著者
Shohei AKAGAWA Yuko AKAGAWA Sohsaku YAMANOUCHI Takahisa KIMATA Shoji TSUJI Kazunari KANEKO
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.12-18, 2021 (Released:2021-01-08)
参考文献数
65
被引用文献数
2

The gut microbiota resides in the human gastrointestinal tract, where it plays an important role in maintaining host health. Recent advancements in next-generation sequencing methods have revealed the link between dysbiosis (imbalance of the normal gut microbiota) and several diseases, as this imbalance can disrupt the symbiotic relationship between the host and associated microbes. Establishment of the gut microbiota starts in utero or just after birth, and its composition dramatically changes to an adult-like composition by 3 years of age. Because dysbiosis during childhood may persist through adulthood, it is crucial to acquire a balanced gut microbiota in childhood. Therefore, current studies have focused on the factors affecting the infant gut microbiota. This review discusses recent findings, including those from our studies, on how various factors, including the delivery mode, feeding type, and administration of drugs, including antibiotics, can influence the infant gut microbiota. Here, we also address future approaches for the prevention and restoration of dysbiosis in children.
著者
Ying-Chieh TSAI Li-Hao CHENG Yen-Wenn LIU One-Jang JENG Yuan-Kun LEE
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.1-11, 2021 (Released:2021-01-08)
参考文献数
109
被引用文献数
18

Aging is recognized as a common risk factor for many chronic diseases and functional decline. The newly emerging field of geroscience is an interdisciplinary field that aims to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of aging. Several fundamental biological processes have been proposed as hallmarks of aging. The proposition of the geroscience hypothesis is that targeting holistically these highly integrated hallmarks could be an effective approach to preventing the pathogenesis of age-related diseases jointly, thereby improving the health span of most individuals. There is a growing awareness concerning the benefits of the prophylactic use of probiotics in maintaining health and improving quality of life in the elderly population. In view of the rapid progress in geroscience research, a new emphasis on geroscience-based probiotics is in high demand, and such probiotics require extensive preclinical and clinical research to support their functional efficacy. Here we propose a new term, “gerobiotics”, to define those probiotic strains and their derived postbiotics and para-probiotics that are able to beneficially attenuate the fundamental mechanisms of aging, reduce physiological aging processes, and thereby expand the health span of the host. We provide a thorough discussion of why the coining of a new term is warranted instead of just referring to these probiotics as anti-aging probiotics or with other similar terms. In this review, we highlight the needs and importance of the new field of gerobiotics, past and currently on-going research and development in the field, biomarkers for potential targets, and recommended steps for the development of gerobiotic products. Use of gerobiotics could be a promising intervention strategy to improve health span and longevity of humans in the future.
著者
Yuhi SAITO Toshihiro MIHARA Kentaro MARUYAMA Jiro SAITO Masumi IKEDA Akihito TOMONAGA Takehisa KUMAGAI
出版者
BMFH出版会
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.16-031, (Released:2017-04-14)
被引用文献数
11

Lactic acid bacteria are gut flora that play key roles in intestinal homeostasis, which may affect a variety of physiological functions. Our preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trials have suggested that intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 327 (designated lactobacillus K-1) is effective for improving skin conditions. The aim of this study was to confirm the effect of lactobacillus K-1 intake in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in healthy female volunteers. Sixty-four subjects were allocated to either the placebo food group (group P, n=32) or active food group (group A, n=32), in which subjects consumed lactobacillus K-1 50 mg (approximately 1 × 1011 bacteria) daily for 8 weeks. After excluding subjects who declined to participate (n=1), violated restrictions (n=4), or were judged ineligible by the principal investigators (n=1), data obtained with 58 subjects (30 in group A and 28 in group P) were analyzed for efficacy by comparing differences from pretrial levels between the two groups. When the level of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured at the arm, the level of TEWL at week 4 of the intake period was significantly lower in group A than group P (p=0.021), suggesting an improvement of skin barrier function. Analysis of skin condition questionnaire data revealed a significant reduction in skin flakiness on the face (week 4). No adverse events were associated with intake of the test foods. The safety of lactobacillus K-1 was also confirmed in an independent open-label trial in 11 healthy subjects who consumed excessive amounts of lactobacillus K-1 250 mg (approximately 5 × 1011 bacteria). Intake of lactobacillus K-1 may therefore be beneficial to skin condition improvement.
著者
Khalid S. IBRAHIM Nowara BOURWIS Sharron DOLAN Sue LANG Janice SPENCER John A CRAFT
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.65-74, 2021 (Released:2021-01-08)
参考文献数
53
被引用文献数
1

Various studies have suggested that the gut microbiome interacts with the host and may have a significant role in the aetiology of obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). It was hypothesised that bacterial communities in obesity and T2D differ from control and compromise normal interactions between host and microbiota. Obesity and T2D were developed in rats by feeding a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet plus a single low-dose streptozotocin administration, respectively. The microbiome profiles and their metabolic potentials were established by metagenomic 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatics. Taxonomy and predicted metabolism-related genes in obesity and T2D were markedly different from controls and indeed from each other. Diversity was reduced in T2D but not in Obese rats. Factors likely to compromise host intestinal, barrier integrity were found in Obese and T2D rats including predicted, decreased bacterial butyrate production. Capacity to increase energy extraction via ABC-transporters and carbohydrate metabolism were enhanced in Obese and T2D rats. T2D was characterized by increased proinflammatory molecules. While obesity and T2D show distinct differences, results suggest that in both conditions Bacteroides and Blautia species were increased indicating a possible mechanistic link.
著者
Takahiro SEURA Tsutomu FUKUWATARI
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-034, (Released:2020-08-01)
被引用文献数
1

Recent evidence suggests that psychological stress is associated with gut microbiota; however, there are no reports of its association with gut microbial structure. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between psychological stress and gut microbial patterns in young Japanese adults. Analysis of fecal microbiota was performed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Psychological stress was assessed using salivary biomarkers, including cortisol, alpha-amylase, and secretory IgA (S-IgA). Fecal microbial patterns were defined using principal component analysis of the T-RFLP profile and were classified into two enterotype-like clusters, which were defined by the B (microbiota dominated by Bacteroides) and BL patterns (microbiota dominated by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillales), respectively. The Simpson index was significantly higher for the BL pattern than for the B pattern. The salivary cortisol level was significantly lower for the BL pattern than for the B pattern. Salivary alpha-amylase and S-IgA levels showed a negative correlation with the Simpson index. Our results raise the possibility that salivary biomarkers may be involved in the observed differences in microbial patterns.
著者
Mitsuyoshi KANO Norie MASUOKA Chiaki KAGA Saho SUGIMOTO Ryoko IIZUKA Katsuyuki MANABE Toshiro SONE Kazutoshi OEDA Chiaki NONAKA Kouji MIYAZAKI Fumiyasu ISHIKAWA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.33-39, 2013-01-20 (Released:2013-01-31)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
21 39 2

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to investigate the beneficial effect of probiotic and prebiotic fermented milk on the skin of healthy adult women. Forty healthy Japanese adult female volunteers with healthy skin randomly received either a bottle of probiotic and prebiotic fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) (active group) or a non-fermented placebo milk containing neither probiotics nor GOS (placebo group) daily for 4 weeks. Before and after intake, hydration levels and cathepsin L-like activity in the stratum corneum and phenol levels in the serum and urine were determined. After intake, the hydration level of the stratum corneum decreased significantly in only the placebo group and was significantly lower than in the active group (p=0.031). Cathepsin L-like activity, an indicator of keratinocyte differentiation, was significantly increased in the active group (p=0.027). Serum and urine phenol levels decreased significantly in the active group (p=0.014, p=0.002, respectively), and serum phenol levels were significantly lower in the active group compared with the placebo group (p=0.006). The consecutive intake of probiotic and prebiotic fermented milk can benefit skin condition without dryness and decrease the levels of phenol production by gut bacteria in healthy adult women.
著者
Azra PACHENARI Mayuran SUGANTHY Beata BURCZYNSKA Vu DANG Manika CHOUDHURY Azra PACHENARI
出版者
BMFH出版会
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.2, pp.97-103, 2016 (Released:2016-04-28)
参考文献数
48
被引用文献数
1 12

The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria.
著者
Yoshihisa URITA Mayu GOTO Toshiyasu WATANABE Makoto MATSUZAKI Atsushi GOMI Mitsuyoshi KANO Kouji MIYAZAKI Hironori KANEKO
出版者
BMFH出版会
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2014-017, (Released:2015-01-21)
被引用文献数
3 26

The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of probiotic fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium bifidum YIT 10347 improves symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Thirty-seven FGID patients (18 male, 19 female) aged 12–80 years (mean ± SD, 52.6 ± 17.5 years) whose condition had not improved despite being seen at several medical institutions consumed 100 mL/day of B. bifidum YIT 10347 fermented milk for 4 weeks. Symptoms were evaluated after the enrollment period (BL: baseline), sample consumption period (CP) and 4 weeks after the CP (FP: follow-up period). Gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (FSSG); psychological symptoms were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) short form. Concentrations of salivary stress markers and the oxidative stress marker urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. GSRS subscale scores for abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation significantly improved relative to BL after consumption of the fermented milk, as did FSSG subscale scores for symptoms of acid-related dyspepsia. Some subjective psychological symptoms improved. POMS scores significantly improved, and "Anger-Hostility" subscale scores significantly decreased after the consumption period, while "Vigor" subscale scores marginally increased during the consumption period. The concentrations of urinary 8-OHdG and the stress marker salivary cortisol were significantly lower at CP but returned to baseline levels at FP. Continuous consumption of B. bifidum YIT 10347 fermented milk is expected to improve gastrointestinal symptoms and reduce psychological stress in FGID patients.
著者
Eisaku ITO Takao OHKI Naoki TOYA Hikaru NAKAGAWA Ayako HORIGOME Toshitaka ODAMAKI Jin-zhong XIAO Shigeo KOIDO Yuriko NISHIKAWA Toshifumi OHKUSA Nobuhiro SATO
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2022-055, (Released:2022-10-03)

The relationships between various diseases and the human gut microbiota (GM) have been revealed. However, the relationships between the human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and GM remains unknown. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to clarify the association between the human AAA and GM. Stool samples from 30 consecutive patients with AAA before aneurysm repair and those of 30 controls without vascular diseases were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene (V3–4) sequencing using an Illumina MiSeq system and QIIME 2. There was no significant difference in age (75 vs. 75 years) or gender (80% vs. 87% males) between the groups. No significant difference in GM composition was observed in principal coordinate analysis between the two groups, whereas the AAA group showed a significantly lower abundance of B. adolescentis (p<0.01) at the species level than the controls. This study demonstrated that the abundance of B. adolescentis decreased in patients with AAA. This is the first study to show the characteristics of the GM in patients with AAA. Studies are needed to reveal if causal relationships exists between the human AAA and GM.
著者
Natsumi SUSAI Tomohiro KUROITA Koji KURONUMA Takeshi YOSHIOKA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.73-82, 2022 (Released:2022-04-01)
参考文献数
39

Pellagra is caused by an abnormal intake and/or use of niacin, but its phenotypes are diverse. The phenotypes of pellagra can also be atypical, such as nausea. We previously reported a mouse model of pellagra-related nausea. However, the mechanism of this model is unclear. In this study, we found that the gut microbiota, which is thought to be a source of niacin, played an important role in the development of pellagra-related nausea in germ-free mice. We also investigated the gut microbiome. We compared urinary niacin metabolite levels and the dermal response between mice fed a normal diet and those fed a low-niacin diet to investigate the putative trigger of pellagra. Epoxyeicosatrienoic and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels were higher in mice fed a low-niacin diet compared with those fed a normal diet. Furthermore, histological studies indicated a dermatological response to the low-niacin diet. Interestingly, higher levels of oxidised fatty acids in response to the germ-free state were also observed. These findings indicate successful establishment of our newly established mouse model of pellagra via the gut microbiota. We believe that this model could enable the discovery of the putative cause of pellagra and phenotypes of pellagra that have not been recognised yet.
著者
Bruno G. N. ANDRADE Rafael R. C. CUADRAT Fernanda Raya TONETTI Haruki KITAZAWA Julio VILLENA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2022-009, (Released:2022-03-29)

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic of coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and imposed the biggest public health challenge for our civilization, with unforeseen impacts in the subsequent years. Similar to other respiratory infections, COVID-19 is associated with significant changes in the composition of the upper respiratory tract microbiome. Studies have pointed to a significant reduction of diversity and richness of the respiratory microbiota in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, it has been suggested that Prevotella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus are associated with severe COVID-19 cases, while Dolosigranulum and Corynebacterium are significantly more abundant in asymptomatic subjects or with mild disease. These results have stimulated the search for new microorganisms from the respiratory microbiota with probiotic properties that could alleviate symptoms and even help in the fight against COVID-19. To date, the potential positive effects of probiotics in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 pandemics have been extrapolated from studies carried out with other viral pathogens, such as influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. However, scientific evidence has started to emerge demonstrating the capacity of immunomodulatory bacteria to beneficially influence the resistance against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we review the scientific knowledge regarding the role of the respiratory microbiota in viral infections in general and in the infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 in particular. In addition, the scientific work that supports the use of immunomodulatory probiotic microorganisms as beneficial tools to reduce the severity of respiratory viral infections is also reviewed. In particular, our recent studies that evaluated the role of immunomodulatory Dolosigranulum pigrum strains in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection are highlighted.
著者
Junichi MINAMI Noriyuki IWABUCHI Miyuki TANAKA Koji YAMAUCHI Jin-zhong XIAO Fumiaki ABE Naoki SAKANE
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.3, pp.67-75, 2018 (Released:2018-07-26)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
55

Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between the gut microbiota and the development of obesity, indicating the potential of probiotics as a therapeutic approach. Bifidobacterium breve B-3 has been shown to exert anti-obesity effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In the present study, the anti-obesity effects of the consumption of B. breve B-3 by healthy pre-obese (25 ≤ BMI < 30) adults were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (trial registration: UMIN-CTR No. 000023919; preregistered on September 2, 2016). Eighty participants were randomized to receive placebo or B. breve B-3 capsules (2 × 1010 CFU/day) daily for 12 weeks. The visceral fat area significantly increased at weeks 4 and 8 in the placebo group only; no significant change was observed in the B-3 group. Body fat mass and percent body fat were significantly lower in the B-3 group than in the placebo group at weeks 8 and 12 (p<0.05, ANCOVA adjusted with baseline values). Although no significant differences were observed in blood parameters between the groups, the intake of B. breve B-3 slightly decreased triglyceride levels and improved HDL cholesterol from the baseline. No serious adverse effects were noted in either group. These results suggest that the probiotic strain B. breve B-3 has potential as a functional food ingredient to reduce body fat in healthy pre-obese individuals.
著者
Hiroaki MASUOKA Kouya SHIMADA Tomoyo KIYOSUE-YASUDA Masaharu KIYOSUE Yukie OISHI Seiji KIMURA Akio YAMADA Kazuhiro HIRAYAMA
出版者
BMFH出版会
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.BMFH-2016-021, (Released:2016-11-12)
被引用文献数
28

Although it is established that the composition of the human intestinal microbiota changes with age, transition of the intestinal microbiota of animals with age has not been well studied. In the present study, we collected fresh fecal samples from dogs of 5 different age groups (pre-weanling, weanling, young, aged, senile) and analyzed the compositions of their intestinal microbiota with a culture-based method. The results suggested that the composition of the canine intestinal microbiota also changes with age. Among intestinal bacteria predominant in dog intestines, lactobacilli appeared to change with age. Both the number and the prevalence of lactobacilli tended to decrease when dogs became older. Bifidobacteria, on the other hand, was not predominant in the intestine of the dogs. We also identified lactobacilli at the species level based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and found that the species composition of Lactobacillus also changed with age. It was further suggested that bacteria species beneficial to host animals may differ depending on the host species.
著者
Yasuhiro TANIZAWA Takatomo FUJISAWA Eli KAMINUMA Yasukazu NAKAMURA Masanori ARITA
出版者
BMFH出版会
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.4, pp.173-184, 2016 (Released:2016-10-28)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
142

Quality assurance and correct taxonomic affiliation of data submitted to public sequence databases have been an everlasting problem. The DDBJ Fast Annotation and Submission Tool (DFAST) is a newly developed genome annotation pipeline with quality and taxonomy assessment tools. To enable annotation of ready-to-submit quality, we also constructed curated reference protein databases tailored for lactic acid bacteria. DFAST was developed so that all the procedures required for DDBJ submission could be done seamlessly online. The online workspace would be especially useful for users not familiar with bioinformatics skills. In addition, we have developed a genome repository, DFAST Archive of Genome Annotation (DAGA), which currently includes 1,421 genomes covering 179 species and 18 subspecies of two genera, Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, obtained from both DDBJ/ENA/GenBank and Sequence Read Archive (SRA). All the genomes deposited in DAGA were annotated consistently and assessed using DFAST. To assess the taxonomic position based on genomic sequence information, we used the average nucleotide identity (ANI), which showed high discriminative power to determine whether two given genomes belong to the same species. We corrected mislabeled or misidentified genomes in the public database and deposited the curated information in DAGA. The repository will improve the accessibility and reusability of genome resources for lactic acid bacteria. By exploiting the data deposited in DAGA, we found intraspecific subgroups in Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus jensenii, whose variation between subgroups is larger than the well-accepted ANI threshold of 95% to differentiate species. DFAST and DAGA are freely accessible at https://dfast.nig.ac.jp.
著者
Hideki KINOSHITA Satoko OHUCHI Kensuke ARAKAWA Masamichi WATANABE Haruki KITAZAWA Tadao SAITO
出版者
BMFH出版会
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.35, no.4, pp.185-196, 2016 (Released:2016-10-28)
参考文献数
66
被引用文献数
19

The adhesion of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to the intestinal mucosa is one of the criteria in selecting for probiotics. Eighteen LAB were isolated from porcine intestinal mucin (PIM): ten strains of Lactobacillus, six strains of Weissella, and two strains of Streptococcus. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) extracts from the LAB, many bands were detected in half of the samples, while a few and/or no clear bands were detected in the other half. All six of the selected LAB showed adhesion to PIM. L. johnsonii MYU 214 and MYU 221 showed adhesion at more than 10%. W. viridescens MYU 208, L. reuteri MYU 213, L. mucosae MYU 225, and L. agilis MYU 227 showed medium levels of adhesion at 5.9–8.3%. In a comprehensive analysis for the adhesins in the PBS extracts using a receptor overlay analysis, many moonlighting proteins were detected and identified as candidates for adhesins: GroEL, enolase, and elongation factor Tu in MYU 208; peptidase C1, enolase, formyl-CoA transferase, phosphoglyceromutase, triosephosphate isomerase, and phosphofructokinase in MYU 221; and DnaK, enolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase in MYU 227. These proteins in the PBS extracts, which included such things as molecular chaperones and glycolytic enzymes, may play important roles as adhesins.
著者
Phatthanaphong THERDTATHA Akari SHINODA Jiro NAKAYAMA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.3, pp.83-93, 2022 (Released:2022-07-01)
参考文献数
78

The increase of lifestyle-related diseases in Asia has recently become remarkably serious. This has been associated with a change in dietary habits that may alter the complex gut microbiota and its metabolic function in Asian people. Notably, the penetration of modern Western diets into Asia, which has been accompanied by an increase in fat content and decrease in plant-derived dietary fiber, is restructuring the Asian gut microbiome. In this review, we introduce the current status of obesity and diabetes in Asia and discuss the links of changes in dietary style with gut microbiota alterations which may predispose Asian people to metabolic diseases.
著者
Teresia Aluoch MUHOMAH Naoki NISHINO Emiko KATSUMATA Wu HAOMING Takeshi TSURUTA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.55-64, 2019 (Released:2019-04-20)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
19 21

Excessive fat intake is associated with changes in gut microbiota composition. In the present study, we focused on the secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) coating of gut microbiota as a mucosal immune response affecting the gut microbiota following a high-fat diet (HFD). The level of SIgA coating of gut microbiota was evaluated in normal-fat diet (NFD)- and HFD-fed mice. HFD significantly decreased the level of SIgA coating the gut microbiota compared with NFD. Of note, substitution of HFD with NFD resulted in a complete recovery of the level of SIgA coating. These findings suggest that dietary fat influences the SIgA coating of the gut microbiota. Furthermore, we analyzed the composition of the gut microbiota and the concentration of cecal short-chain fatty acids. HFD feeding changed the gut microbiota composition at the phylum and family levels. Pearson correlation analysis between the level of SIgA coating of gut microbiota and the relative abundance of gut microbiota showed that the relative abundances of Clostridiaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Turicibacteraceae, and Bifidobacteriaceae were negatively correlated with the level of SIgA coating of gut microbiota. Conversely, the relative abundances of Desulfovibrionaceae, S24-7, and Lactobacillaceae were positively correlated with the level of SIgA coating. The concentrations of cecal acetate and butyrate were lower in HFD-fed mice and positively correlated with the level of SIgA coating of gut microbiota. Our observations suggest that a decrease in the level of SIgA coating of the gut microbiota through a HFD might relate to HFD-induced changes in microbial composition and microbial metabolites production.
著者
Yutaka MAKIZAKI Ayako MAEDA Miyuki YAMAMOTO Saya TAMURA Yoshiki TANAKA Shunji NAKAJIMA Hiroshi OHNO
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.145-151, 2020 (Released:2020-07-28)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
3 3

Recent studies of metformin, the first-line drug for type 2 diabetes, have reported the involvement of gut microbiota in the mechanism underlying its antihyperglycemic effect. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of diarrhea and bloating, which are adverse effects of metformin, are unclear, and these effects decrease the quality of life of metformin-receiving patients with diabetes. In this study, we focused on the effects of metformin on gut microbiota. Namely, we examined the effects of Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has the ability to improve dysbiosis, on the changes in gut microbiota and occurrence of soft feces (increased fecal water content) during the administration of metformin. The results showed that coadministration of BBG9-1 and metformin suppressed metformin-mediated changes in the gut microbiota and, thus, soft feces. Meanwhile, BBG9-1 did not influence the antihyperglycemic effect of metformin. Based on these results, we believe that BBG9-1, which could improve gut microbiota, suppresses metformin-induced soft feces without influencing the drug’s antihyperglycemic effect.
著者
Naofumi YOSHIDA Satoshi WATANABE Hiroyuki YAMASAKI Hajime SAKUMA Aya K. TAKEDA Tomoya YAMASHITA Ken-ichi HIRATA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021-056, (Released:2021-12-07)
被引用文献数
5

Imbalance of the gut microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Although many clinical studies have analyzed the gut microbiota, the definition of normal gut microbiota remains unclear. In this study, we aim to establish the average gut microbiota in the healthy Japanese population. Using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we analyzed gut microbial data from fecal samples obtained from 6,101 healthy Japanese individuals. Based on their ages, the individuals were divided into three groups: young, middle-age, and old. Individuals were further categorized according to body mass index (BMI) into lean, normal, and obese groups. The α and β diversities in the old group were significantly higher than those in the young and middle-age groups. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of subjects in the obese category was significantly lower compared with those of subjects in the lean and normal categories in the young and middle-age groups. Genus Bacteroides was the dominant gut microbiota across all the BMI categories in all the age groups. Among the top ten genera, the abundances of Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Anaerostipes, Blautia, Dorea, Fusicatenibacter, Lachnoclostridium, and Parabacteroides were significantly lower in the old group than in the young and middle-age groups. The correlation network at the genus level revealed different microbe-microbe interactions associated with age and BMI. We determined the average Japanese gut microbiota, and this information could be used as a reference. The gut microbiota greatly differs based on the life stage and metabolic status of the host, and this gives rise to a variety of host–gut microbe interactions that can lead to an increased susceptibility to disease.
著者
Masaki TERAHARA Yoshitaka NAKAMURA Misato TSUBOI Shinji JINNO Takamitsu TSUKAHARA Takao MIYAKE Naoki SHIMOJO
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.4, pp.196-203, 2021 (Released:2021-10-01)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
1

Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378) was selected as a strain that enhances the production of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) in vitro. This ability of non-live OLB6378 has been shown by a clinical trial in preterm infants. In the present study, we examined whether non-live OLB6378 also enhances the production of secretory IgA, even in full-term infants. One hundred full-term infants were allocated to receive formula with (BbF group, 49 infants) or without non-live OLB6378 (PF group, 51 infants). Breastfeeding was prioritised, so infant formula was used for infants with breastfeeding difficulties. The intervention was initiated by five days of age. The faecal IgA concentration and OLB6378 level were determined at one, two, four, and eight weeks of age. Faecal IgA in the BbF group (1.04 ± 0.47 mg/g of faeces, n=45) was significantly higher than that in the PF group (0.85 ± 0.42 mg/g of faeces, n=49) at four weeks of age (p=0.047). OLB6378 was not detected in faeces at any age. This indicated that production of secretory IgA in full-term infants may also be enhanced by non-live OLB6378 intake.