著者
工藤 彰 岡田 猛 ドミニク チェン
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.4, pp.573-590, 2015-12-01 (Released:2016-06-01)
参考文献数
43

The purpose of this study is to investigate the writing style and revision process ofa contemporary fiction writer from a cognitive science perspective. We focus on the work of Mishima Prize winning author, Otaro Maijo. Using Type Trace, a text editor devised by Dividual Inc., as an analysis tool for observing the writing process, we con-sider features that have not been detected by creative experiment, protocol analysis or manuscript research. Based on observations of Maijo’s writing process, firstly revisions are categorized as additions, deletions, substitutions, distributions, or consolidations. Secondly, revisions are further classified as “revisions at a generative point”, “revisions in a generative sentence”, “revisions in a generative paragraph”, or “revisions beyond the generative paragraph”, according to the remoteness of the revision from the point of composition. The results reveal that revisions such as the substitution of words and adjustments in sentence length were mostly performed together with text generation. All revisions that were made after an interlude took the form of revisions far removed from sentence generation. We find that Maijo’s writing style tends to be maintained for several weeks to months and then changes substantially.
著者
高橋 麻衣子 巌淵 守 河野 俊寛 中邑 賢龍
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.3, pp.521-533, 2011 (Released:2012-03-09)
参考文献数
35

There are some children with reading difficulties in the regular class. They seem to have some problems in their perceptual or cognitive skills involved with reading process. In this study, we developed the multi-media learning support system “Touch & Read” for assisting their reading process. The system can zoom up the text, highlight the line in it, and read out it to present the information auditorily. Introducing this system to the regular class, we investigated the way of the learning support for the children with reading difficulties. Ahead of the introduction, we conducted the test to survey the children's decoding skills and visuoperceptual functions and identified the causes of reading difficulties. We provided the Touch & Read to children for their learning in the regular class, and observed how the children with reading difficulties used the system. As a result, it was suggested that children could use the system to compensate their perceptual or cognitive skills and achieve more efficient learning outcomes.
著者
岡部 大介
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.4, pp.671-681, 2008 (Released:2010-04-23)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
5

This study seeks to demystify one of a niche subculture of extreme female fans and mavens known as “Fujoshi” who get really into animation, comic, novel and so on. They call themselves self-mocking term “Fujoshi” and are willing to draw⁄read fanzines that are an underground hobby focused on romantic or homosexual relationships between male characters from various media texts. In this paper, I describe how they construct their identities and social relations through narrative and practice. First I frame this work as an effort to think the differentiation between “self” and &ldquoidentity”. Then I show the core characteristic of “Fujoshi” groups is the issue of hiding identity. The assumption has been in subcultural studies that the embodied external identity display in the face of mainstream culture is foundational. But “Fujoshi” culture does it differently. Although they make their identities invisible in everyday lives, that hiding practice paradoxically makes their identities visible in “Fujoshi” community. The other area that I found interesting was their ironical communication. Because they believe that “Fujoshi” activities are considered to be inferior to the &ldquonormal” females, they express their identities self-deprecatingly. I think this practice is a defensive communication against prejudice and is also a strategy to present their identities paradoxically.
著者
中山 真孝 齊藤 智
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, no.3, pp.456-462, 2015

Processing fluency influences judgment as metacognitive cue. Laham, Koval, & Al-<br>ter (2012) demonstrated name-pronunciation effect whereby easy-to-pronounce (i.e.,<br>easy-to-process) names were judged more positively. In their study, however, the "pro-<br>nouncability" was not defined by objective criteria, which may cast doubt on the inter-<br>nal validity of the effect. To overcome this limitation, the present study replicated the<br>name-pronunciation effect by manipulating two objectively defined and well-established<br>pronouncability factors: within-item phonological similarity and phonotactic frequency<br>of the name. Phonological similarity is manipulated by making the constituent morae<br>share the same vowel or not. Phonotactic frequency is defined by a composite score of<br>mora, bi-mora and position-mora frequency. We asked participants to rate impression<br>of names, presenting nonwords as names of foreign person who would come to their of-<br>fice. The result indicated independent effects of phonological similarity and phonotactic<br>frequency with phonologically similar and low phonotactic frequency names being rated<br>negatively. The present study confirmed the internal validity of the name-pronunciation<br>effect in the previous study.
著者
丸山 宏
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.292-298, 2021-06-01 (Released:2021-06-15)
参考文献数
7

We consider an intelligence as computation and classify it by the way its specifications are given. Based on this classification, we argue that it is difficult to design a human-like intelligence. Then, we discuss the possibility of non-human-like intelligence. We also touch on the necessity of the study of human intelligence from the social point of view.
著者
岡 耕平
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.1, pp.45-61, 2014-03-01 (Released:2015-02-02)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1

Some people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) can hardly express their own thoughts in language. Sometimes, they have been considered as a communication disorder. However, since the word “communication” is usually defied as an interaction between at least two persons, it is doubtful to attribute problems happened within a particular communication to one side. In this study, I collected text data from a mi-croblog of one person who has been diagnosed as PDD and having difficulty to express her own thoughts in language, in order to investigate how the microblog had changed the way of communications. The results of the text data analysis showed that the par-ticipant expressed what she wanted to say by referring and utilizing remarks of others. The possibility and implications of removing the difficulties from their communication through the process of “curation” was discussed.
著者
大北 碧 二瓶 正登 西山 慶太 澤 幸祐
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.4, pp.392-410, 2018-12-01 (Released:2019-06-01)
参考文献数
37

Since horses (Equus caballus) domesticated 5500 years ago, humans and horses have built a closed relationship.“Jinba Ittai”expresses this relationship, and it means “a feeling as if hearts of a human and a horse are united”. What kind of a sense is a “Jinba Ittai”actually, when a human is in contact with a horse? What kind of processes occur the sense of “Jinba Ittai”? In present study, we examined “Jinba Ittai”which persons with experience of equestrian in training of horses for using interviews for them. In addition, we used M-GTA, which is the one of the qualitative analysis and focuses on the processes until a subjective sense occurs. The results showed that “Jinba Ittai”is a sense of operation agency (“It seems like the horse has become my limbs”) and a sense of smooth interaction (“We understand each other very well”). Additionally,we revealed that when a horse responds to instructions of a human immediately (i.e.,improved operation sense), the human feel “Jinba Ittai”. These results suggested that when the responses of other agent (such as horses) are produced immediately after the own responses, humans feel “Jinba Ittai”with the sense of smooth interaction.
著者
戸梶 亜紀彦
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.4, pp.360-368, 2001-12-01 (Released:2008-10-03)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
10 10

This study deals with just a emotion of emotions. When we see good movies or wonderful landscapes, read heart-warming stories, our hearts are frequently moved. This phenomenon evokes fairly certain emotions. However, it has hardly been studied in psychology. Many researches by the author were reviewed in order to investigate and elucidate mechanisms of evoking emotional responses of “Kandoh (the state of being emotionally moved)”. On the basis of these researches, first, the various types of “Kandoh” are categorized, and secondly a comprehensive process model is proposed. The outlines of this model are as follows. It is suggested that event related knowledge and information are very important factors for an audience (that is spectators, listeners, viewers, readers, and so on) to become highly involved, and then high involvement states elicit psychological and physiological stress. Therefore, desirable developments of a story produce stress reduction or relaxation, and finally people evoke “Kandoh”. Based on these results, some characteristic aspects of our cognitive system and some significance of emotional responses of “Kandoh” are discussed.
著者
久保(川合) 南海子
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.40-51, 2019-03-01 (Released:2019-09-01)
参考文献数
44

Humans have repeatedly reproduced original stories by interpreting them via new works of art (novels and paintings) through the ages. The motivation behind such reproductions seem to be related to “misprojection” and “fictional projection”. According to Suzuki (2016), who used the term “projection science,” misprojection refers to situations in which internal representations of the real world are projected onto a wrong target, like in a ventriloquism effect, whereas fictional projection refers to situations in which internal representations are projected onto something in the real world despite the absence of actual visual input (e.g., ghost). Women who create fan fiction in which an existing story of friendship or rivalry between two men is changed into a love story between men, and who prefer love stories about homosexual men (referred to in Japanese as “Fujoshi”) are considered to be converting the original work into a reproduction through misprojection and fictional projection. We discuss the similarities between fan fictions by Fujoshi and academic activities, because both fan fictions and scientific hypotheses describe things that do not exist in reality, yet are shared by many people if they are convincing enough. Products of misprojection and fictional projection shared by the community are overwritten and more refined. Previous literatures on “projection science” have focused on each individual, and barely address the dynamics of sharing and the propagation of new works reproduced through misprojection and fictional projection. This review paper analyzes the sharing of misprojection and fictional projection common to art, religion, and academic activities, and proposes that the sharing of those projections is an important function related to various human cognitive activities.
著者
丸山 善宏
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.4, pp.496-503, 2019-12-01 (Released:2020-03-01)

Category theory was born within developments of algebraic topology in the midtwentieth century, and soon thereafter endorsed as the avant-garde, structural foundation of mathematics that liberates her from material set theory (or its ‘pernicious idioms’ as Wittgenstein calls them). Today it serves as a transdisciplinary foundation of the sciences, including, inter alia, physical, computational, and some social sciences. Despite the striking success in AI and NLP, applications to the life and cognitive sciences have been limited for various reasons. Here we present a critical perspective on an allegedly categorical theory of consciousness, yet another case of ‘fashionable nonsense’or a ‘new kind of science’, and in doing so, we elucidate what it consists in to define consciousness and alleged categories of it. We conclude with the moral of the discussion drawn in light of the epistemology of interdisciplinary studies whilst repurposing the Sokal/co-Sokal affair for a healthier ecology of discourse transgressing the boundaries.
著者
池上 高志
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.198-210, 2021-06-01 (Released:2021-06-15)
参考文献数
28

Ordinary neural networks represent objects in a dimensionally compressed latent (Z) space. In this latent space, a grammatical structure emerges if the input is a language, or a finite state automaton that makes predictions if the input is a time series. But the living system perceives and experiences the object without contracting it. The philosopher Meillassoux said, “A discontinuous ring consisting of multiple interruptions.” While discussing the interpretation of this idea, I will analyze and report on an experiment using the android Alter3, which mimics human poses. What is important to make a robot anti-contractive is one's interaction with a human being, and the other is the autonomous rewriting of memories that is created because of its inability to learn.
著者
武藤 拓之
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.182-187, 2021-03-01 (Released:2021-03-15)
参考文献数
26

観察可能な行動を手がかりにしてその背後にある情報処理の仕組みをモデル化し,人の心を理解しようと試みるのが認知心理学の基本的なスタンスである.認知心理学のこのような考え方は,確率モデルでデータの生成過程を表現し,その確率モデルをデータに当てはめることによって現象の理解と予測を促す統計モデリングの手法と非常に相性が良い.特に近年,Stan (Stan Development Team, 2020) やJAGS (Plummer, 2020) といったベイズ推定を実行するための確率的プログラミング言語が登場し,従来よりも容易かつ柔軟に統計モデリングを実施できる環境が整ってきたことは認知心理学にとっても追い風である.このような状況を踏まえ,本稿ではベイズ統計モデリングの強みを生かした最近の認知心理学研究を紹介するa. a  行為主体がベイズの定理に基づいて信念を更新するとみなす意思決定の認知モデル(e.g., 中村, 2009; 繁桝, 1995) については本稿では扱わない.
著者
高橋 康介
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.4, pp.404-406, 2019-12-01 (Released:2020-03-01)

24 0 0 0 OA 錯視と圏論

著者
高橋 康介
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.4, pp.482-486, 2019-12-01 (Released:2020-03-01)
参考文献数
4

Tsuchiya & Saigo (2019) proposed the idea that the category theory is the powerful tool for scientific approach towards the mystery of consciousness. Perception, illusion,and consciousness are closely related, and so they also analyzed how to understand the phenomena in some types of visual illusion in terms of the category theory. In this commentary, I discuss about some perceptual phenomena and their theories, such as visual illusion, perceptual constancy, bistable figures, and ill-posed problem of perception, and the limitation of the current theory. Although the power of category theory in the cognitive science is still unclear, I also discuss the potential of category theory to understand illusion and perception from different viewpoint than the existing theories.
著者
鳴海 拓志
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.1, pp.14-29, 2019-03-01 (Released:2019-09-01)
参考文献数
65
被引用文献数
1

This paper proposes a novel field of technology, “Ghost Engineering”, for enabling us to change our cognitive functions as we hope by modifying our body perception and recognition. Recent embodied cognition studies revealed that our mind can be influenced by the states and recognition of our bodies. Meanwhile, recent development in virtual reality and augmented human technologies enable us to flexibly modify/extend our body itself and recognition of our bodily states. Considering these together, our mind would be designed by utilizing these novel techniques which provide augmented body. In this paper, function of human mind is called as “Ghost” after the concept of “Ghost in the machine” by G. Ryle, and recent achievement, possibilities, tentative limitations, and future implication of Ghost Engineering technologies are introduced based on three categories: Body transformation for modifying our emotion, creativity and empathy; Body multiplexing/unification for enhancing our social abilities; and Body motion modification for enhancing our physical performance via mental support.
著者
土谷 尚嗣 西郷 甲矢人
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, no.4, pp.462-477, 2019-12-01 (Released:2020-03-01)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
1

One of the biggest mysteries in current science is how subjective experience, or consciousness, arises from objective substance and its physical interactions, such as human brains. Since 1990s, empirical and scientific studies on the relationship between consciousness and brain have advanced massively, especially thanks to neuroscientific approaches. Despite its empirical progress, there remains skeptical philosophers, cognitive scientists, and psychologists, who consider the science of consciousness is impossible,partly because the concept of consciousness is so difficult to define. Due to this difficulty, they argue, scholars who claim that they are empirically researching consciousness even do not know what they themselves are talking about. These skeptics hold that scientific methods cannot be applied to concepts that are not possible to define. In this article, we argue that consciousness is possible to rigorously define in a strict mathematical sense. To build this logic, we introduce category theory, which is a theory developed in mathematics in the latter half of the 20th century. Category theory is a framework originally invented to deal with relationships among objects, in particular between algebra and geometry. In recent years, category theory has been recognized for its potential to be applied to consciousness research. Throughout this paper, we propose several concrete examples of Consciousness Category and, eventually, we conclude that we can apply “Yoneda’s lemma” to Consciousness Category. Yoneda’s lemma, one of the most fundamental and powerful tools in category theory, says, in simple terms,that definitions of any concept is the same as descriptions of all relationships between the concept and the others. This striking viewpoint, which is founded mathematically,provides the validity to the act of defining consciousness through descriptions of relationships. We end with a future perspective; enriching Consciousness Category will provide a common language among researchers who disagree in some aspects of their respective definitions of consciousness. Common language is a necessary component for the big breakthrough to solve the mystery of consciousness.
著者
松尾 豊
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.299-307, 2021-06-01 (Released:2021-06-15)
参考文献数
32

This article tries to position deep learning in the intersection of artificial intelligence and cognitive science, as a long quest toward human intelligence. First, the recent development of huge language models obtained by transformer-based methods such as BERT and GPT-3 is introduced. Then, I explain what these models can do and can not do, and why. Two essential problems, which is embodiment and symbol grounding, are shown. In order to solve these problems, deep reinforcement learning with world models are currently studied. Disentanglement is shown to be an important concept to find factors to control. Lastly, I explain my perspective toward the future advancement, and conclude the paper.
著者
遠山 紗矢香 白水 始
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.4, pp.494-517, 2018-05-31 (Released:2018-06-01)
参考文献数
40

Why do some collaborations lead to fruitful outcomes and some don’t? What are the differences between effective collaboration and ineffective collaboration? These questions remain unsolved in spite of the great progress in collaboration research. In this study, we propose an assessment framework for evaluating collaborative problem solving (CPS) skills from a theoretical perspective of constructive interaction. The framework comprises observational and analytical methods. The observational method lets children solve knowledge-rich problems both individually and collaboratively and assesses the differences in performance between these two modes and processes. The analytical method analyzes the performance data and the process data from conversational and cognitive analyses. We have collected data from 110 elementary school pupils belonging to five schools. We chose three math problems from the Type B problems of the National Assessment of Academic Ability that are not easy to solve alone. We assigned one problem from the three to each pupil, asking him or her to first solve it individually in 8 minutes, then with the nearest partner in 8 minutes, and finally individually again. The results indicate that the pupils’ performances in the paired phase mostly were enhanced compared to those in the individual phase. However, there were successful pairs in which both members improved (e.g., solved the problem successfully) and unsuccessful pairs in which neither did. The cognitive analysis showed that the successful pairs discussed the meanings of numbers in the problem and tried to connect them with their knowledge or experiences more than the unsuccessful pairs did. In the successful pairs, the different levels of abstraction in the pupils’ ideas prompted them to reconsider their own ideas from different viewpoints, which further caused the members of those pairs to question or challenge each other. We propose that CPS skills should be defined as learners’ persistent endeavor to deepen their understanding in reaction to others’ contribution by tying their experiential and conceptual knowledge.
著者
渡邊 智也 楠見 孝
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020.045, (Released:2020-12-15)
参考文献数
52

In this study, the effects of a theatrical activity on social abilities were examined. The participants (N = 40) were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. While the experimental group read a playscript, planned a performance, and performed, the control group read a playscript and summarized the content of the story. All the participants completed three social ability measures, namely, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Yoni Test, and Situational Test of Emotional Understanding as well as a questionnaire, namely, Interpersonal Reactivity Index on three occasions: pre, post, and followup measurement. Moreover, they completed the Narrative Transportation Scale immediately after the intervention, which assessed the psychological state of immersion into the narrative world. It was predicted that the extent of narrative transportation the participants experience would moderate the effect of theatrical activity. The results revealed that highly transported participants in the experimental group scored significantly higher than those in the control group on various scales including Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Yoni Test, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index Empathic Concern scale. Furthermore, after the intervention, the extent of transportation predicted these social abilities in the experimental group.
著者
田口 茂
出版者
日本認知科学会
雑誌
認知科学 (ISSN:13417924)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.211-216, 2021-06-01 (Released:2021-06-15)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1

Inspired by Q. Meillassoux's philosophy, Ikegami (2021) claims that a living system perceives external reality without ‘contracting' the overwhelming flow of information it contains. This idea implies that cognition is not merely the formation of representations inside a living system. Based on this idea, we can reconsider the relationship between the inside and outside of a living system: I claim that this relationship contains both disconnection and connection at the same time. Ikegami assumes that the contracting movements that occur in living systems are continuously disrupted by encounters with external reality. Furthermore, he claims that living systems ‘vividly experience' this disruption involving an overwhelming flow of information. This idea does not seem to be present in Meillassoux's philosophy.