著者
Shinya KOBAYASHI Yukinari OTA Yayoi HARADA Ayataka EBITA Masami MORIYA Hirokatsu ONODA Kazutoshi ONOGI Hirotaka KAMAHORI Chiaki KOBAYASHI Hirokazu ENDO Kengo MIYAOKA Kiyotoshi TAKAHASHI
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.93, no.1, pp.5-48, 2015 (Released:2015-03-18)
参考文献数
128
被引用文献数
213 1141

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) conducted the second Japanese global atmospheric reanalysis, called the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis or JRA-55. It covers the period from 1958, when regular radiosonde observations began on a global basis. JRA-55 is the first comprehensive reanalysis that has covered the last half-century since the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 45-year Reanalysis (ERA-40), and is the first one to apply four-dimensional variational analysis to this period. The main objectives of JRA-55 were to address issues found in previous reanalyses and to produce a comprehensive atmospheric dataset suitable for studying multidecadal variability and climate change. This paper describes the observations, data assimilation system, and forecast model used to produce JRA-55 as well as the basic characteristics of the JRA-55 product. JRA-55 has been produced with the TL319 version of JMA’s operational data assimilation system as of December 2009, which was extensively improved since the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25). It also uses several newly available and improved past observations. The resulting reanalysis products are considerably better than the JRA-25 product. Two major problems of JRA-25 were a cold bias in the lower stratosphere, which has been diminished, and a dry bias in the Amazon basin, which has been mitigated. The temporal consistency of temperature analysis has also been considerably improved compared to previous reanalysis products. Our initial quality evaluation revealed problems such as a warm bias in the upper troposphere, large upward imbalance in the global mean net energy fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface, excessive precipitation over the tropics, and unrealistic trends in analyzed tropical cyclone strength. This paper also assesses the impacts of model biases and changes in the observing system, and mentions efforts to further investigate the representation of low-frequency variability and trends in JRA-55.
著者
Hirotaka Kamahori Osamu Arakawa
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.165-169, 2018 (Released:2018-11-09)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
2 2

Tropical cyclone (TC) induced precipitation (TCP) over Japan is evaluated with the rain gauge observation based gridded dataset APHRO_JP. The TC–influenced frequency reaches a maximum in the Nansei Islands and decreases monotonically with latitude. On the other hand, the distribution of TCP indicates different characteristics from the one of TC–influenced frequency. The largest annual TCP, 500 mm yr−1 or more, occurs over eastern Kyushu (E-Kyushu), southern Shikoku (S-Shikoku), and the eastern Kii peninsula (E-Kii), where it accounts for 15% or more of the total precipitation. The maximum daily TCP amounts to 200 mm d−1 in those three areas, which are all located on the eastern side of Japan and correspond to eastward or southeastward topographic inclines. A significant relationship is found between the amount of annual TCP and topographic incline, and the large amount of TCP concentrates in the eastward or the southeastward inclines. The extreme daily TCP once every 50 years is also evaluated. The extreme daily TCP is estimated to be 500 mm d−1 comparable to the climatological annual TCP in E-Kyushu, S-Shikoku, and E-Kii. These three areas appear to be the most hazardous part of Japan in terms of TCP.
著者
Ryusuke Masunaga Hisashi Nakamura Hirotaka Kamahori Kazutoshi Onogi Satoru Okajima
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, pp.6-13, 2018 (Released:2018-01-18)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
3

As an additional product of the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) project, a new global atmospheric reanalysis product, named JRA-55CHS, is under construction. It utilizes quarter-degree sea-surface temperature (SST) as lower-boundary condition with the same data assimilation system as the JRA-55 Conventional (JRA-55C), into which no satellite data is assimilated. The SST data can resolve steep SST gradients along the western boundary currents (WBCs), which are not necessarily well represented in many of the other atmospheric reanalysis products, including the JRA-55C. The present paper briefly documents basic performance of the JRA-55CHS, through comparing it with the JRA-55C and satellite observations in focusing on the major WBC regions. In the JRA-55CHS, mesoscale atmospheric structures along the WBCs are well reproduced in their climatological-mean fields as captured in the satellite observations. Their interannual- to decadal-scale variations associated with SST variations are also reasonably reproduced. The corresponding atmospheric features are less obvious in the JRA-55C owing to smoother SST prescribed. Furthermore, comparison between the two reanalysis products reveals that the influence of frontal-scale SST distributions can reach into the middle and upper troposphere, especially in summer. The JRA-55CHS will be useful for deepening our understanding of the nature of midlatitude frontal-scale air-sea interactions.
著者
Chiaki Kobayashi Hirokazu Endo Yukinari Ota Shinya Kobayashi Hirokatsu Onoda Yayoi Harada Kazutoshi Onogi Hirotaka Kamahori
出版者
(公社)日本気象学会
雑誌
SOLA (ISSN:13496476)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.78-82, 2014 (Released:2014-05-14)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
6 26

As a subset of the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) project, the Meteorological Research Institute of the Japan Meteorological Agency is conducting a global atmospheric reanalysis that assimilates only conventional surface and upper air observations, with no use of satellite observations, using the same data assimilation system as the JRA-55. The project, named the JRA-55 Conventional (JRA-55C), aims to produce a more homogeneous dataset over a long period, unaffected by changes in historical satellite observing systems. The dataset is intended to be suitable for studies of climate change or multi-decadal variability. The climatological properties deduced from the early results of the JRA-55C are similar to those of the JRA-55 in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, except for high southern latitudes. On the basis of forecast skill, the quality of the JRA-55C is inferior to that of the JRA-55, but the JRA-55C has better temporal homogeneity than the JRA-55. The skill of the latter changes during the JRA-55 period. We have completed 85% of the entire JRA-55C calculation as of February 2014. We expect that the JRA-55C will contribute to a much better understanding of the impact of changes in observing systems on climate trends and variability estimated from the JRA-55.