著者
松村 一志
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科国際社会科学専攻
雑誌
相関社会科学 = Komaba Studies in Society (ISSN:09159312)
巻号頁・発行日
no.28, pp.3-16, 2019-03-01

In this paper, I examine the transformation of rhetorical strategies in experimental reports in the late nineteenth century. Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer's canonical work Leviathan and the Air-Pump (1985) has demonstrated that early experimental scientists such as Robert Boyle had to adopt the "rhetoric of trial," a lost literary technique with which experimental reports were compared to testimony in court, due to the lower status assigned to observation and experiments. While subsequent researchers have analyzed how this sort of rhetoric was used in the seventeenth century, the era of "scientific revolution," few have focused on the rise and fall of the" rhetoric of trial" afterward. In response, I try to show when and how this rhetoric disappeared. For this purpose, I focus on a branch of experimental science called psychical research. Though psychical research is now seen to be a typical example of pseudoscience, it attracted many famous scientists in the fin de siècle, inspiring huge debates on the reliability of experimental reports. Psychical researchers frequently used the "rhetoric of trial" to justify their reports. However, this rhetoric began to lose its persuasiveness with the rise of experimental psychology and statistical testing. From this episode, I reconsider the origin of current norms in scientific experiments such as reproducibility.一般論文
著者
今野 晃
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科国際社会科学専攻
雑誌
相関社会科学 (ISSN:09159312)
巻号頁・発行日
no.23, pp.19-33, 2013

論文PapersThis essay aims to examine a problem concerning the concept "social", by analyzing The Social Contract of Rousseau. For this, I will refer to Althusser's work "On the social contract", where he develops a substantial analysis of the social contract. The concept of the term "social" is taken today immediately understandable. But it was invented in 18th century, when Rousseau wrote The Social Contract. Indeed, Rousseau is one of the pioneers who, by addressing the social relationship, tackled a new theme and a new concept. However, we can question whether Rousseau was able to treat it adequately. Because "social" was such an "avant-garde" concept. This means that Rousseau was not responsible of his failure, because it derived from the newness of the concept. To investigate this problem, I will focus on the discrepancies of the social contract which Althusser brings to light. With this examination, we will see that these discrepancies reflect the problem of social relationship. With this examination, we can understand why we needed to invent this concept in his era. And it will help us to reconsider the concept "social" in our time.
著者
石原 英樹
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科国際社会科学専攻
雑誌
相関社会科学 (ISSN:09159312)
巻号頁・発行日
no.22, pp.23-41, 2012

論文PapersSince the 1990s, tolerance towards homosexuality has been increasing almost all around the world. In this paper, we explore the association between tolerance towards homosexuality and socioeconomic characteristics or values. To this end, we estimate gamma distribution regression models on tolerance using the World Values Surveys in Japan. As previous studies suggested, women have higher tolerance towards homosexuality than men do. We also found that tolerance increased among young women in the early 1990s, then it increased for young men in the late 1990s, and the early 2000s saw an increase for middle-aged women. The regression models are estimated by gender and, as expected, female respondents living in urban areas and university-educated men and women have higher tolerance than their counterparts. Interestingly, after controlling for covariates, men employed in managerial positions showed lower tolerance. We assume that tolerance variations across socioeconomic characteristics are accounted for by a few dimensions of values. Gender attitude, acceptance of non-standard families, commitment to religion, and tolerance towards minorities partially explain the association between socioeconomic characteristics and tolerance. After controlling for values, a U-shaped relation was observed in that men with the lowest educational attainment have higher tolerance than those who completed high school.
著者
安藤 丈将
出版者
東京大学大学院総合文化研究科国際社会科学専攻
雑誌
相関社会科学 (ISSN:09159312)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.22, pp.3-21, 2013-03-01

Recent studies on “publicity” stress that multiple ideas and values must be integrated into public spheres from the view of normative political theory. In discussing publicity, this article focuses on repertoires in social movements, that is, modes of expressing their ideas and values. Although social movements have been regarded as political actors who works for democracy, few social movement scholars have discussed the roles of their repertoires in opening public spheres to voices of marginalised people. This article thus argues about the relationship between diversified repertoires and publicity. I, first of all, explore how “institutionalisation” of social movements, a conventional repertoire, leads to incorporate multiple ideas and values into public spheres. While institutionalisation helps social movement organisations to increase their influence on decision makings of powerful political actors, such as corporations and governments, it also enhances accountability within the organisations and democratises the organisational structure of the movements. Next, I move to arguing about the roles of “protests”, a confrontational repertoire, in diversifying publicity. This repertoire contributes to making values and ideas which are difficult to be institutionalised visible in public spheres. In discussing two different repertoires, I emphasise that these repertoires do not always lead to diversifying public spheres. While voices of marginalised people can be ignored and excluded in institutionalisation of social movements, protests have a risk in being viewed as violent actions and isolating activists from the public. This article concludes that different repertoires operate effectively in diversifying publicity when they are mutually complemented.