著者
Shohei AKAGAWA Yuko AKAGAWA Sohsaku YAMANOUCHI Takahisa KIMATA Shoji TSUJI Kazunari KANEKO
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.12-18, 2021 (Released:2021-01-08)
参考文献数
65
被引用文献数
2

The gut microbiota resides in the human gastrointestinal tract, where it plays an important role in maintaining host health. Recent advancements in next-generation sequencing methods have revealed the link between dysbiosis (imbalance of the normal gut microbiota) and several diseases, as this imbalance can disrupt the symbiotic relationship between the host and associated microbes. Establishment of the gut microbiota starts in utero or just after birth, and its composition dramatically changes to an adult-like composition by 3 years of age. Because dysbiosis during childhood may persist through adulthood, it is crucial to acquire a balanced gut microbiota in childhood. Therefore, current studies have focused on the factors affecting the infant gut microbiota. This review discusses recent findings, including those from our studies, on how various factors, including the delivery mode, feeding type, and administration of drugs, including antibiotics, can influence the infant gut microbiota. Here, we also address future approaches for the prevention and restoration of dysbiosis in children.
著者
Ying-Chieh TSAI Li-Hao CHENG Yen-Wenn LIU One-Jang JENG Yuan-Kun LEE
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.1-11, 2021 (Released:2021-01-08)
参考文献数
109
被引用文献数
18

Aging is recognized as a common risk factor for many chronic diseases and functional decline. The newly emerging field of geroscience is an interdisciplinary field that aims to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of aging. Several fundamental biological processes have been proposed as hallmarks of aging. The proposition of the geroscience hypothesis is that targeting holistically these highly integrated hallmarks could be an effective approach to preventing the pathogenesis of age-related diseases jointly, thereby improving the health span of most individuals. There is a growing awareness concerning the benefits of the prophylactic use of probiotics in maintaining health and improving quality of life in the elderly population. In view of the rapid progress in geroscience research, a new emphasis on geroscience-based probiotics is in high demand, and such probiotics require extensive preclinical and clinical research to support their functional efficacy. Here we propose a new term, “gerobiotics”, to define those probiotic strains and their derived postbiotics and para-probiotics that are able to beneficially attenuate the fundamental mechanisms of aging, reduce physiological aging processes, and thereby expand the health span of the host. We provide a thorough discussion of why the coining of a new term is warranted instead of just referring to these probiotics as anti-aging probiotics or with other similar terms. In this review, we highlight the needs and importance of the new field of gerobiotics, past and currently on-going research and development in the field, biomarkers for potential targets, and recommended steps for the development of gerobiotic products. Use of gerobiotics could be a promising intervention strategy to improve health span and longevity of humans in the future.
著者
Khalid S. IBRAHIM Nowara BOURWIS Sharron DOLAN Sue LANG Janice SPENCER John A CRAFT
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.65-74, 2021 (Released:2021-01-08)
参考文献数
53
被引用文献数
1

Various studies have suggested that the gut microbiome interacts with the host and may have a significant role in the aetiology of obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). It was hypothesised that bacterial communities in obesity and T2D differ from control and compromise normal interactions between host and microbiota. Obesity and T2D were developed in rats by feeding a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet plus a single low-dose streptozotocin administration, respectively. The microbiome profiles and their metabolic potentials were established by metagenomic 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatics. Taxonomy and predicted metabolism-related genes in obesity and T2D were markedly different from controls and indeed from each other. Diversity was reduced in T2D but not in Obese rats. Factors likely to compromise host intestinal, barrier integrity were found in Obese and T2D rats including predicted, decreased bacterial butyrate production. Capacity to increase energy extraction via ABC-transporters and carbohydrate metabolism were enhanced in Obese and T2D rats. T2D was characterized by increased proinflammatory molecules. While obesity and T2D show distinct differences, results suggest that in both conditions Bacteroides and Blautia species were increased indicating a possible mechanistic link.
著者
Takahiro SEURA Tsutomu FUKUWATARI
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-034, (Released:2020-08-01)
被引用文献数
1

Recent evidence suggests that psychological stress is associated with gut microbiota; however, there are no reports of its association with gut microbial structure. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between psychological stress and gut microbial patterns in young Japanese adults. Analysis of fecal microbiota was performed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Psychological stress was assessed using salivary biomarkers, including cortisol, alpha-amylase, and secretory IgA (S-IgA). Fecal microbial patterns were defined using principal component analysis of the T-RFLP profile and were classified into two enterotype-like clusters, which were defined by the B (microbiota dominated by Bacteroides) and BL patterns (microbiota dominated by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillales), respectively. The Simpson index was significantly higher for the BL pattern than for the B pattern. The salivary cortisol level was significantly lower for the BL pattern than for the B pattern. Salivary alpha-amylase and S-IgA levels showed a negative correlation with the Simpson index. Our results raise the possibility that salivary biomarkers may be involved in the observed differences in microbial patterns.
著者
Mitsuyoshi KANO Norie MASUOKA Chiaki KAGA Saho SUGIMOTO Ryoko IIZUKA Katsuyuki MANABE Toshiro SONE Kazutoshi OEDA Chiaki NONAKA Kouji MIYAZAKI Fumiyasu ISHIKAWA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.1, pp.33-39, 2013-01-20 (Released:2013-01-31)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
21 39 2

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to investigate the beneficial effect of probiotic and prebiotic fermented milk on the skin of healthy adult women. Forty healthy Japanese adult female volunteers with healthy skin randomly received either a bottle of probiotic and prebiotic fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) (active group) or a non-fermented placebo milk containing neither probiotics nor GOS (placebo group) daily for 4 weeks. Before and after intake, hydration levels and cathepsin L-like activity in the stratum corneum and phenol levels in the serum and urine were determined. After intake, the hydration level of the stratum corneum decreased significantly in only the placebo group and was significantly lower than in the active group (p=0.031). Cathepsin L-like activity, an indicator of keratinocyte differentiation, was significantly increased in the active group (p=0.027). Serum and urine phenol levels decreased significantly in the active group (p=0.014, p=0.002, respectively), and serum phenol levels were significantly lower in the active group compared with the placebo group (p=0.006). The consecutive intake of probiotic and prebiotic fermented milk can benefit skin condition without dryness and decrease the levels of phenol production by gut bacteria in healthy adult women.
著者
Eisaku ITO Takao OHKI Naoki TOYA Hikaru NAKAGAWA Ayako HORIGOME Toshitaka ODAMAKI Jin-zhong XIAO Shigeo KOIDO Yuriko NISHIKAWA Toshifumi OHKUSA Nobuhiro SATO
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2022-055, (Released:2022-10-03)

The relationships between various diseases and the human gut microbiota (GM) have been revealed. However, the relationships between the human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and GM remains unknown. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to clarify the association between the human AAA and GM. Stool samples from 30 consecutive patients with AAA before aneurysm repair and those of 30 controls without vascular diseases were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene (V3–4) sequencing using an Illumina MiSeq system and QIIME 2. There was no significant difference in age (75 vs. 75 years) or gender (80% vs. 87% males) between the groups. No significant difference in GM composition was observed in principal coordinate analysis between the two groups, whereas the AAA group showed a significantly lower abundance of B. adolescentis (p<0.01) at the species level than the controls. This study demonstrated that the abundance of B. adolescentis decreased in patients with AAA. This is the first study to show the characteristics of the GM in patients with AAA. Studies are needed to reveal if causal relationships exists between the human AAA and GM.
著者
Natsumi SUSAI Tomohiro KUROITA Koji KURONUMA Takeshi YOSHIOKA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.2, pp.73-82, 2022 (Released:2022-04-01)
参考文献数
39

Pellagra is caused by an abnormal intake and/or use of niacin, but its phenotypes are diverse. The phenotypes of pellagra can also be atypical, such as nausea. We previously reported a mouse model of pellagra-related nausea. However, the mechanism of this model is unclear. In this study, we found that the gut microbiota, which is thought to be a source of niacin, played an important role in the development of pellagra-related nausea in germ-free mice. We also investigated the gut microbiome. We compared urinary niacin metabolite levels and the dermal response between mice fed a normal diet and those fed a low-niacin diet to investigate the putative trigger of pellagra. Epoxyeicosatrienoic and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels were higher in mice fed a low-niacin diet compared with those fed a normal diet. Furthermore, histological studies indicated a dermatological response to the low-niacin diet. Interestingly, higher levels of oxidised fatty acids in response to the germ-free state were also observed. These findings indicate successful establishment of our newly established mouse model of pellagra via the gut microbiota. We believe that this model could enable the discovery of the putative cause of pellagra and phenotypes of pellagra that have not been recognised yet.
著者
Bruno G. N. ANDRADE Rafael R. C. CUADRAT Fernanda Raya TONETTI Haruki KITAZAWA Julio VILLENA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2022-009, (Released:2022-03-29)

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic of coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and imposed the biggest public health challenge for our civilization, with unforeseen impacts in the subsequent years. Similar to other respiratory infections, COVID-19 is associated with significant changes in the composition of the upper respiratory tract microbiome. Studies have pointed to a significant reduction of diversity and richness of the respiratory microbiota in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, it has been suggested that Prevotella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus are associated with severe COVID-19 cases, while Dolosigranulum and Corynebacterium are significantly more abundant in asymptomatic subjects or with mild disease. These results have stimulated the search for new microorganisms from the respiratory microbiota with probiotic properties that could alleviate symptoms and even help in the fight against COVID-19. To date, the potential positive effects of probiotics in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 pandemics have been extrapolated from studies carried out with other viral pathogens, such as influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. However, scientific evidence has started to emerge demonstrating the capacity of immunomodulatory bacteria to beneficially influence the resistance against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we review the scientific knowledge regarding the role of the respiratory microbiota in viral infections in general and in the infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 in particular. In addition, the scientific work that supports the use of immunomodulatory probiotic microorganisms as beneficial tools to reduce the severity of respiratory viral infections is also reviewed. In particular, our recent studies that evaluated the role of immunomodulatory Dolosigranulum pigrum strains in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection are highlighted.
著者
Junichi MINAMI Noriyuki IWABUCHI Miyuki TANAKA Koji YAMAUCHI Jin-zhong XIAO Fumiaki ABE Naoki SAKANE
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.37, no.3, pp.67-75, 2018 (Released:2018-07-26)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
55

Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between the gut microbiota and the development of obesity, indicating the potential of probiotics as a therapeutic approach. Bifidobacterium breve B-3 has been shown to exert anti-obesity effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In the present study, the anti-obesity effects of the consumption of B. breve B-3 by healthy pre-obese (25 ≤ BMI < 30) adults were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (trial registration: UMIN-CTR No. 000023919; preregistered on September 2, 2016). Eighty participants were randomized to receive placebo or B. breve B-3 capsules (2 × 1010 CFU/day) daily for 12 weeks. The visceral fat area significantly increased at weeks 4 and 8 in the placebo group only; no significant change was observed in the B-3 group. Body fat mass and percent body fat were significantly lower in the B-3 group than in the placebo group at weeks 8 and 12 (p<0.05, ANCOVA adjusted with baseline values). Although no significant differences were observed in blood parameters between the groups, the intake of B. breve B-3 slightly decreased triglyceride levels and improved HDL cholesterol from the baseline. No serious adverse effects were noted in either group. These results suggest that the probiotic strain B. breve B-3 has potential as a functional food ingredient to reduce body fat in healthy pre-obese individuals.
著者
Phatthanaphong THERDTATHA Akari SHINODA Jiro NAKAYAMA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, no.3, pp.83-93, 2022 (Released:2022-07-01)
参考文献数
78

The increase of lifestyle-related diseases in Asia has recently become remarkably serious. This has been associated with a change in dietary habits that may alter the complex gut microbiota and its metabolic function in Asian people. Notably, the penetration of modern Western diets into Asia, which has been accompanied by an increase in fat content and decrease in plant-derived dietary fiber, is restructuring the Asian gut microbiome. In this review, we introduce the current status of obesity and diabetes in Asia and discuss the links of changes in dietary style with gut microbiota alterations which may predispose Asian people to metabolic diseases.
著者
Teresia Aluoch MUHOMAH Naoki NISHINO Emiko KATSUMATA Wu HAOMING Takeshi TSURUTA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.2, pp.55-64, 2019 (Released:2019-04-20)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
19 21

Excessive fat intake is associated with changes in gut microbiota composition. In the present study, we focused on the secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) coating of gut microbiota as a mucosal immune response affecting the gut microbiota following a high-fat diet (HFD). The level of SIgA coating of gut microbiota was evaluated in normal-fat diet (NFD)- and HFD-fed mice. HFD significantly decreased the level of SIgA coating the gut microbiota compared with NFD. Of note, substitution of HFD with NFD resulted in a complete recovery of the level of SIgA coating. These findings suggest that dietary fat influences the SIgA coating of the gut microbiota. Furthermore, we analyzed the composition of the gut microbiota and the concentration of cecal short-chain fatty acids. HFD feeding changed the gut microbiota composition at the phylum and family levels. Pearson correlation analysis between the level of SIgA coating of gut microbiota and the relative abundance of gut microbiota showed that the relative abundances of Clostridiaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Turicibacteraceae, and Bifidobacteriaceae were negatively correlated with the level of SIgA coating of gut microbiota. Conversely, the relative abundances of Desulfovibrionaceae, S24-7, and Lactobacillaceae were positively correlated with the level of SIgA coating. The concentrations of cecal acetate and butyrate were lower in HFD-fed mice and positively correlated with the level of SIgA coating of gut microbiota. Our observations suggest that a decrease in the level of SIgA coating of the gut microbiota through a HFD might relate to HFD-induced changes in microbial composition and microbial metabolites production.
著者
Yutaka MAKIZAKI Ayako MAEDA Miyuki YAMAMOTO Saya TAMURA Yoshiki TANAKA Shunji NAKAJIMA Hiroshi OHNO
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.3, pp.145-151, 2020 (Released:2020-07-28)
参考文献数
25
被引用文献数
3 3

Recent studies of metformin, the first-line drug for type 2 diabetes, have reported the involvement of gut microbiota in the mechanism underlying its antihyperglycemic effect. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of diarrhea and bloating, which are adverse effects of metformin, are unclear, and these effects decrease the quality of life of metformin-receiving patients with diabetes. In this study, we focused on the effects of metformin on gut microbiota. Namely, we examined the effects of Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has the ability to improve dysbiosis, on the changes in gut microbiota and occurrence of soft feces (increased fecal water content) during the administration of metformin. The results showed that coadministration of BBG9-1 and metformin suppressed metformin-mediated changes in the gut microbiota and, thus, soft feces. Meanwhile, BBG9-1 did not influence the antihyperglycemic effect of metformin. Based on these results, we believe that BBG9-1, which could improve gut microbiota, suppresses metformin-induced soft feces without influencing the drug’s antihyperglycemic effect.
著者
Naofumi YOSHIDA Satoshi WATANABE Hiroyuki YAMASAKI Hajime SAKUMA Aya K. TAKEDA Tomoya YAMASHITA Ken-ichi HIRATA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021-056, (Released:2021-12-07)
被引用文献数
5

Imbalance of the gut microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Although many clinical studies have analyzed the gut microbiota, the definition of normal gut microbiota remains unclear. In this study, we aim to establish the average gut microbiota in the healthy Japanese population. Using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we analyzed gut microbial data from fecal samples obtained from 6,101 healthy Japanese individuals. Based on their ages, the individuals were divided into three groups: young, middle-age, and old. Individuals were further categorized according to body mass index (BMI) into lean, normal, and obese groups. The α and β diversities in the old group were significantly higher than those in the young and middle-age groups. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of subjects in the obese category was significantly lower compared with those of subjects in the lean and normal categories in the young and middle-age groups. Genus Bacteroides was the dominant gut microbiota across all the BMI categories in all the age groups. Among the top ten genera, the abundances of Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Anaerostipes, Blautia, Dorea, Fusicatenibacter, Lachnoclostridium, and Parabacteroides were significantly lower in the old group than in the young and middle-age groups. The correlation network at the genus level revealed different microbe-microbe interactions associated with age and BMI. We determined the average Japanese gut microbiota, and this information could be used as a reference. The gut microbiota greatly differs based on the life stage and metabolic status of the host, and this gives rise to a variety of host–gut microbe interactions that can lead to an increased susceptibility to disease.
著者
Masaki TERAHARA Yoshitaka NAKAMURA Misato TSUBOI Shinji JINNO Takamitsu TSUKAHARA Takao MIYAKE Naoki SHIMOJO
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.4, pp.196-203, 2021 (Released:2021-10-01)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
1

Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378) was selected as a strain that enhances the production of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) in vitro. This ability of non-live OLB6378 has been shown by a clinical trial in preterm infants. In the present study, we examined whether non-live OLB6378 also enhances the production of secretory IgA, even in full-term infants. One hundred full-term infants were allocated to receive formula with (BbF group, 49 infants) or without non-live OLB6378 (PF group, 51 infants). Breastfeeding was prioritised, so infant formula was used for infants with breastfeeding difficulties. The intervention was initiated by five days of age. The faecal IgA concentration and OLB6378 level were determined at one, two, four, and eight weeks of age. Faecal IgA in the BbF group (1.04 ± 0.47 mg/g of faeces, n=45) was significantly higher than that in the PF group (0.85 ± 0.42 mg/g of faeces, n=49) at four weeks of age (p=0.047). OLB6378 was not detected in faeces at any age. This indicated that production of secretory IgA in full-term infants may also be enhanced by non-live OLB6378 intake.
著者
Akiko FUYUKI Takuma HIGURASHI Takaomi KESSOKU Keiichi ASHIKARI Tsutomu YOSHIHARA Noboru MISAWA Michihiro IWAKI Takashi KOBAYASHI Hidenori OHKUBO Masato YONEDA Haruki USUDA Koichiro WADA Atsushi NAKAJIMA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.105-114, 2021 (Released:2021-04-17)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
1

Chronic constipation is a functional disorder that decreases a patient’s quality of life (QOL). Because dysbiosis has been associated with constipation, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1) in improving QOL in patients with constipation. This was a prospective, single-center, non-blinded, single-arm feasibility trial. A total of 31 patients with constipation and decreased QOL received BBG9-1 treatment for 8 weeks, followed by a 2-week washout period. The primary endpoint was change in the overall Japanese version of the patient assessment of constipation of QOL (JPAC-QOL) score after probiotic administration relative to that at baseline. Secondary endpoints included changes in gut microbiota, stool consistency, frequency of bowel movement, degree of straining, sensation of incomplete evacuation, and frequency of rescue drug use. The overall JPAC-QOL scores and frequency of bowel movement significantly improved after BBG9-1 administration from those at baseline (p<0.01 and p<0.01, respectively). There were no statistically significant changes in other clinical symptoms. Subset analysis revealed that patients with initial Bristol Stool Form Scale stool types of <4 had improvements in stool consistency, a significant increase in the frequency of bowel movements, and a significant alleviation in the degree of straining, following BBG9-1 administration. At the genus and species levels, Sarcina and Sarcina maxima were significantly increased. Functional analysis showed that butanoate metabolism increased significantly, whereas methane metabolism decreased significantly. We concluded that BBG9-1 is safe and improves QOL in patients with constipation. The underlying improvements may be due to changes in stool consistency.
著者
Ayaka NIINA Ryoko KIBE Ryohei SUZUKI Yunosuke YUCHI Takahiro TESHIMA Hirotaka MATSUMOTO Yasushi KATAOKA Hidekazu KOYAMA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.2, pp.98-104, 2021 (Released:2021-04-17)
参考文献数
47
被引用文献数
7

In human medicine, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. It has also been tested as a treatment for multiple gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, only a few studies have focused on the changes in the microbiome following FMT for canine IBD. Here, we performed FMT in nine dogs with IBD using the fecal matter of healthy dogs and investigated the subsequent changes in the fecal microbiome and clinical signs. In three dogs, the fecal microbiome was examined by 16S rRNA sequencing. Fusobacteria were observed at a low proportion in dogs with IBD. However, the post-FMT microbiome became diverse and showed a significant increase in Fusobacteria proportion. Fusobacterium was detected in the nine dogs by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The proportion of Fusobacterium in the post-FMT fecal microbiome was significantly increased (p<0.05). The changes in clinical signs (e.g., vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss) were evaluated according to the canine inflammatory bowel disease activity index. The score of this index significantly decreased in all dogs (p<0.05) with improvements in clinical signs. These improvements were related to the changes in the proportion of microbes, particularly the increase in Fusobacterium. The dogs with IBD showed a lower proportion of Fusobacterium than healthy dogs. This suggests that a low proportion of Fusobacterium is a characteristic feature of canine IBD and that Fusobacterium is involved in this disease. The results of this study may help elucidate the pathogenesis of this disease and its association with Fusobacterium.
著者
Naoki YAMAMOTO Momoka SHOJI Hiroki HOSHIGAMI Kohei WATANABE Kohei WATANABE Tappei TAKATSUZU Shin YASUDA Keiji IGOSHI Hideki KINOSHITA
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.3, pp.97-104, 2019 (Released:2019-07-27)
参考文献数
61
被引用文献数
7 20

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals, are highly reactive molecules derived from the metabolism of oxygen. ROS play positive roles in cell physiology, but they may also damage cell membranes and DNA, inducing oxidation that causes membrane lipid peroxidation and decreases membrane fluidity. Soymilk yogurt, which is soymilk fermented using lactic acid bacteria (LAB), is an excellent food item with numerous functional substances with antioxidant effects. In this study, the antioxidative activities of soymilk yogurt were investigated. Sixteen of the 26 tested LAB strains solidified soymilk. In antioxidant capacity tests for bacterial cells, Leuconostoc mesenteroides MYU 60 and Pediococcus pentosaceus MYU 759 showed the highest values in the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (HORAC) tests, respectively. The supernatant of soymilk yogurt made with Lactobacillus gasseri MYU 1 showed the highest ORAC and HORAC values. L. mesenteroides MYU 60, Lactobacillus plantarum MYU 74, Lactobacillus reuteri MYU 220, and P. pentosaceus MYU 759 showed significantly high N-acetylcysteine equivalent values compared with the control in a total ROS reducing assay (p<0.05). These strains were selected, and a comet assay was performed, which exhibited decreased values in all selected strains compared with the control, indicating DNA protection. An acidic exopolysaccharide produced by P. pentosaceus MYU 759 showed high antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant substances produced by LAB fermentation may be exopolysaccharides, antioxidant peptides, and isoflavone aglycones. Soymilk yogurt can be used as a functional food useful for various diseases related to oxidation.
著者
Hiroto MORITA Mutsuki ICHISHIMA Ipputa TADA Hirotsugu SHIROMA Makoto MIYAGI Teppei NAKAMURA Hiroshi TANAKA Shinya IKEMATSU
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.1, pp.75-79, 2021 (Released:2021-01-08)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
1

Ogimi is one of Japan’s longevity villages and is located in Okinawa Prefecture. In this study, we focused on the elderly women living in the village, classified them into two groups based on whether or not they lived in Ogimi during the first 3 years of their lives, and compared the gut microbiota between the two groups. There were no differences in alpha and beta diversity; however, we found that the elderly women who lived in Ogimi during the first 3 years of their lives had a higher rate of Akkermansia muciniphila colonization in their guts.
著者
Ryodai YAMAMURA Koshi NAKAMURA Naoya KITADA Tomoyasu AIZAWA Yu SHIMIZU Kiminori NAKAMURA Tokiyoshi AYABE Takashi KIMURA Akiko TAMAKOSHI
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.1, pp.11-17, 2020 (Released:2020-01-21)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
4 21

In recent years, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported to play an important role in maintaining human health. Fecal SCFA concentrations correlate well with colonic SCFA status and gut microbiota composition. However, the associations with the gut microbiota functional pathway, dietary intake, blood SCFAs, and fecal SCFAs remain uncertain. To clarify these relationships, we collected fecal samples, blood samples, and dietary habit data from 12 healthy adults aged 22–51 years. The relative abundance of several SCFA-producing bacteria, gut microbiota diversity, and functional pathways related to SCFA biosynthesis were positively associated with fecal SCFAs even after adjusting for age and sex. Furthermore, fecal acetate was likely to be positively associated with serum acetate. By contrast, dietary intake was not associated with fecal SCFAs. Overall, the present study highlights the potential usefulness of fecal SCFAs as an indicator of the gut microbiota ecosystem and dynamics of SCFAs in the human body.
著者
Duygu ALP Hakan KULEAŞAN
出版者
BMFH Press
雑誌
Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health (ISSN:21863342)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.39, no.4, pp.250-258, 2020 (Released:2020-10-13)
参考文献数
68
被引用文献数
2

In an intestinal system with a balanced microbial diversity, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the key element which prevents the colonization and invasion of gut pathogens. Adhesion ability is important for the colonization and competition abilities of LAB. The aim of this study was to determine the adhesion and competition abilities of LAB by using a whole-tissue model. Indigenous strains were isolated from spontaneously fermented foods like cheese and pickles. The aggregation and competition abilities of the isolates were determined, as well as their resistance to gastrointestinal conditions. Four Lactobacillus strains and one Weissella strain were found to be highly competitive against three major gut pathogens, namely Clostridium difficile, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. Tested strains decreased the number of pathogens to below their disease-causing levels. According to the results, the numbers of C. difficile and L. monocytogenes bacteria decreased by an average of 3 log, and their adhesion rates decreased by approximately 50%. However, the number of S. Enteritidis bacteria was decreased by only 1 log compared with its initial number. We thought that the weak effect on Salmonella was due to its possession of many virulence factors. The results showed that natural isolates from sources other than human specimens like the Weissella strain in this study were quite competent when compared with the human isolates in terms of their adhesion to intestines and resistance to gastrointestinal tract conditions. It was also revealed that a whole-tissue model with all-natural layers can be successfully used in adhesion and competition tests.