著者
脇谷 祐子 坂爪 浩史
出版者
北海道大学大学院農学研究院
雑誌
北海道大学農経論叢 (ISSN:03855961)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.21-28, 2011-03-31

This paper's aim is to clarify the subsistence structure of processed and frozen food venders for school meals. The conclusions are as follows: 1) Processed and frozen foods are used for school meals all year round including the period when local products are in season. 2) The venders sell processed and frozen foods not only to school but also to restaurants and retailers. The prices at which venders sell school meals is decided by tender, and the terms of validity vary from one month to one year. The procurement price from factories fluctuates in line with raw product yields and the exchange rate, and venders take on the risks of such price fluctuation. The approximate volume of orders from schools is decided at the time of tender and the volume is fixed one week before delivery. The factories, however, need to put raw materials into production before they can receive a definite order, so the venders must order an estimated volume from factories. Thus the processed and frozen food venders subsist by taking on the risks of price and volume fluctuations between the school meals and factories.
著者
坂下 明彦 朴 紅 申 錬鐵 禹 暎均
出版者
北海道大学院農学研究院
雑誌
北海道大学農経論叢 (ISSN:03855961)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.49-60, 2011-03-31

Pulmoo School is a Christian-based school that follows the Danish folk high school model. It is located in Hong Dong-Myeon, Hong Sung-Gun, Chung Cheong Nam-Do, Korea and aims to educate rural children. Pulmoo School was established in 1958 and regarded the surrounding areas as one community. Ever since that time, the school has been making efforts to build a community-based society through cooperatives. During its early years, the school set up a purchasing cooperative and a credit cooperative in this community. The former became Pulmoo Consumer Cooperative in 1980 and the latter became Pulmoo Credit Cooperative in 1972, with both of them eventually becoming regional cooperatives. In the 1980s, agricultural products were directly sold to the capital area through Pulmoo Consumer Living Cooperative on the back of the Japanese organic agriculture movement. In addition, rice-duck farming was introduced to produce organic rice in 1994. In the following few years, amid policy developments concerning organic agriculture, the scope of organic agriculture branched into vegetables and animal products, and even into the processing industry. This was a result of great organizational changes that had been taking place in the community: Pulmoo Consumer Living Cooperative changed into Agricultural Cooperative, while the Hong Dong-Myeon Agricultural Cooperative developed into a union. Furthermore, the Pulmoo Credit Cooperative started selling production equipment to peasant households. In addition, a peasant association aimed at promoting the direct marketing of agricultural products was set up. As a result, Hong Sung-Gun including Hong Dong-Myeon has been regarded as the Mecca of organic agriculture in Korea.
著者
朴 紅 青柳 斉 伊藤 亮司 張 錦女 坂下 明彦
出版者
北海道大学大学院農学研究院
雑誌
北海道大学農経論叢 (ISSN:03855961)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.61-69, 2011-03-03

This is the second of the essays that study the development of organic rice production areas based on the case of Heilongjiang Wuchang City, which is famous for being the breadbasket of quality rice. In this study, Minle Township, which is the core area of organic rice production in Wuchang City, is chosen for the research. This essay also summarizes the process Minle County underwent to become an organic rice growing area. Furthermore, three production and sales organizations are given as examples, and their organic rice management characteristics are analyzed. The first case is the Fengsu Cooperative, which is an extensive and specialized farmersユ cooperative established in 2006 with 450 household members and a 2,000-hectare production base. The next case is the Farming Science and Technology Association, which is an organization centered on skilled peasant households, established in 2002. This association is transregional and has 100 household members and a 300-hectare production base. The third case is the Meiyu Cooperative, established by villager groups in 2008. With 100 household members and a 200-hectare production base, the Meiyu Cooperative is an organization based on and controlled by an enterprise providing a residence community for their members. In addition, although several peasant households receive orders directly from the enterprise,spontaneously-organized peasant cooperatives are more common, against the backdrop that organic longgrain rice now sells at high prices. All these factors demonstrate the characteristics of Minle County as a production area of premium rice.