- 認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
- vol.22, no.1, pp.53-68, 2015-03-01 (Released:2015-09-15)
This study addresses how environments for specialists reciting a narrative are estab-lished when they (e.g., science communicators) need to give an explanation to non- specialists (e.g., visitors). To analyze the videotaped data, we employed the notion of spatial-orientation behavior (proposed by Adam Kendon). Spatial orientation com-prises two formation types: F-formation and H-formation. The F-formation is when the participants stand in an O-space, and everyone has an equal right to speak. The H-formation includes head position as a factor of the study; where, a single participant faces the rest of the participants that are typically lined-up in a row. The single par-ticipant has more rights to speak than the rest. This study focuses on the H-formation with the hypothesis that it is one way to signal readiness to start a narrative, i.e.,establishes the environment to recite a narrative. Two case studies are provided in this study. Case Study I gives an example of the H-formation, wherein the specialist exerts a privileged right to talk to the novices. Case Study II illustrates an example of the F-formation, with the specialist ending up with starting the narrative to the novices, which acts as an excuse, as the specialist does not have the privileged right to talk to the novices. For one thing, the reciting of the narrative in this example only started as a response to a question from one of the novices. Additionally, the narrative including with the contraction structures by gestures giving novice the chance to notice the answer for his/her question. The results demonstrate how the type of formation relates to the construction and presentation of the specialist’s narrative. The results of the two analyses demonstrate that the formation consisted of the two types, and that participants use H-formation as a resource for establishing the environment for reciting the narrative.