著者
ラッセル ジョン・G John G. Russell 千葉県立衛生短期大学:ハーバード大学文化人類学 Chiba College of Health Science
雑誌
千葉県立衛生短期大学紀要 = Bulletin of Chiba College of Health Science (ISSN:02885034)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, no.2, pp.97-107, 1989

This paper examines the representation of Blacks in contemporary Japanese literature and the mass media. It argues that many stereotypes Japanese hold concerning Blacks are in part the product of an uncritical acceptance of Western representations of Blacks and in part a result of power relations which have influenced the type of images of Blacks Japan receives from the West, particularly the United States, and which serve to perpetuate racial stereotyping.
著者
岩佐 和典 田中 恒彦 山田 祐樹
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2018-01-15)
参考文献数
45

The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R-J). The participants were 1063 Japanese people (mean age = 21.64, SD = 7.33, range = 18–77; 581 males and 482 females) and were separated into three different groups. Participants in samples 1 (n = 481) and 2 (n = 492) provided data for examining the factor structure and validity of the DS-R-J. They completed the DS-R-J as well as questionnaires assessing disgust propensity and sensitivity, anxiety sensitivity, state and trait anxiety, affective state, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Participants in sample 3 (n = 90) provided data for estimating the test–retest reliability of the DS-R-J. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-factor structure involving core disgust, animal-reminder disgust, and physical and mental contamination disgust. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were sufficient, and conceptual validity of the DS-R-J was also supported. The results show that the Japanese version of the DS-R-J is a reliable and valid measurement of disgust sensitivity.
著者
山田 奨治
出版者
国際日本文化研究センター
雑誌
日本研究
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.103-128, 2009-11-30

六十四種類の「百鬼夜行絵巻」を対象に、その図像の編集過程の復元を試みた。描かれた「鬼」の図像配列の相違に着目し、情報学の編集距離を使って絵巻の系統樹を作成した。その結果、真珠庵本系統の「百鬼夜行絵巻」の祖本に最も近い図像配列を持つのは、日文研B本であるとの推定結果が得られた。また合本系の「百鬼夜行絵巻」についても図像配列を比較し、それらの編集過程の全体像を推定した。
著者
Tomoko M. NAKANISHI
出版者
The Japan Academy
雑誌
Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B (ISSN:03862208)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.94, no.1, pp.20-34, 2018-01-11 (Released:2018-01-11)
参考文献数
42

Immediately after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, a team of 40–50 researchers at the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Tokyo began to analyze the behavior of radioactive materials in the fallout regions. The fallout has remained in situ and become strongly adsorbed within the soil over time. 137Cs was found to bind strongly to the fine clay, weathered biotite, and organic matter in the soil; therefore, it has not mobilized from mountainous regions, even after heavy rainfall. In farmland, the quantity of 137Cs in the soil absorbed by crop plants was small. The downward migration of 137Cs in soil is now estimated at 1–2 mm/year. The intake of 137Cs by trees occurred through the bark and not from the roots. This report summarizes the findings of research across a wide variety of agricultural specialties.
著者
内藤 敦之
出版者
経済理論学会
雑誌
季刊経済理論 (ISSN:18825184)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.1, pp.66-76, 2007-04-20 (Released:2017-04-25)

Post Keynesian endogenous money supply theory appeared as one of the modern theory of credit money some twenty years ago. In recent years, while it keeping close relationship with French and Italian monetary circuit theory, the domain of the theory has expanded gradually. With regard to the role of government or state, the theory of endogenous money pays attention to the central bank which offers the means of settlement between commercial banks and plays the role of lender of last resort, but actually the state establishes money, and practices the control of money. In this respect Chartalism or state theory of money revive in the context of Post Keynesian in recent years. The relationship between the theory of endogenous money and Chartalism comes into question, because in the theory of endogenous money money supply is endogenous, while in Chartalism at a first glance exogenous money supply by the state is assumed. The two theories have not only a background of Post Keynesian, but also both theories have complementarities. That is, the theory of endogenous money deals the money of private level, and Chartalism argues the money of state level. However, both theories share nominalism especially in the theory of nature of money. In Chartalism the nature of money is regarded as establishment of money by the state, and Chartalistic money is a nominal one which has basically no relation to the real value, in the theory of endogenous money bank money also does not presuppose the relation to the real value of money. In this way, both theories share common ground, but there are differences. First, in the theory of nature of money the definition of money and various points are different. Second, both theories diverge in the role of the state. In the theory of endogenous money although the role of the state is generally assumed in relation to the function of central bank, the relationship between money and state, and the problem of Chartalism is not thoroughly examined. The placement of the state in Chartalism is unique and different from the theory of endogenous money. In this paper, aiming at clarifying what relationship both theories have, two points are examined. First, we compare both theories in the theory of nature of money, and we consider in what significance money in the real world is Chartalistic. Second, we investigate the role of the state, especially the function of the central bank respectively. The conclusions are three-fold. First, the theory of endogenous money and Chartalism share nominalism in the theory of nature of money. Nominalism is important in that it is a basis of the view against commodity theory of money. Second, two theories are different except nominalism of money in the theory of nature of money. In the theory of endogenous money the state plays important role in that it designate money as means of final settlement, this is the significance of Chartalism in the theory of endogenous money. Third, the role of the state in the theory of endogenous money moreover emerges as a function of central bank. The function of lender of last resort which is emphasized especially in Post Keynesian theory plays important role which maintains monetary and financial system, while in Chartalism central bank plays the role of bank of government, and does not conflict with central bank in the theory of endogenous money, but it has complementary function. Particularly both theories adopt the operation of short term interest rate as a measure of policy, which plays important role in the control of money.
著者
林 三千雄 中井 依砂子 藤原 広子 幸福 知己 北尾 善信 時松 一成 荒川 創一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本環境感染学会
雑誌
日本環境感染学会誌 (ISSN:1882532X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.5, pp.317-324, 2015 (Released:2015-12-05)
参考文献数
13

2007年1月から2012年12月までに当院血液内科病棟の入院患者より分離されたmetallo–β-lactamase (MBL)産生緑膿菌24株について細菌学的,遺伝子学的解析を施行すると共に,その患者背景を調査した.POT法を用いた遺伝子タイピングでは24株すべてが同一株と判定された.患者リスク因子では抗緑膿菌活性のある抗菌薬使用が21例,末梢静脈カテーテル留置が20例,過去一年以内のクリーンルーム入室歴が18例であった.器具の洗浄消毒方法の見直し,手指衛生や抗菌薬適正使用の徹底などを実施したが血液内科病棟における新規発生は減少しなかった.環境培養の結果などから伝播ルートとして温水洗浄便座を疑い,同便座ノズルの培養を行ったところMBL産生緑膿菌保菌者が使用した便座ノズルの27.2%から同菌が検出された.2013年1月,温水洗浄便座の使用を停止したところ新規のMBL産生緑膿菌検出数は減少した.その後,同便座の使用を再開したところ再び増加したため,2014年1月以降使用を停止した.血液内科病棟への入院1000 patints-daysあたりの新規MBL産生緑膿菌検出数をMBL産生緑膿菌感染率とすると,温水洗浄便座使用時は0.535,中止中は0.120であった(p=0.0038).血液内科病棟における温水洗浄便座の使用はMBL産生緑膿菌院内伝播の一因となり得ると考えられた.
著者
永田 雅輝 宮内 信文 田中 俊一郎 比嘉 照夫 萬田 正治 金澤 晋二郎
巻号頁・発行日
1999 (Released:2001-10-23)

本研究の目的は,環境,一次産業,二次産業および医療分野でも普及しつつあるEM技術について,農業工学,土壌環境学,畜産学,園芸学および食品化学などの多方面の研究者が縦横に組織を組んで,客観的な調査を行い,今後の学術共同研究の方向性を創出することにある.調査の結果,これまでの事例から以下のように要約される.1)EMを構成する微生物は当初とは異なり,10種類程度でも土壌菌と共生的に効果を出すことが判明した.効果の発現は,環境中のEMの密度が高まって生態的に多勢となった場合に著効が認められ二次産業等における効果はEMが生成する多様な抗酸化物質によるものと判断される。2)水稲に対しては,EMと有機物の施用が適正であれば,数年で有機農業などへ転換可能であって,品質・収量ともに慣行法より向上し,また水田の除草時間も大幅に低減することを認めている.3)EM栽培したミニトマトの呼吸速度は対照区に比べて貯蔵初期で50%も低く,日持ちの良さを示唆している.4)EMの土壌改良材としての効果は顕著であることを認めている.5)畜産分野におけるEMは悪臭防除と病気予防に効果があることを認めている.6)EMの食品化学的有効性は,厳密な意味での確認できる例とデータは存在せず,その解明には多くの困難があり,時間が必要であると判断される.以上,EMの効果は現象的には,一部を除いて良好な事例もあることから,今後は (1)土壌菌と共生的に効果を出すメカニズム, (2)抗酸化物質の特定, (3)土壌改良の機作, (4)生態系改善の仕組み, (5)農産物の品質・貯蔵性向上の機構, (6)微生物群相遷移発達過程の実証, (7)EMの家畜腸内細菌に及ぼす影響, (8)食品化学的に厳密なEM効果の検証, など科学的・技術的な裏付けを行うことによって,環境保全型農業の推進に多大に寄与する研究分野であるといえる.
著者
横田 俊平 黒岩 義之 西岡 久寿樹
出版者
日本臨床免疫学会
雑誌
日本臨床免疫学会会誌 (ISSN:09114300)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.4, pp.288a-288a, 2015 (Released:2015-10-25)

ヒト・パピローマウイルス(HPV)は一般的な感染因子であり,子宮頸部基底細胞への感染は部分的には癌発症の契機になる.子宮頸癌を予防する目的でHPVワクチンが開発され(CervarixとGardasil),約340万人の若年女性に接種が行われた.しかし,HPVワクチン接種後より全身痛,頭痛,生理異常,病的だるさ・脱力・不随意運動,立ちくらみ・繰り返す便秘・下痢,光過敏・音過敏,集中力低下・計算力と書字力の低下・記憶障害などを呈する思春期女性が増加している.「HPVワクチン関連神経免疫異常症候群(HANS)」と仮称し,当科外来を受診した51例の臨床症状の把握とその体系化を行った.すべての症例は,HPVワクチン接種前は良好な健康状態・知的状態にあり,接種後,全例が一様に一連の症候の重層化,すなわち,疼痛性障害,不随意運動を含む運動器機能障害,感覚障害,生理異常,自律神経障害,高次脳機能障害と進展することを確認した.このように幅広いスペクトラムの疾患の記載はこれまでになく,これらの症候を同時に呈する中枢神経障害部位についての検討をすすめ,「視床下部 下垂体病変」と捉えられることが判明した.病態形成にはミクログリアが関わる自然免疫,HPVワクチン抗原のペプチドと特異なHLAが関わる適応免疫の両者が,強力なアジバントの刺激を受けて視床下部の炎症を繰り返し誘導していると考えている.治療にはramelteon(circadian rhythmの回復),memantine(シナプス伝達の改善),theophylin(phosphodiesterase inhibitorの抑制)を用い対症的には対応が可能となったが,病態に根本的に介入できる薬剤はいまだ手にしていない.
著者
中村 茂子
出版者
実践女子大学
雑誌
実践女子大学美學美術史學 (ISSN:09122044)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.25-37, 2009-03-05

16 9 9 9 OA 剣道集義

著者
山田次郎吉 著
出版者
水心社
巻号頁・発行日
vol.続, 1923

15 9 9 0 OA 大言海

著者
大槻文彦 著
出版者
富山房
巻号頁・発行日
vol.第3巻, 1935
著者
池田 勇太
出版者
公益財団法人 史学会
雑誌
史学雑誌 (ISSN:00182478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.115, no.6, pp.1041-1078, 2006

The present article attempts to clarify the birth of monarchical constitutionalism on the occasion of a debate over a popularly elected parliament in 1874, by focusing on Motoda Nagazane (or Eifu) 元田永孚, who was Emperor Meiji's tutor in Confucianism. The introduction of a constitutional polity in the absence of a government not only displayed the strong character of a modernization measure and was thought to realize a political society supported by the masses and open public opinion, but also a parliament, constitution and separation of the legislative and administrative branches of government were expected to solve real problems that existed in local administration and politics at the time. The article begins with an examination of the actions taken by the Governor of Fukushima Prefecture Yasuba Yasukazu 安場保和 in order to clarify the era's parliamentary movement against the background of local administration and to argue that the fair and just nature (ko 公) of a constitutional polity was thought to be identical to traditional Confucian political ideals. Secondly, the introduction of a constitutional polity at that point in time was not the result of power politics fought along vertical, class lines, but was rather a specific political expression of what the Restoration bureaucracy thought desirable. On the other hand, the introduction of such a polity under well-meaning auspices from above also meant that the bureaucracy did not always seek broad pluralistic opinions on the subject, but rather tended to make policy decisions in a more theoretical manner. The 1874 debate over a popularly elected parliament brought the issue of mass popular political participation to the forefront in terms of "joint rule by king and citizen." It was here that Motoda Eifu suggested that in a monarchical state it was necessary to make a distinction between "public opinion" and "the just argument," arguing that it was the monarch who should employ the latter. Any parliamentary system in which the monarch enjoys ultimate prerogative, moreover, demands that the monarch have the ability to exercise that prerogative properly, which necessitated the development of a system of imperial advisors and educators. At that time there was also the idea that the position of senior political advisor (genro 元老) should be created outside of the cabinet to perform such a function. Motoda, on the other hand, reformed such an idea based on the necessity of a monarch performing his duties with the final say within a constitutional polity. This is why it can be said that both monarchical constitutionalism and the establishment of the emperor's prerogative within it was born out of the 1874 debate over a popularly elected parliament.
著者
海軍電気工業会電気兵装部会 編
出版者
産業図書
巻号頁・発行日
vol.商船の部, 1944
著者
酒巻 秀明
出版者
東京女子大学現代教養学部国際社会学科社会学専攻紀要編集委員会
雑誌
東京女子大学社会学年報 = Tokyo Women's Christian University annals of sociology (ISSN:21876401)
巻号頁・発行日
no.2, pp.1-16, 2014

ウルリッヒ・ベックによれば,近年の政治の停滞は別に驚くべきことではなく,再帰的近代化の進行の結果ということになる.ベックの考える再帰的近代化とは,近代化の後の近代化のことで,近代化でもたらされた変化によって,再び社会の近代化が進むことを意味している.そのため,再帰的とも言われる.そこで本稿では,ベックが再帰的近代化後の政治をどのように捉えているのかが検討される.ベックによれば,一般的に近代社会と考えられている産業社会は,半分モダンな社会でしかなかった.しかし,国民の権利拡大の要求や,経済や科学の潜在力が無視できないほど拡大したことにより,今までの公式的な政治の外側で社会を変化させる動きが強まっている.ベックはこのような動きをサブ政治と呼び,このような事象を理解するためには,政治的なものの再発見が必要と考えている.消費の問題を例にすると,これまでの研究では,一般的に政治に訴えることでの解決が考えられていた.しかし,ベックは経済の中に民主主義的なシステムを持ち込むことで,サブ政治の次元で問題解決が図れるとしている.ベックによると,既存の政治システムですべてをコントロールするのは,もはや無理だと考えられる.そこで,ベックは,これから求められるのは,様々な集団や分野の議論による相互コントロールの仕組みだとしている.This paper will show why Ulrich Beck thinks that the political needs to be reinvented. According to Beck, recent political instability has been caused by reflexive modernization, which he thinks of as the modernization of modernization. It is reflexive becausechanges brought about by modernization lead to further modernization.In his opinion, democracy in modern industrial societies was half modern in two respects. First, other than by voting, citizens had no opportunity to participate in the political decision-making process. Second, there was no need to control the economy and scientific advance democratically, as these activities were still in the early stages and not a threat to society. Nowadays, however, we see people trying to change society directly by using their own powers, not via parliament. In addition, the economy and scientific advances bring new products that could change society entirely. We are facing a new situation, not presupposed by official political undertakings. Beck summarized these "political" activities outside the existing political institutions as subpolitics. What we need now, he thinks, is the reinvention of the political.As an example of his new political theory, his analysis of the consumer movement is compared with traditional theory. While the traditional theory holds that problems of consumption must be solved in the realms of politics, Beck thinks that they must be solved through the democratization of the economy. A democratic mechanism should be installed in the economic system, making the economy a sub-public arena.According to Beck, there is no one simple answer in the era of reflexive modernization and we should leave the ideal of the political center behind. Instead, he proposes a new form of politics, one that facilitates democracy in every social sphere and enables mutual control.