著者
松村 一志
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科国際社会科学専攻
雑誌
相関社会科学 = Komaba Studies in Society (ISSN:09159312)
巻号頁・発行日
no.28, pp.3-16, 2019-03-01

In this paper, I examine the transformation of rhetorical strategies in experimental reports in the late nineteenth century. Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer's canonical work Leviathan and the Air-Pump (1985) has demonstrated that early experimental scientists such as Robert Boyle had to adopt the "rhetoric of trial," a lost literary technique with which experimental reports were compared to testimony in court, due to the lower status assigned to observation and experiments. While subsequent researchers have analyzed how this sort of rhetoric was used in the seventeenth century, the era of "scientific revolution," few have focused on the rise and fall of the" rhetoric of trial" afterward. In response, I try to show when and how this rhetoric disappeared. For this purpose, I focus on a branch of experimental science called psychical research. Though psychical research is now seen to be a typical example of pseudoscience, it attracted many famous scientists in the fin de siècle, inspiring huge debates on the reliability of experimental reports. Psychical researchers frequently used the "rhetoric of trial" to justify their reports. However, this rhetoric began to lose its persuasiveness with the rise of experimental psychology and statistical testing. From this episode, I reconsider the origin of current norms in scientific experiments such as reproducibility.一般論文
著者
今野 晃
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科国際社会科学専攻
雑誌
相関社会科学 (ISSN:09159312)
巻号頁・発行日
no.23, pp.19-33, 2013

論文PapersThis essay aims to examine a problem concerning the concept "social", by analyzing The Social Contract of Rousseau. For this, I will refer to Althusser's work "On the social contract", where he develops a substantial analysis of the social contract. The concept of the term "social" is taken today immediately understandable. But it was invented in 18th century, when Rousseau wrote The Social Contract. Indeed, Rousseau is one of the pioneers who, by addressing the social relationship, tackled a new theme and a new concept. However, we can question whether Rousseau was able to treat it adequately. Because "social" was such an "avant-garde" concept. This means that Rousseau was not responsible of his failure, because it derived from the newness of the concept. To investigate this problem, I will focus on the discrepancies of the social contract which Althusser brings to light. With this examination, we will see that these discrepancies reflect the problem of social relationship. With this examination, we can understand why we needed to invent this concept in his era. And it will help us to reconsider the concept "social" in our time.
著者
石原 英樹
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科国際社会科学専攻
雑誌
相関社会科学 (ISSN:09159312)
巻号頁・発行日
no.22, pp.23-41, 2012

論文PapersSince the 1990s, tolerance towards homosexuality has been increasing almost all around the world. In this paper, we explore the association between tolerance towards homosexuality and socioeconomic characteristics or values. To this end, we estimate gamma distribution regression models on tolerance using the World Values Surveys in Japan. As previous studies suggested, women have higher tolerance towards homosexuality than men do. We also found that tolerance increased among young women in the early 1990s, then it increased for young men in the late 1990s, and the early 2000s saw an increase for middle-aged women. The regression models are estimated by gender and, as expected, female respondents living in urban areas and university-educated men and women have higher tolerance than their counterparts. Interestingly, after controlling for covariates, men employed in managerial positions showed lower tolerance. We assume that tolerance variations across socioeconomic characteristics are accounted for by a few dimensions of values. Gender attitude, acceptance of non-standard families, commitment to religion, and tolerance towards minorities partially explain the association between socioeconomic characteristics and tolerance. After controlling for values, a U-shaped relation was observed in that men with the lowest educational attainment have higher tolerance than those who completed high school.
著者
溝口 修平
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科国際社会科学専攻
巻号頁・発行日
2012-01-11

報告番号: 甲27632 ; 学位授与年月日: 2012-01-11 ; 学位の種別: 課程博士 ; 学位の種類: 博士(学術) ; 学位記番号: 博総合第1115号 ; 研究科・専攻: 総合文化研究科国際社会科学専攻