著者
WATTS D. J.
雑誌
Nature
巻号頁・発行日
vol.393, pp.440-442, 1998
被引用文献数
265 16839
著者
Takahashi Kazutoshi Yamanaka Shinya
出版者
Elsevier Inc.
雑誌
Cell (ISSN:00928674)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.126, no.4, pp.663-676, 2006-08-25
被引用文献数
11144

This article is related to the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
著者
TAKAHASHI K
出版者
Elsevier Inc.
雑誌
Cell (ISSN:00928674)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.126, no.4, pp.663-676, 2006-08-25
被引用文献数
157 11144

This article is related to the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state by transfer of nuclear contents into oocytes or by fusion with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Little is known about factors that induce this reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions. Unexpectedly, Nanog was dispensable. These cells, which we designated iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells, exhibit the morphology and growth properties of ES cells and express ES cell marker genes. Subcutaneous transplantation of iPS cells into nude mice resulted in tumors containing a variety of tissues from all three germ layers. Following injection into blastocysts, iPS cells contributed to mouse embryonic development. These data demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells can be directly generated from fibroblast cultures by the addition of only a few defined factors.
著者
Matsumoto Makoto Nishimura Takuji
出版者
ACM
雑誌
ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation (ISSN:10493301)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.1, pp.3-30, 1998-01
被引用文献数
131 2299

A new algorithm called Mersenne Twister (MT) is proposed for generating uniform pseudorandom numbers. For a particular choice of parameters, the algorithm provides a super astronomical period of 219937 - 1 and 623-dimensional equidistribution up to 32-bit accuracy, while using a working area of only 624 words. This is a new variant of the previously proposed generators, TGFSR, modified so as to admit a Mersenne-prime period. The characteristic polynomial has many terms. The distribution up to v bits accuracy for 1 ≤ v ≤ 32 is also shown to be good. An algorithm is also given that checks the primitivity of the characteristic polynomial of MT with computational complexity O(p2) where p is the degree of the polynomial. We implemented this generator in portable C-code. It passed several stringent statistical tests, including diehard. Its speed is comparable to other modern generators. Its merits are due to the efficient algorithms that are unique to polynomial calculations over the two-element field.
著者
Takahashi Kazutoshi Tanabe Koji Ohnuki Mari Narita Megumi Ichisaka Tomoko Tomoda Kiichiro Yamanaka Shinya
出版者
Elsevier B.V.
雑誌
Cell (ISSN:00928674)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.131, no.5, pp.861-872, 2007-11-30
被引用文献数
207 8891

Successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state would allow creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells. We previously reported generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, capable of germline transmission, from mouse somatic cells by transduction of four defined transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate the generation of iPS cells from adult human dermal fibroblasts with the same four factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Human iPS cells were similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells in morphology, proliferation, surface antigens, gene expression, epigenetic status of pluripotent cell-specific genes, and telomerase activity. Furthermore, these cells could differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. These findings demonstrate that iPS cells can be generated from adult human fibroblasts.
著者
Takahashi Kazutoshi Tanabe Koji Ohnuki Mari Narita Megumi Ichisaka Tomoko Tomoda Kiichiro Yamanaka Shinya
出版者
Elsevier B.V.
雑誌
Cell (ISSN:00928674)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.131, no.5, pp.861-872, 2007-11-30
被引用文献数
8891

Successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state would allow creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells. We previously reported generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, capable of germline transmission, from mouse somatic cells by transduction of four defined transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate the generation of iPS cells from adult human dermal fibroblasts with the same four factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Human iPS cells were similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells in morphology, proliferation, surface antigens, gene expression, epigenetic status of pluripotent cell-specific genes, and telomerase activity. Furthermore, these cells could differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. These findings demonstrate that iPS cells can be generated from adult human fibroblasts.
著者
ZHANG Z.
雑誌
TPAMI, 2000
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1330-1334, 2000
被引用文献数
156 4360 6590
著者
FRIGO M
雑誌
Proceedings of the IEEE
巻号頁・発行日
vol.93, no.2, pp.216-231, 2005
被引用文献数
14 1714
著者
ZIV J.
雑誌
IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.337-343, 1977
被引用文献数
153 1999
著者
Saigusa Tetsu Tero Atsushi Nakagaki Toshiyuki Kuramoto Yoshiki
出版者
American Physical Society
雑誌
Physical Review Letters (ISSN:00319007)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.100, no.1, pp.018101, 2008-01-11
被引用文献数
138 130

When plasmodia of the true slime mold Physarum were exposed to unfavorable conditions presented as three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, they reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When the plasmodia were subsequently subjected to favorable conditions, they spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time when the next unfavorable episode would have occurred. This implied the anticipation of impending environmental change. We explored the mechanisms underlying these types of behavior from a dynamical systems perspective.