of the intoxication may not be perfectly removed without the fundamental reform in the work conditions.
著者
紺野 義雄
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.4, pp.383-390, 1976 (Released:2011-03-04)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
1

1. A new apparatus, consisting of a strain gauge and a carrier amplifier, was devised for measuring back muscular and shoulder arm strength by the author. This apparatus was applied for analysing myogenic disorder related to muscular fatigue or pain.2. Muscular strength with load and its myogram were recorded simultaneously, and their changes during the exertion were analysed.3. Muscular strength-myograms of sternocleidomastoid muscle, upper trapezius muscle, deltoid muscle, rhomboid muscle and lumbodorsal muscle were observed from the back muscular strength-myogram, and those of teres minor muscle and major pectoral muscle from the shoulder arm strength-myogram.4. It seemed paradoxically that the amplitude of action myogram increased in proportion to the grade of lowering of muscular strength caused by muscular fatigue or pain.
著者
山田 信也
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.8, pp.651-659, 1967-08-20 (Released:2008-04-14)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
3 4

(1) 17 cases of intoxication polyneuritis occurred in 17 workers exposed to n-hexane vapour in recent years, from 1960 to 1962, in Japan. (2) 6 cases of those occurred in 3 small polyethylene laminating plants. In these plans, in the first process, gravure printed cellophane sheet was smeared with n-hexane solution containing 5% organic titan, tetra isopropyl titan or tetra buthyl titan. Solvent n-hexane was vapourized with warm air and n-hexane vapour contaminated the air of the workroom. Organic titan, remained on the printed surfarce of cellophane sheet, was rapidly hydrolized with water in the air to titan oxide. In the second process, fused polyethylene was painted thinly on this surface. Titan oxide on this surface accelerated adhesion of polyethylene with cellophane, and cellophane sheet was laminated fast with polyethylene. This laminated sheet had the character of clear printed colour and water-proof, and was used widely as packing materials of foods, confectionery and others. Concentration of n-hexane vapour in the air around the machine in the first process was 1000&sim;2500 ppm. N-hexane used in these plants contained impurties, i.e. methyl pentane (16%) methyl cyclopentane (20%). Titan was not detected in the air. Working time was 10&sim;12 hours and workers became drausy in half or one hour and went outdoor to inspire fresh air for 10 to 15 minutes. (3) 11 cases of those occurred in a great pharmaceutical plant. In this plant, 95% n-hexane was used as a remover of grease on the surface of tablets. Tablets in wire netting were immersed for 5 minutes in n-hexane within the immersion box, and tablets in wire netting were dried on the shelf. N-hexane vapourized from the surface of the tablets and the immersion box. Concentration of n-hexane vapour was 1000 ppm around the immersion box and 500 ppm at the center of the workroom. Workers stayed in this room for 8 hours except for the noon recess. (4) In all cases symptoms of intoxican began with the same subjective complaints. The first complaint was fatigue in all cases and loss of appetite in some cases, followed by paresthesia in distal parts of the extremities, weakness, and difficulty in walking. Symptoms and signs advanced during the exposure and this progress was arrested finally three months after removing from the exposure, and the symptoms gradually improved throughout the period between six and thiry months. This characteristic process of development and improvement of symptoms was not such as usually seen in common polyneuritis. All diagnosis of these cases by clinical and hygienic examinations was intoxication polyneuritis of the mixed form. (5) In the first case, n-hexane, impurities in n-hexane and organic titan were suspected of the causes of intoxication. But in the second case, the cause was only n-hexane. N-hexane causes undoubtedly intoxication polyneuritis in man. One of my co-workers, Miyagaki proved experimentally the occurrence of intoxication neuritis due to n-hexane in rats. (6) Till now, n-hexane was regarded as of lowtoxic solvent owing to its low toxicity on the hematopoiesis and the liver function. But the present result showed that toxicity of n-hexane on the peripheral neuron was not insignificant.
著者
竹内 康浩 久永 直見 小野 雄一郎 井上 俊
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.6, pp.470-487, 1980-11-20 (Released:2008-04-14)
参考文献数
96
被引用文献数
1 1

A large amount of n-hexane is being widely used in industry as a solvent or a component of the mixed solvents for extraction of vegitable oils, adhesives, paints, and for cleaning, etc. And, many cases of polyneuropathy due to n-hexane have been reported up to now. Recently, studies on the neurotoxicity and metabolism of n-hexane rapidly progressed in many countries. The present review covers clinical signs and symptoms, pathological changes, metabolism, dose-response (effect) in acute exposure, glue or thinner sniffers, workers, animal experiments. The joint effects and the maximal allowable concentration of n-hexane are also briefly discussed.
著者
夏目 誠 村田 弘 杉本 寛治 中村 彰夫 松原 和幸 浅尾 博一 藤井 久和
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.4, pp.266-279, 1988 (Released:2009-03-26)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
10 6

私たちは勤労者のストレス度,特に職場生活のそれを数量化するために,下記のストレス調査表を作成した.Holmesが作成したストレス度を測定する,社会的再適応評価尺度の主要項目に,職場生活ストレッサー18項目,および「私の耐えられるストレス度」,「現在の私のストレス度」の2項目を追加した67項目より構成されている.1,630名の勤労者を対象に結婚によるストレス度を50点とし,それを基準に0~100点の任意数値記入方式により自己評価させた,得られた結果は以下のとおりである.1. 各項目について1,630名と性,年齢,職種,職階,勤続年数(以下,各条件とする)別対象者数から得られた点数の平均値を求めた.私たちは,このようにして得た各項目の平均点数をストレス点数と仮称した.65項目のストレス点数を,高い順にランキングした. 1位は「配偶者の死」82.7で,「収入の増加」が24.7と最下位であった.27項目が50点以上の得点を示した.次に65項目を,個人,家庭,職場,社会生活ストレッサーの4群に分類した.2. 職場適応力をみるために私たちが考案した「私の耐えられるストレス度」は73.7で「現在の私のストレス度」は48.8であった.3. ストレス点数の平均値から,各条件別でt検定により比較検討を行い,差異を求めた.その結果は, 30歳代では20歳代に比べ,課長と班長は部長より,点数が高かった.同様に,上記の4群間でそれを求めたところ職場生活ストレッサー群のみ差が認められた.同群において, 30, 40, 50歳代は20歳代よりも,課長と班長は一般職に比し,高得点であった.勤続年数では, 21年以上の勤務者は, 10年以内の者に比較して点数が高かった.以上の結果や調査表の意義と活用を中心に考案を加えた.
著者
三浦 創 佐野 晴洋
出版者
社団法人 日本産業衛生学会
雑誌
産業医学 (ISSN:00471879)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.4, pp.279-285, 1972 (Released:2011-03-04)
参考文献数
30

Lead poisoning is associated with characteristic urinary increases of δ-aminolevulinic acid and coproporphyrinogen III, elevated erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration and partial block of δ- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase.In human lead poisoning a very small amount of increase of porphobilinogen and uroporphyrinogen III is reported, while in rabbits porphobilinogen increases but uroporphyrinogen III does not as in the human cases. The small amount of porphobilinogen or uroporphyrinogen III in the human urine may be explained by δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, but the increase in coproporphyrinogen III is as yet inexplainable.An alternative pathway of coproporphyrinogen III formation from δ-aminolevulinic acid or porphobilinogen has and suggested in lead poisoning. We proposed that an intermediate, 2-amino-methyl-3-methyl-4-carboxyethyl-pyrrole, may be formed in vivo by enzymic condensation of δ-aminolevulinic acid and 1-amino-butane-2-one (β-ketobutylamine) or by prior decarboxylation of acetic acid sidechain of porphobilinogen. To test this hypothesis we made an experiment, the results of which are as follows.The pyrrole compounds were isolated from the urine or the incubation mixture with δ-aminolevulinic acid and tissue homogenates (bone marrow, liver and kidneys) of lead poisoned rabbits by using the column chromatography on Dowex 2. All the pyrrole compounds were further converted to porphyrins by chemical condensation technique, resulting in the formation of the mixture of uroporphyrin isomers, though no coproporphyrin was detected.The results indicate that the pyrrole compounds in lead poisoning are identical with authentic porphobilinogen and the prior decarboxylation of porphobilinogen appears unlikely. It is suggested that the increase of coproporphyrinogen III in lead poisoning may be caused by over-production of δ-aminolevulinic acid. The increased amount ofthe precursor seems to overcome the partial blocking of δ-aminolevulirlic acid dehydratase and thenormal rate of porphyrin synthesis may be formed.