著者
浅井 智久
出版者
JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.5-15, 2019 (Released:2019-11-22)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

A recent theoretical framework has formalized predictive mechanisms in the sensorimotor system. This “predictive coding,” also called the agent-centered approach, has revealed some dysfunctions of prediction in patients with mental disorders such as schizophrenia. The dynamic and hierarchical nature of prediction could be innately aberrant. Therefore, their representation as a generative model of the self and the world is unclear. The current paper discusses (1) the theoretical controversies in subjective probability in the Bayesian perspective and (2) its application for understanding psychotic symptoms or experiences such as delusions and hallucinations for future empirical work.
著者
今福 理博
出版者
JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.2, pp.166-178, 2019 (Released:2020-12-20)
参考文献数
80

Infancy is a sensitive period for language development. “When and how do humans acquire language?” is an important question for understanding developmental mechanisms and trajectories of language. However, this point remains poorly understood. In the current paper, I focused on the idea that social cognition is a key component of language acquisition, and reviewed the relationship between the audiovisual integration of speech (i.e., speech perception) and language development in infancy. I further discussed how factors such as parenting (i.e., adults’ speaking style) and preterm birth influence the development of speech perception and language. Based on these reviews, I proposed developmental mechanisms from speech perception to language acquisition and the future perspective of language development research.
著者
片桐 正敏
出版者
JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.25-38, 2019 (Released:2019-11-22)
参考文献数
66
被引用文献数
1

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which the most prominent symptoms are deficits in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) has recently included atypical sensory responsiveness (i.e., hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input). This review discusses attentional hypotheses and sensory processing as a developmental bias to stimulation processing in social interactions in individuals with ASD. The first section reviews the weak central coherence hypothesis (Happé & Frith, 2006) and reviews the enhanced perceptual functioning hypothesis (Mottron et al., 2006), which is a basic, but not necessarily social, disturbance of the perceptual-cognitive style and focuses on detail-focused processing in ASD. These proposed hypotheses are a framework within which the perceptual characteristics of individuals with ASD can be understood. The second section discusses a possible mechanism between specific sensory processing (e.g., arousal system and interoception) and atypical social interaction (e.g., repetitive and stereotyped interests and behaviors) in ASD, based on the discussion of the predictive coding theory. Individuals with ASD limit the input of information by an attentional focus on a part of the stimulus and/or by restricted and repetitive behavior. These aspects of information processing may contribute to the generation and stabilization of models of the internal or emotional self. Thus, attentional biases such as detail-focused processing in ASD are an adaptive mechanism for managing the overabundance of visual information.
著者
杉浦 義典
出版者
JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.104-131, 2019 (Released:2019-11-22)
参考文献数
99
被引用文献数
1

The transdiagnostic approach to psychopathologies was introduced as a solution to high comorbidity and weak differentiation of psychological disorders. Factor analytic studies have revealed a hierarchical structure with the highest single p-factor (i.e., psychopathology), which parallels the results in the personality studies of general factor of personality over the Big 5 dimensions. The etiology of the single super-factor is considered in the life history strategy in evolutionary psychology. Two strategies to clinically utilize the p-factor are discussed, as follows: (1) setting the p-factor as a predictor to probe the relevant mediators (i.e., endophenotype) of symptoms and (2) moving across the levels of hierarchy to enhance flexible responding. The final topic discussed is the cybernetic principle with goal hierarchy, which will enhance studies on personality, psychopathology, and well-being.
著者
米田 英嗣 間野 陽子 板倉 昭二
出版者
JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.39-50, 2019 (Released:2019-11-22)
参考文献数
85
被引用文献数
1

This paper reviews the role of empathy in autism spectrum disorders and psychopathy. Empathy can be subdivided into two categories: cognitive empathy (i.e., the ability to identify the emotions of others) and affective empathy (i.e., the ability to share or match the emotions of the self with those of others). Individuals with autism spectrum disorders lack cognitive empathy, whereas individuals with psychopathy lack emotional empathy. The similarity hypothesis states that people empathize with other people who are similar to themselves in personality and in conditions such as developmental disorders or typical development. The similarity hypothesis predicts that individuals with autism spectrum disorders would emotionally empathize with other people with autism spectrum disorders, and individuals with psychopathy would cognitively empathize with other people with psychopathy. Finally, we attempted to interpret autism spectrum disorders and psychopathy as resulting from the neurodiversity of empathy.
著者
樫原 潤
出版者
JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.2, pp.143-165, 2019 (Released:2020-12-20)
参考文献数
106
被引用文献数
1

Depression is one of the most burdensome mental disorders, and effective treatments for depression are needed. This review highlights that the network perspectives of psychopathology can promote tailored therapies for depression and improve the quality of treatment. First, we discuss that depression heterogeneity can be depicted by quantitative data analyses. Second, we review two previous clustering approaches that have been utilized to develop tailored therapy for depression: the first is based on a staging model and the second focuses on depression subtypes. Third, we focus on models and analyses of psychopathology networks, which have recently received substantial attention in clinical psychology. We demonstrate that psychopathology network models view mental disorders as complex interplays of symptoms, and we introduce analytic procedures and previous studies based on these models. We then summarize differences and similarities between network and clustering approaches and discuss how psychopathology networks can further promote tailored therapies for depression. Finally, we discuss the requirements for the practical use of psychopathology networks from the perspectives of cost-effectiveness and collaboration of data scientists and clinicians.
著者
田口 茂
出版者
JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.16-24, 2019 (Released:2019-11-22)
参考文献数
24

Asai (2019) discusses a transformation of the view of reality resulting from the Bayesian theory of inference. The current paper offers philosophical interpretations concerning the significance, scope, and possible development of Asai’s discussion, which are especially based on a phenomenological point of view. Asai’s Bayesian view of reality is closely related to phenomenology. It implies a denial of determinism and naive realism. However, these traits of Asai’s view can signify a more moderate and scientific attitude. What an individual experiences as reality is the effect of certain filters that his or her experience has. Asai calls this effect “attention”; however, it is better described as “consciousness.” His interpretation of reality as mutual interference of waves is convincing and closely matches the quantum theoretical view of reality. Finally, such a transformation of the view of reality can positively affect the view of “mental disorder.” The aim of psychiatric treatment should not be to conform patients to the “only one same reality” (which is illusory), but to gear (or accommodate) different realities to each other.
著者
大平 英樹
出版者
JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.1, pp.132-141, 2019 (Released:2019-11-22)
参考文献数
26
被引用文献数
1

Studies on psychiatric disorders in abnormal psychology have shown several cognitive and affective features of psychiatric patients such as attentional bias, deficits in working memory, deviations in the parameters of reinforcement learning such as learning rate, inverse temperature, and discounting rate. However, causal relationships between such cognitive and affective features and symptoms of the disorders are unclear. The hypothesis of this study is that the dysregulation of homeostasis and allostasis via mechanisms of the predictive coding of interoception may be a critical mediator of the link between cognitive and affective features and psychiatric disorders. In this paper, a computational model combining the predictive coding of interoception and reinforcement learning is proposed to provide suggestions for the hypothesis. Simulations using the model suggested that (1) a reduced learning rate and inverse temperature, which are observed in depressed patients, can lead to unstable decision-making and maintained higher levels of reward predictive errors and (2) can consequently result in dull physiological reactivity and chronically higher levels of autonomic responses. These results provide a perspective that can integrate cognitive and affective features, physiological states, and symptoms of psychiatric disorders.
著者
大山 正 渡辺 はま
出版者
JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
雑誌
心理学評論 (ISSN:03861058)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.2, pp.179-196, 2019 (Released:2020-12-20)
参考文献数
99

Notices for opportune retrieval, internal representations of plans during retention, and the personal factors influencing the execution of planned actions are discussed in this study. Plans must be composed so that they can be implemented at appropriate times and situations in individuals’ daily lives while considering perceptual factors that are important for accomplishing them. For the remembering processes, we discussed spontaneous remembering, which is unique for prospective memory. Topics for the execution of planned actions, which have been discussed in relation to intention, were reconsidered as memory for future plans. For the retention processes, we discussed the activation of intention (i.e., prospective memory). Furthermore, we reviewed this process from the perspective of planning. Finally, we discussed personal traits for the execution of plans because implementation depends on personal traits such as thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. Understanding the mechanism of the daily execution of planned actions by focusing on notices, internal representations, and personal factors may mitigate the chances of forgetting and/or the failure of plans, and facilitate the development of useful strategies, based on emotional situations. It can promote an active daily life driven by self-efficacy.