著者
河村 驍
出版者
社団法人日本鉄鋼協会
雑誌
鐵と鋼 : 日本鐡鋼協會々誌 (ISSN:00211575)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.6, pp.373-383, 1935-06-25

The development and progress of the iron and steel industry during last ten years is reviewed, giving frank criticism upon the policies carried during the period and concluding with future prospect of the industry. The statistical review of production, Consumption and import of finished as well as raw materials is also given.
著者
絹川 武良司
出版者
社団法人日本鉄鋼協会
雑誌
鐵と鋼 : 日本鐡鋼協會々誌 (ISSN:00211575)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.3, pp.163-174, 1939-03-25
著者
杉本 惣吉
出版者
社団法人日本鉄鋼協会
雑誌
鐵と鋼 : 日本鐡鋼協會々誌 (ISSN:00211575)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.9, pp.九九〇-一〇〇五, 1917-09-25
著者
佐々木 直彦 堀井 胤匡 藤原 幹男 斎藤 英之 三澤 俊平
出版者
社団法人日本鉄鋼協会
雑誌
鐵と鋼 : 日本鐡鋼協會々誌 (ISSN:00211575)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.1, pp.45-50, 2000-01

Micro-strucure, micro-hardness and micro-absorbed impact energy in the Japanese sword have been investigated to clarify excellent mechanical properties of the Japanese sword. The Japanese sword specimen used in the present research has been made by using TSUKURIKOMI process which combines four kinds of steels ; HAGANE (edge), SHINGANE (core), MUNEGANE (back) and KAWAGANE (side) steels, with different carbon contents. By this process, HASAKI (edge) side becomes high carbon steel and MUNE (back) side possesses low carbon steel. The cooling velocity in quenching of the Japanese sword is controlled by TSUCHIOKI treatment which coats the clay thinner in the HASAKI side and thicker in the MUNE side. The HASAKI side is quickly cooled and the MUNE side is slowly cooled. The micro-structure in the HASAKI side shows martensite while the MUNE side shows the coexist structure of ferrite and pearlite. The HASAKI side has a lower value while the MUNE side shows a higher value in the micro absorbed impact energies obtained with the 1.0 and 0.7mm square miniaturized specimens. It has been shown clearly that the TSUKURIKOMI and the TSUCHIOKI processes give the excellent gradated balance of strength-toughness to the Japanese sword. The ORIKAESHI (folding) forging has an effect both on the carbon content and as quenched hardness in HAGANE steel. The most suitable times of ORIKAESHI cycles which adjust to the carbon content of 0.55-0.60mass% and hardness of 800HV1 have been determined to be thirteen times. These times of ORIKAESHI cycles correspond to the optimum traditional cycles lying between twelve and fifteen times. The present research from the viewpoint of the metallurgy sheds light on the empirical rule in the traditional Japanese sword processing.
著者
小藪 重行
出版者
社団法人日本鉄鋼協会
雑誌
鐵と鋼 : 日本鐡鋼協會々誌 (ISSN:00211575)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.54-67, 1943-01-25

The principal causes of erosion in the gun-barrel bore are cracks and the deterioration caused by the action of the gun-powder gas, as well as abrasion due to projectiles passing through. The author investigated microspically and by X-rays the cracks and the characteristic-layer on the eroded surface of the bore. It was ascertained that the characteristic layer has a structure which has become martensitic due to the heating effect of the gun-powder gas. At the instant of discharge, the barrel, expands and contracts, and also the hard layer itse'f does so due to the heating effect of the gun-powder gas, so that innumerable number of cracks occurs on that layer by repetition of such actions. The gun-powder gas penetrates through these cracks and accelerates the erosion. Thus it was concluded that the action of the gun-powder gas is the fatal cause of the deformation of the bore by erosion.
著者
浜田 幸一 井坂 和実 土居 大治 米満 善久 岩崎 信吾
出版者
社団法人日本鉄鋼協会
雑誌
鐵と鋼 : 日本鐡鋼協會々誌 (ISSN:00211575)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.88, no.2, pp.66-72, 2002-02

Clad steel sheet is formed by cladding different metals and used for the functional material, which has convenient characteristics of each metal. Especially, a lot of stainless steel/aluminum clad strip is produced for electromagnetic rice cookers which are in demand because of the higher thermal conductivity, having magnetism and corrosion resistance. For the demand, continuous cladding technology of the wide width stainless steel/aluminum strip has been developed by warm rolling after the rapid heating process. Recently, much higher uniformity for peeling strength is required as the market grows. So, a new heating process, in which uniform heat generation is achieved by the electric resistance of metals and the directly applied current, is developed in place of the conventional process of induction heating. After solving some technical problems about sparks and temperature uniformity, direct resistance heating equipment have installed in the manufacturing line. As the result, high-quality clad steel sheets, which have the uniform peeling strength, can be produced by the improvement of temperature deflection on rolling.
著者
辻畑 敬治 宮川 奨蔵 大坪 茂 大野 重治 花木 功
出版者
社団法人日本鉄鋼協会
雑誌
鐵と鋼 : 日本鐡鋼協會々誌 (ISSN:00211575)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.4, pp.455-460, 1960-04-01

In line with the starting of experiments on the use of self-fluxing sinter in blast furnaces, the experimental production of lime sinter using 5∿10% of lime stone was conducted at Kukioka D. L. Sintering Plant since May, 1958, and from the operation data the following items were inferred : - 1) Although in lime sinter the mean grain size was getting smaller, the amount of the fine fraction (minus five millimeter fraction) became rather decreased than in normal sinter, from which it was inferred that lime sinter was more improved in point of grain distribution. 2) Lime sinter had almost the same degree of strength as normal sinter. 3) By adding 5∿10% of lime stone, the output of sinter was increased by 4∿6.5%. When calculated in terms of iron, the output, however, was almost constant. 4) In case of using the burden of 100% lime sinter, operation was carried out with special attention paid to the control of basicity, and for that purpose such measures as the use of foreign fine ores divided into the three classes according to SiO_2 content, etc. were enforced, and, as the result, the sinter that could almost satisfy the requirements of blast furnaces was able to be produced. 5) Cost of sinter production was decreased by 2% and 5.5% by the addition of 5% and 10% of lime stone, respectively, but the cost in terms of iron was almost unchanged. For these reasons it was concluded that lime sinter was superior to normal sinter.
著者
堀切 政康
出版者
社団法人日本鉄鋼協会
雑誌
鐵と鋼 : 日本鐡鋼協會々誌 (ISSN:00211575)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.9, pp.935-960, 1930-09-25

The present author investigated the improvements of physical and mechanical properties of cast iron from a practical foundry work and attained to the next conclusions : -The properties of cast iron vary with the cupola melting conditions remarkably, consequently, if we want to produce a high quality cast iron, it is necessary to get a suitable melting condition, say, high and slow melting for the first time. And also if we want to get a high quality cast iron, it is necessary to lowering the total carbon content of cast iron, according to the rate of cooling for the purpose of producing a cast iron with a uniform and an excellent mechanical property. But the lowering of carbon content necessitates an addition of a resultant amount of Silicon, if we want to produce a sound casting with uniform structures. Thus it is presumed that there is a relation between the total C%+Si%, and the size of casting on the condition of a reasonable melting. By these conclusions, the present author produced high grade cast irons (T.C 2.5%∿2.8%, Si 3.0%∿2.0%, Mn 1.0%∿2.0%, P, S trace) for the large and complex cast iron by the cupola direct melting Semi-Steels. But in the cupola melting, if we want to produce a low carbon Semi-Steels it is necessary to determine the cupola conditions for the restriction of carbon absorption and high temperature melting. For these Purposes, the present author already investigated the whole conditions for a cupola melting by the aid of small cupola. Its contents are as follows : - 1 tuyere problems 2 blast volume problems 3 on the effects of carboneous matter 4 on the condition of cupola melting zone 5 on the depth of cupola hearth. 6 on the relations between the combustion gas (CO_2 CO O_2) and the change of cupola operation, etc. After that the present author continued the same investigations on a large cupola and attained to the same conclusions, so that in this paper, he wants to make public these results, that is, the whole conditions for the mode of production of low carbon Semi-Steels by a large cupola melting.
著者
多賀谷 正義
出版者
社団法人日本鉄鋼協会
雑誌
鐵と鋼 : 日本鐡鋼協會々誌 (ISSN:00211575)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.8, pp.730-753, 1938-08-25

In the previous reports the corrosion tests of many kinds of cast iron having various compositions and structures were carried out, and determined that the corrosion amount in a dilute nitric acid solution (0.5 N) is very small with the gray cast irons these contain free ferrite or greater amount of sulphide in pearlite matrix, this kind of gray cast iron evolves a pretty amount of gas in such a dilute nitric acid while the gray cast irons of pearlite matrix do not evolve any gas in the nitric acid solution of the same concentration. Then the rate of evolution of gas was measured and the chemical composition of the gases were determined. The gases evolve always periodically and greater part of them are hydrogen. From this fact and other experimental results, the writer concluded as following. In a dilute nitric acid gray cast iron first evolves hydrogen as a result of the electrolytic action caused by graphite (Cathode) and ferrite (Anode) while the ferrite is anodically oxidized and temporarilly brought to passive state, so that the dissolution ceases. In the next stage the passive state is destroyed by the acid and direct reaction between iron and nitric acid takes place, in this stage ferrite is severely attacked but non gas is evolved and instead of hydrogen ammonia and hydroxylamine these are soluble in the solution or complex iron salt are formed. In the 3rd stage hydrogen is evolved again by electrolytic action as the former case. These changes are repeated periodically in the progress of dissolution of gray cast iron in a dilute nitric acid. In another experiment the electrode potentials of various structural constituents of gray cast iron were measured in a normal ferrous chloride solution against the normal calomel electrode at 30℃. The results are as following ; graphite cathodically treated in 1N hydrochloric +0.2750^u, Fe_aC -0.2357^u, Fe_3P -0.2971^u, MnS 0^u, FeS -0.3600^u, [60% MnS+40% FeS] (solid solution) -0.4407^u. Also the E. M. F. of galvanic cells consist of ferrite and one of these constituents were measured in 0.5N hydrochloric acid solution at 30℃, and the following results were obtained ; graphite^+-ferrite^- 0.9810^u, graphite^+-ferrite^- (containing 0.34% Cu) 0.9535^u, Fe_3C^+-ferrite^- 0.3508^u, Fe_3C^+-ferrite^- (containing 0.34% Cu) 0.3064^u, Fe_3P^+-ferrite^- 0.2100^u, [MnS+FeS]^+-ferrite^- 0.3260^u. In the 1st and 2nd report the writer concluded that gray cast iron dissolves in a dilute hydrochloric acid mainly with the electrolytic reaction caused by local galvanic cells consist of ferrite and graphite or other noble constituents. These present experimental results gree with the former results of corrosion test as described in the previous reports.
著者
周 世栄 村上 敬宜 福島 良博 ベレッタ ステファノ
出版者
社団法人日本鉄鋼協会
雑誌
鐵と鋼 : 日本鐡鋼協會々誌 (ISSN:00211575)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.87, no.12, pp.748-755, 2001-12
被引用文献数
2

It is well known that the scatter of fatigue strength of high strength steels is caused by nonmetallic inclusions. The lower bound of the scatter of fatigue strength can be predicted by considering the maximum size of nonmetallic inclusions. Thus, it is of practical importance to estimate the maximum size of nonmetallic inclusions by appropriate inclusion rating methods. Most rational and convenient method to predict the maximum size of inclusions is the one based on the statistics of extremes. Therefore, recently the inclusion rating based on the statistics of extremes has been used by many industries, though the rating methods are mostly two-dimensional (2D) optical methods. It is known that the accuracy of the 2D method is lower than the exact 3D method. In addition, when multiple type inclusions having different chemical composition are contained in a material, the statistics of extremes distribution does not necessarily become a single straight line but become a bilinear line. The objectives of the present study are (1) to clarify the validity of the 2D method and (2) to establish the method to predict the maximum inclusion size when the statistics extremes distribution becomes bilinear. The results obtained show that the 2D method is basically correct as predicted by the computer simulation. When a bilinear distribution is obtained, it is necessary to determine the minimum inspection area S_<crit> for predicting the maximum size of the larger type inclusions, which become the fatigue fracture origins of components.