著者
李 雪蓮 朴 紅 坂下 明彦
出版者
北海道大学大学院農学研究院
雑誌
農経論叢 (ISSN:03855961)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.72, pp.55-66, 2018-03-31

To solve the problem of a labor shortage in 3D industries (dirty, dangerous and demeaning industries) in a growing economy, the South Korean government began to develop its employment permit system for hiring foreign workers in the 1990s, followed by a series of labor policies in various areas, such as industrial technology training, employment management, and visiting employment. In this research, we focus on Chinese ethnic-Korean migrant workers, the largest group among foreign workers in Korea, study the background and current situation of related labor policies, and analyze the factors that influenced policy changes. By comparing the old- and new-generation migrant workers, it is understood that the deregulation has gradually stabilized in terms of employment, policies, welfare, etc. With the introduction of the visiting employment policy, illegal stays stemming from old policies, such as those for the purpose of visiting relatives or participating in industrial training programs, are legalized and regulated, and illegal ethnic-Korean migrant workers are recognized as" compatriots." Since foreign workers are essential for Korea's labor market, providing access for trainees to change their employment status and join the legal labor force has helped to guarantee the labor supplement on one hand and reduce the number of illegal stays on the other. As a result, nearly 30% of Chinese ethnic-Koreans chose to stay in South Korea, accounting for 2.4% of Korea's economically active population.
著者
坂下 明彦 朴 紅 申 錬鐵 禹 暎均
出版者
北海道大学院農学研究院
雑誌
北海道大学農経論叢 (ISSN:03855961)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.49-60, 2011-03-31

Pulmoo School is a Christian-based school that follows the Danish folk high school model. It is located in Hong Dong-Myeon, Hong Sung-Gun, Chung Cheong Nam-Do, Korea and aims to educate rural children. Pulmoo School was established in 1958 and regarded the surrounding areas as one community. Ever since that time, the school has been making efforts to build a community-based society through cooperatives. During its early years, the school set up a purchasing cooperative and a credit cooperative in this community. The former became Pulmoo Consumer Cooperative in 1980 and the latter became Pulmoo Credit Cooperative in 1972, with both of them eventually becoming regional cooperatives. In the 1980s, agricultural products were directly sold to the capital area through Pulmoo Consumer Living Cooperative on the back of the Japanese organic agriculture movement. In addition, rice-duck farming was introduced to produce organic rice in 1994. In the following few years, amid policy developments concerning organic agriculture, the scope of organic agriculture branched into vegetables and animal products, and even into the processing industry. This was a result of great organizational changes that had been taking place in the community: Pulmoo Consumer Living Cooperative changed into Agricultural Cooperative, while the Hong Dong-Myeon Agricultural Cooperative developed into a union. Furthermore, the Pulmoo Credit Cooperative started selling production equipment to peasant households. In addition, a peasant association aimed at promoting the direct marketing of agricultural products was set up. As a result, Hong Sung-Gun including Hong Dong-Myeon has been regarded as the Mecca of organic agriculture in Korea.
著者
朴 紅 青柳 斉 伊藤 亮司 張 錦女 坂下 明彦
出版者
北海道大学大学院農学研究院
雑誌
北海道大学農経論叢 (ISSN:03855961)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.61-69, 2011-03-03

This is the second of the essays that study the development of organic rice production areas based on the case of Heilongjiang Wuchang City, which is famous for being the breadbasket of quality rice. In this study, Minle Township, which is the core area of organic rice production in Wuchang City, is chosen for the research. This essay also summarizes the process Minle County underwent to become an organic rice growing area. Furthermore, three production and sales organizations are given as examples, and their organic rice management characteristics are analyzed. The first case is the Fengsu Cooperative, which is an extensive and specialized farmersユ cooperative established in 2006 with 450 household members and a 2,000-hectare production base. The next case is the Farming Science and Technology Association, which is an organization centered on skilled peasant households, established in 2002. This association is transregional and has 100 household members and a 300-hectare production base. The third case is the Meiyu Cooperative, established by villager groups in 2008. With 100 household members and a 200-hectare production base, the Meiyu Cooperative is an organization based on and controlled by an enterprise providing a residence community for their members. In addition, although several peasant households receive orders directly from the enterprise,spontaneously-organized peasant cooperatives are more common, against the backdrop that organic longgrain rice now sells at high prices. All these factors demonstrate the characteristics of Minle County as a production area of premium rice.
著者
岩本 純明 大鎌 邦雄 坂下 明彦 松本 武祝 加瀬 和俊 坂根 嘉弘 藤田 幸一 生方 史数 仲地 宗俊 杉原 たまえ
出版者
東京農業大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2009

共有資源の管理システムを、林野・漁業・水利に焦点を当てて比較制度論的に検討した。調査地は、海外 8 カ国、国内 12 カ所で行った。主な知見は以下の通りである。(1)共同体をベースにした共有資源管理制度は、市場経済の浸透のもとでもまだ広汎に残っている。(2)しかしながら、共同体的関係の弛緩とともに、従来は内部で吸収できていたコストが顕在化している。(3)資源管理に関わる技術革新も制度変容の重要な要因となっている。
著者
泉田 洋一 立川 雅司 加古 敏之 新山 陽子 青柳 斉 生源寺 眞一 茂野 隆一 坂下 明彦 川手 督也 荒幡 克己
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
基盤研究(B)
巻号頁・発行日
2010

本研究は、日本の農業・農村経済学の成果を個別関連学会の活動成果総体として分析すると同時に、共通課題を抽出して、その方向性を見極めんとするものである。具体的には14の農業経済関連学会の成果を時系列的に分析し、共通課題の抽出にあたっては、各学会の学会誌掲載論文の形態分析、会員へのアンケート調査に加えて、国際農業経済学会、韓国、台湾、中国の農業経済学会の動向についても詳細な分析を行った。成果は拡大しているものの国際化や情報化への対応等における課題が浮き彫りになっており、関連学会間の相互補完(複合結合)が必要となる。