著者
定方 晟
出版者
東海大学文学部
雑誌
東海大学紀要 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, pp.37-63, 2004

Nitta Yoshisada put an end to the Kamakura Shogunate in 1333. According to the chronicle Taiheiki, he started from the Ikushina shrine in the Gummma-prefecture. It is generally supposed that he marched directly southward, because that is the shortest way to Kamakura. In fact there are several local traditions in the areas to the southward of the Ikushina shrine. One tradition says that Yoshisada crossed the Tone-River at such and such a place and that there still exists a pine-tree to which Yoshisada attached the rope of his boat. Another tradition says that Yoshisada climbed a pine-tree to watch the camp of his enemy and that the pine-tree still exists. Recently, however, a new theory appeared according to which Yoshisada marched westward at first from the Ikushina shrine and, arriving at Yawata (near Takasaki city), he joined with allied armies and then marched southward. When we accept this theory, we can solve some important riddles and get a better understanding of the political situations of the epoch. This article has the aim of making known this theory. (Livshits/Nikitin 1994; Bader 1996: 265), the recent excavations unearthed some texts and the number of these texts will surely increase (see, for example, Morano 1996). The value of this work (Diakonoff/Livshits 1976-2001), however, never decreases. Below are my notes on it. Since it is far beyond my capability to review this vast work generally, I restrict myself here to the "reading" of the texts. First, I discuss the problematic phrase, MN NPSH tyrydt mzn 'sppty HWH, then look into other points.
著者
三田 武繁
出版者
東海大学文学部
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
no.108, pp.101-124, 2018-03-30
著者
今橋 理子
出版者
東海大学文学部
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
no.65, pp.1-18,図10p, 1996-09

During the last years of his life, Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), the most well known ukiyoe artist of the late Edo period, left us an original painting entitled Watermelon, now in the collection of the Imperial Household Agency. Over the years numerous researchers have assessed the unusual shape and composition of the watermelon in the painting as striking evidence of Hokusai's originality. However, I question whether this repeated assessment would have been made if Hokusai had not included his signature, which is clearly evident in the painting. Eastern paintings of vegetables and fruit are commonly known as "Vegetable drawings"(sosai-zu) and are considered as belonging to the broad category of fower-and-bird pictures. With a style far removed from that of traditional vegetable drawings, however, Hokusai's Watermelon evokes among viewers a feeling contrary to what they might have expected from such a painting. Eastern flower-and-bird paintings traditionally have something in them that allows a hidden meaning to be drawn out from animals or plants depicted. Similarly, we need to investigate whether or not the watermelon in Hokusai's painting-considering the unexpectedness of its style-is imbued with a hidden meaning. To corroborate my interpretation of Watermelon, I have made use of the painting entitled Tanabata by Sakai Hoitsu (1761-1828). Hoitsu's painting is not a portrayal of the modern-day Japanese celebration known as Tanabata, or Star Festival, but rather depicts Tanabata's predecessor, Kikkoden, a ceremony carried out by the imperial court beginning in the eighth century, which in turn had its origins in early China. Kikkoden combined astrology with the romance of the Milky Way-the love story of the Herdsman (in Japanese tradition, the star Altair in the constellation Aquila) and the Weaver (the star Vega in the constellation Lyra). Japanese paintings entitled Kikkoden are usually genre paintings portraying the full year's worth of ceremonies ; it was tacitly understood from early times that depictions of the Kikkoden or Tanabata festivals within these paintings would show a scene from the seventh lunar month, when these festivals were held. In Hoitsu's Tanabata, however, human figures, ordinarily found in genre paintings, are missing. Only string given in offering and a basin filled with water-two items symbolic of the climax of Kikkoden-are depicted. By extracting these two motifs from Kikkoden, Hoitsu turns them into symbols for the ceremony. When Hokusai's Watermelon is viewed once again, this time in light of this understanding of Hoitsu's work, the congruence between the two paintings is striking. Since watermelons were in early China and Japan an important item given as an offering during Kikkoden, the watermelon half and the long, thin rind in Hokusai's painting can be seen as corresponding exactly to Hoitsu's basin and string. Further, we can discover of a bit of the romanticism involved in how the Japanese, inheritors of the romance of the Milky Way story from China, have since the time of the Man'yoshu "borrowed" the heroes of that story in their own love poetry. Essentially, then, Hokusai's Watermelon is a genre painting in which Kikkoden is represented by a watermelon, and is a narrative painting of the romance of the Milky Way.
著者
定方 晟
出版者
東海大学文学部
雑誌
東海大学紀要 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
no.64, pp.1-23, 1995

It is well known that Kenji Miyazawa, a Japanese writer of the Taisho and early Showa periods, is an ardent follower of the teaching of the Buddhist Sacred Scripture Saddharmapundarika-sutra. In his fairy tales, indeed, do we find frequently motifs deriving from this teaching. But, strange enough, his most important work "Night of Galaxy Railway" is full of Christian images and scanty of Buddhist ones. These Christian images are so beautiful that many readers tend to think that this is a work of Christian faith. This is a misreading. Jovanni, a young hero of the work, did not get off the train when many Christian passengers got off at the "Southern Cross" station, which is the entrance to the Christian paradise. He even said to a young Christian girl, "Your god is not a true god". The author does not explain why Jovanni disapproves the Christian god and its blessing. I suppose that Christianity, having a doctrine of Judgement, does not give happiness to all living beings. To Jovanni who has an ardent desire for "true happiness for all" as he repeatedly says, Christianity does not give satisfaction. Poor readers only see that which is criticized and fail to see criticism itself.
著者
定方 晟
出版者
東海大学文学部
雑誌
東海大学紀要. 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
no.78, pp.106-130, 2003-03-31
著者
今橋 理子
出版者
東海大学文学部
雑誌
東海大学紀要 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
no.64, pp.25-46,図10p, 1995

Sakura paintings-paintings whose exclusive theme is cherry blossoms (sakura)-were first created in Kyoto by the Edo-period painter Mikuma Shiko (1730-94) and continued to be painted by Shiko's sister Roko (d.1801), his disciple Hirose Kain (dates unknown), and the female painter Oda Shitsushitsu(1789-1831), Roko's disciple. These works, which were already known by the term "sakura painting" at this early time, appear at first glance to be highly realistic, but also have a clean, well-rounded, lyrical quality. They seem to have been very well received by many people of the period. Unfortunately, however, Kain and Shitsushitsu left no disciples, so the brief genealogy of sakura paintings came to an end with the death of Shitsushitsu. Probably because this school of painting was so short-lived, no trace of any research on it exists, nor has a collection of the paintings been assembled. Indeed, the school itself has not been given a name. I would like to call the sakura-painting artists, from Mikuma Shiko to Oda Shitsushitsu, the Mikuma School. In my essay I will open with an analysis of the works of Mikuma Shiko and will consider how it came about that he began painting the unique type of flower-and-bird picture known as sakura paintings.The essay will also look at the reasons why, in the light of contemporary trends in natural history and Japanese classical studies, the Mikuma School painted cherry blossoms-this very traditional Japanese motif-to the exclusion of all other subject matter.Finally, the essay will consider chronologically the works of Oda Shitsushitsu, whose works are the most refined among those of the Mikuma school, and discuss the historical position of these works within the school.
著者
吉野 誠
出版者
東海大学文学部
雑誌
東海大学紀要 文学部 (ISSN:05636760)
巻号頁・発行日
no.48, pp.p59-72, 1987