- 日本建築学会計画系論文集 (ISSN:13404210)
- vol.84, no.757, pp.547-556, 2019 (Released:2019-03-30)
1. Background and purpose of the research Recently many companies and universities build and hold their own childcare facilities. The purpose of this research is to investigate the process of establishment and the method of management of childcare facilities at universities. 2. Methodology of the survey This research consists of three contents. 1) The literature survey about the background and history of childcare centers in Japan 2) The literature and Internet survey about the establishment situation of childcare facilities at universities 3) The interview survey about the methods of childcare and management at each university 3. Summary of the research 1) There were two types of childcare centers - nursery and daycare center. However, since 1960s, several types of childcare facilities have been established by various demands of childcare services. 2) The literature and Internet research show that not only employer-provided childcare service but also seven more types of childcare services currently exist at universities. 3) The interview survey shows that childcare services at universities can be further classified into five types depending on the management methods as explained below and in Table 4: Authorized Type 1: The university only provides the site but social welfare corporation builds the facility at the site of the university and manages the childcare policy. Since this type of childcare facility is run by an organization of the community, the centers accept both children of the community and the university staff and teachers. Authorized Type 2: The government and the university build the facility. The purpose of this facility is to provide not only childcare but also a new educational program. Therefore, the university manages the facility and government supports operating expenses. Unauthorized Type 1: The university holds all rights of management and administration of the childcare facilities. Therefore, the university can plan the facilities based on the childcare policy of its own even by adopting the childcare workers' suggestion. However, childcare workers have to be engaged in the management in addition to daily childcare services. Unauthorized Type 2: The university holds the right of management but outsources the childcare service to an outside specialty organization. The survey shows this type is the most pervasive and reasonable planning method for universities. However, childcare workers are obliged to adapt to the facility even if the design of the facility is sometimes not suitable for the childcare policy; for instance, problems lie in the line of flow of the childcare workers and the design of the rooms. Unauthorized Type 3: The university builds the facility and PTA manages the facility. The problem of this type is that the member of PTA changes to the graduation of the child. 4. Conclusion The survey shows that even one organization - a university - has various types of childcare facilities. This result suggests that universities and other organizations have various alternatives to establish childcare facilities in the future.