著者
槇 裕輔
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.2, pp.145-155, 2007-05-15 (Released:2017-11-01)

Im Mittelpunkt des osterreichischen Bundesverfassungsrechts steht das Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz, zu den das Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz, "Gesetz vom 1. Oktober 1920, womit die Republik Osterreich als Bundesstaats einrichtet wird" (BGB1 1920/1), in den Jahren 1925 und 1929 durch zwei umfassungreiche Bundesverfassungsnovellen geandert wurde und dessen Titel das "Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz in der Fassung von 1929" ist. Eine grosse und formelle Eigenart des osterreichschen Bundesverfassungsrechts ist, daB das hat viele Rechtsquellen, die die Bundes-verfassung(B-VG) als eine Rechtsquelle des Bunderverfassungsrecht, das Bundesverfassungsgesetz(BVG), einzelne Bstimmungen eines Gesetzes als Verfassungsbestimmungen, Staatsvertrage in Verfasssunsgrang und einzelne Verfassungsbsetimmungen in Staatsvertragen sind. Zur das Verfassungsgesetz gehort das Staatsgrundgesetz vom 21. Dezember 1867, uber die allgemeinen Rechte der Staatsburger fur die im Reichsrate vertretenen Konigreiche und Lander welches in Kraft gesetzt worden ist. Und dieses Staatsgrundgesetz gilt heute noch als ein Bundesverfassungsgesetz. In dieser Abhandlung wurde ich uber die Rechtsquellen als die Eingenart der osterreichischen Bundesverfassung und eine Seite der Bundesverfassungsgeschichte betrachten.
著者
小谷 順子
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.1, pp.145-160, 2005-11-15

The Canadian Supreme Court has upheld hate speech regulation in several cases, whereas the U. S. Supreme Court has struck down such regulation, invalidating the idea of such regulation. This article focuses on Canadian Supreme Court cases involving hate speech regulation and analyzes the reasons behind the contrasting attitudes of the two neighboring countries with similar backgrounds. Chapter I briefly outlines the constitutional problems surrounding the regulation of hate speech in the democratic world. Chapter II describes general characteristics of Freedom of Speech in Canada, which is guaranteed by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Chapter III analyzes five cases ruled in the Canadian Supreme Court, four of which upheld hate speech regulation. Chapter IV makes comparative analysis of Canadian and U. S. cases by referring to differences in the texts of the Constitutions, case laws, public acceptance, and so forth.
著者
岩村 正史
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.209-228, 2000-05-15

Introduction I Response to Hitler's administration II Admiration for Hitler in the Japanese-Chinese War III World War II and Shaking Image of Hitler Conclusion
著者
小谷 順子
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.149-167, 2004

In 1992, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down an ordinance banning "fighting words", including cross-burning and the display of swastika, that insulted others or provoked violence "on the basis of race, color, creed, religion or gender." In R.A.V. v. St. Paul, the Court stated that the ordinance impermissibly discriminated against unpopular topics within the category of proscribable speech and thus violated the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Although the Court acknowledged that combating racism was in the city's interest, it concluded that the city could not advance that interest by singling out unfavorable speech for punishment and declared the ordinance unconstitutional. In 1993, however, the Court upheld a Wisconsin penalty-enhancement law in Wisconsin v. Mitchell, declaring that the statute only penalized the criminal action, not the idea or speech. After R.A.V. and Mitchell, hate speech regulations of any form were considered impermissible while penalty enhancement laws and their variations were considered permissible, and the lower courts handled the cases before them accordingly. Cross-burning statutes, however, caused confusion, with five statutes being declared unconstitutional and two constitutional. In 2003 the Supreme Court upheld a Virginia statute banning cross-burning with the intent to threaten others in Virginia v. Black. The Court stated that the statute simply singled out the most terrifying type of threat of all types of threat, and therefore it did not discriminate against certain topics or viewpoints as the ordinance in R.A. V. did. This article analyzes these three federal high court cases along with seven state cases, and then compares R.A.V. and Black, and concludes that the two codes both banned controversial topic within proscribable categories and that the Court's handling of the two cases was inconsistent and inappropriate.
著者
佐伯 康子
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.2, pp.229-237, 2000

1.Strategic values of the South Sea Islands for the Japanese Navy. 1)The 1st World War and dispatch cruisers by the reguest of Sir.Winston Churchill, the Minister of the Royal Navy. 2)Occupation of the South Sea Islands 3)Churchill's reguest of destroyers and a promise between Japan and the U.K. 4)The Paris Peace Conference 5)Reguest to Nanyokohatsu 2.Strategic values of the South Sea Islands for Nanyokohatsu. 1)Establishment of Nanyokohatsu. 2)The business development by Haruji Matsue.
著者
竹内 桂
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.1, pp.1, 2017 (Released:2017-05-19)

Takeo Miki, who assumed the position of prime minister in 1974, is one of the primary statesman in postwar Japan. He won his seat at the 20th general election in 1937, and was subsequently voted into office 19 times in a row. The purpose of this thesis is to classify the activities of Miki in the period of his school days at Meiji University after which I consider the significance of his student days. From the analysis, I can point out the following significant points. Firstly, Miki developed an interest in real politics. He decided that he would run in a general election in the future. Secondly, Miki was aware of the importance of what can be obtained from travel. Because of that, he developed international sensibilities and an interest in international affairs. Thirdly, Miki met Shintaro Fukushima and Kazushige Hirasawa, who both played important roles as Miki’s mentors at a later date. Fourthly, Miki came to recognize the importance of the mass media. It was essential for Miki to have entered Meiji University in order to become a member of the House of Representatives.
著者
鈴木 隆志
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.1, pp.1-16, 2011-11-15

The purpose of this paper is to examine the defects of the referendum through the case in which the issue of the shopping bag tax comprehended as a green fee has been rejected by the Seattle referendum. It is rather a rare case that the municipal ordinance, such as the shopping bag tax act previously approved by the Seattle City Council in 2008, and enacted in 2009, has been rejected in the referendum. The question is why the Seattle shopping bag tax act has been rejected in the referendum, despite the fact that Seattle citizens are considered liberal and environmentally oriented. There must be some defects in the referendum system itself or a sort of failure in the decision-making process for the shopping bag tax act. As for the failure of decision-making process of the city government, it can be indicated that there must have been a lack of an educational outreach touch to the citizens as well as a lack of mutual consensus between the city government and the business group. It is more important, however, to look into their referendum campaign maneuvers and also the dynamics of other elections for the local officials. I hope that this article will explain the American political climate of urban politics. I also hope the findings of this study will give readers some suggestions for the betterment of our local autonomy system in Japan.
著者
上村 都
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.36, no.1, pp.147-159, 1999

<p>1 Fragestellung Die Frage, ob die Kollektivbeleidigung im allgemeinen und die sog. hate speech im besonderen zu verbieten ist, hat nicht nur auf volkerrechtlicher Ebene, sondern auch in der Staatsrechtswissenschaft Japans und anderer Staaten eine aktuelle Bedeutung. In diesem Beitrag ist darzulegen, dass die Bestrafung der Beleidigung von Kollektiven nur um des Schutzes der personlichen Ehre einzelner Gruppenangehoriger willen zu1assig ist und dass eine daruber hinausgehende Beschrankung der Meinungsfreiheit vetmieden werden soll. 2 Schutzbereich der Meinungsfreiheit Zuerst ist die Frage zu klaren, ob eine scharfe Kritik oder sogar eine beleidigende Ausserung unter den Schutzbereich der Meinungsfreiheit fallt. Nach der standigen Rechtsprechung des BVerfG besteht der Grundrechtsschutz unabhangig davon, ob die Ausserung rational oder emotional, begrundet oder grundlos ist und ob sie von anderen fur nutzlich oder schadlich, wertvoll oder wertlos gehalten wird. Im Auschwitzluge-Beschluss vom 13. 4. 1994 (BVerfGE 90, 241) hat das BVerfG die Verfassungsmassigkeit der behordlichen Auflage zwar zuerst wie folgt begrundet: Die in Frage stehende Ausserung soll aus dem Schutzbereich des Grundrechts nach Art. 5 Abs. 1 ausgeschlossen werden, well sie eine erwiesen falsche Tatsachenbehauptung darstellt. Das Gericht hat aberdaneben den zweiten Weg gezeigt, der davon ausgeht, dass auch die Auschwitzluge unter den grundrechtlichen Schutzbereich fallen kann, soweit sie als Meinungsausserung zur Erpressbarkeit deutscher Politik verstanden werden kann. Dogmatisch glatter und verallgemeinerungsfahiger ist der zweite Weg. Der erstere, der Ausschluss bestimmter Aussagen vom Schutzbereich der Meinungsfreiheit, kann zwar fur die Auschwitzluge zutreffen. Es fallt aber schwer, einen zweiten Anwendungsfall auch nur theoretisch zu finden. 3 Personliche Betroffenheit als Ausgangspunkt Die zweite Frage lautet: Was ist eigentlich das Rechtsgut, das durch das Verbot der Kollektivbeleidigung geschutzt werden soll? Die Ehre des Kollektivs als solches oder die des einzelnen Mitglieds? Nach dem "Soldaten sind Morder"-Beschluss vom 10. 10. 1995(BVerfGE 93, 266) soll es die "personliche" Ehre der einzelnen Gruppenangehorigen sein. Die personliche Betroffenheit ist nach dem BVerfG dann anzunehmen, wenn es sich um eine abgrenzbare und iiberschaubare Gruppe handelt und die herabsetzende Ausserung an ein Merkmal anknupft, das bei allen Angehorigen des Kollektivs vorliegt, und wenn die angenommene Gruppe nicht uniiberschaubar gross ist(wie: alle Katholiken oder alle Protestanten, alle Gewerkschaftsmitglieder, alle Frauen). 4 Giiterabwlgung Drittens ist die Frage zu klaren, wie die beiden kollidierenden Grundrechtsguter abgewogen werden sollen. Das BVerfG entwickelte schon im Luth-Urteil vom 15. 1. 1958(BVerfGE 7, 198) die sog. "Wechselwirkungslehre". Sie verlangt, dass die Grundrechtsschranke in ihrer das Grundrecht beschrankenden Wirkung ihrerseits im Lichte der Bedeutung dieses Grundrechts gesehen und so interpretiert werden muss, dass der besondere Wertgehalt des eingeschrankten Rechts auf jeden Fall gewahrl bleibt. Als deren Konkretisierung gelten nach der Rechtsprechung die "Vermutungsformel" und die "Vorrangformel". Die erstere lautet: wenn es sich bei der umstrittenen Ausserung um einem Beitrag zuv offentlichen Meinungsbildung oder zu einer die Offentlichkeit wesentlich beruhrenden Frage handelt,so spricht eine Vermutung zugunsten der Freiheit der Rede. Die letztere gilt dagegen fur die herabsetzenden Ausserungen, die entweder die Menschenwurde eines anderen antasten oder sich als Formalbeleidigung oder Schmahung darstellen. In diesem Fall soll die Meinungsfreiheit regelmassig hinter den Ehrenschutz zurucktreten. Im Falle der Kollektivbezeichnung gilt noch eine weitere Vermutung: wenn eine Personengruppe durch eine bestimmte soziale Funktion geeint ist, lasst</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>
著者
板橋 亮平
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.73-87, 2010-11-15

Rawls is currently a very popular research topic. Although this is a desirable situation, studies on Rawls are full of inaccurate discourses. In Japan, too, studies especially on reflective equilibrium-are full of errors. In this paper I will demonstrate this, especially in the case of Japanese research.
著者
和田 幸司
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.88-115, 2010-11-15

The primary concern of this paper is to clarify the approach of the Syoukouji Temple to the authority of the Tenno and his court. This paper is based on a study on the "Kizokuka" of the Hongwanji Temple that was suggested by TSUJI Zennosuke and WAKITA Haruko. I use two research methods. Firstly, I examin the incident in which the Nishi Hongwanji Temple seized the land of the Syoukouji Temple. Secondly, I consider the economic foundation of the Syoukouji Temple from the perspective of spreading the sect's teachings. This article is for people who are interested in Shin Buddhism and early modern Japanese history The main findings of this paper are as follows. 1. The Syoukouji Temple built up a relationship with Tenno and his court by maintaining a religious relationship with Kujoke and Chitokuin. 2. The sect's believers in Satsuma and Ryukyu supported the "Kizokuka" of the Syoukouji Temple. 3. Belief was orientated towards the Tenno and his court in early modern times.
著者
付 月
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.2, pp.1-12, 2008-05-15

Stateless person, who lack a legal bond of a nationality which has been described as "the right to have rights", exist in all regions of the world. Japan is not an exception from this phenomenon. Some person are turned "stateless" due to political or historical reasons, and many new born stateless children of foreign parents are living in the shadows of the Japanese society. The most effective way of protecting stateless persons, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), is to develop legislation that avoids creating a situation of statelessness in the first place. However, it is estimated that there are about 15 million stateless persons in the world who should be protected until the problem of statelessness is eliminated. Ensuring the right of stateless persons to remain in their country of habitual residence is indispensable for the protection of stateless persons. Nevertheless, many stateless persons are confronted with a danger of expulsion and detention in the country of their habitual residence despite the fact that they lack of protection by any state in the world. This article focuses on the issues of protecting stateless persons, especially on the rights to remain and re-enter the country of their habitual residence, and on the protection against expulsion and detention of stateless persons. I drew particular attention to analyze the actual situation of the deportation and detention of stateless persons who are irregularly staying in Japan.
著者
堀川 茂野
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.139-157, 2006-11-15

In our modern police history, it has been considered that police activities have intruded into the details of civilian life and persecuted their freedom and rights. However, at present it can be said that both the police and welfare activities are for actualizing the safety of society and the happiness of people. This paper sees the police as a provider of welfare. Firstly, the author studied the legal reasons and the actual conditions of the "protective activities" that require the welfare aspect among police activities. Secondly, the author conducted a questionnaire survey targeted at citizens regarding the "protection of demented elderly with wandering symptom," which is one of the proliferating elderly-related problems and one which especially needs the activity of the police. In order to secure the physical safety of wandering demented elderly, it is desired to find wandering aged people and protect them as soon as possible. While referring to the situation of the police's protective activities and the results of the questionnaire survey, effective measures were designed. It is first necessary to amend the fundamental laws regarding protective activities: "Article 3 of the Policeman's Duty Performance Law" and "Regulations on the Protection of the People who Need Protection of the Police" in each prefecture, so as to describe more clearly how to deal with demented elderly. At the actual site of protection, the police officers in charge are required to have knowledge of dementia and the ability to deal with demented elderly, and it is an urgent task to secure appropriate places for protecting temporarily demented elderly. Furthermore, in a regional society, it is most important to establish a network for supporting the safety of wandering demented elderly, and it can be expected that such a network will become more effective if the police takes a leading role in cooperating with the regional residents. In order to solve such issues, it is necessary to oblige the police to conduct an appropriate protection of demented elderly, and it is desirable that the police works while considering their welfare duties.
著者
福沢 真一
出版者
日本法政学会
雑誌
法政論叢 (ISSN:03865266)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, no.2, pp.109-119, 2009-05-15

By the progress of urbanization in Japan, city planning systems were introduced from Europe and America. In this Process, many cities pointed out the problem of imperfect cooperation between building control by police and city planning. On this point, this paper argues about the discussion in the "National City Planning Conference" in the Showa Period.