- 日本建築学会計画系論文集 (ISSN:13404210)
- vol.84, no.766, pp.2573-2583, 2019 (Released:2019-12-30)
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of the positions of Jizo in Kyoto through analyzing the newspaper articles and photos especially about Jizo and Jizo-bon festival from early modern period to today. In this paper, we clarified the transformation of the social position of Jizo that had been emerged by the social problems through Jizo. The results of this study are as follows. After the order in 1871 to remove Jizo on the street, there were 4 periods the number of articles of Jizo increases as follows. ①The first period from 1887 to 1892 that the revival of Jizo-bon festival was paid attention as the curious affair. After this period Jizo and Jizo-bon festival became to be general as the usual situation before the order. ②The second period from 1929 to 1941 that Jizo and Jizo-bon festival had been the object of deeper and various interests, and after the outbreak of the Shino-Japanese War and the Pacific War, had been influenced strongly and utilized enhancing national prestige. ③The third period from 1952 to 1958 that Jizo-bon festival was appealed for the purpose of the democratic education after the war as the festival mainly for and by the children. ④The fourth period from 1971 to 1984 that the most interest was drawn, and the Jizo-bon festival was recognized to be necessary for the community work or the community formation, and such the recognition became established. The revival of Jizo-bon festival was reported from 1881, and it became established again as the urban festival in Kyoto city in around 1899. And the changes of the road environment influenced to remove the location of the Jizo-bon festival in the 30’s of Showa period. Through this study the process of the Jizo’s re-position facing to the street has been clarified that the position of the Jizo in usual situation was seen in some of Cho in around 1892, and they began to be positioned under the eaves of the shop house facing to the street in around 1900. Before early Showa period such the positions became general. Analyzing through the newspaper photos, the outside location of Jizo-bon festival had been changed from the road into the other outside space like the alley, the rooftop, the temple, the park or the primary school, or into the inside space of the house or the temple. And the elements of the festival became to be composed from the long-term setting materials into the short-term ones. These changing terms were from the 30’s to the 50’s centering the 40’s of Showa period, and these periods overlap with the changing periods of the road environment.