This study examined whether people’s level of basic scientific knowledge is associated with their anxiety levels pertaining to a wide range of hazards. We conducted a nationwide survey and collected data from a highly representative sample (N = 1,073). Participants rated their anxiety level regarding 51 hazards as well as their level of trust in organizations regarding the management of each hazard. Additionally, they answered 11 basic scientific knowledge questions. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that the level of people’s basic scientific knowledge was associated with the level of anxiety they felt about hazards, even after controlling for the effects of sex and trust level. However, the results also suggested that the explanatory power of knowledge was low. The interpretation of these results is discussed with a focus on the deficit model of science communication.