著者
中谷内 一也 長谷 和久 横山 広美
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.89.17215, (Released:2018-03-10)
参考文献数
53

This study examined whether people’s level of basic scientific knowledge is associated with their anxiety levels pertaining to a wide range of hazards. We conducted a nationwide survey and collected data from a highly representative sample (N = 1,073). Participants rated their anxiety level regarding 51 hazards as well as their level of trust in organizations regarding the management of each hazard. Additionally, they answered 11 basic scientific knowledge questions. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that the level of people’s basic scientific knowledge was associated with the level of anxiety they felt about hazards, even after controlling for the effects of sex and trust level. However, the results also suggested that the explanatory power of knowledge was low. The interpretation of these results is discussed with a focus on the deficit model of science communication.
著者
工藤 大介 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.35-44, 2014-08-18

This study investigated why the restrained buying called reputational risk occurred after The Great East Japan Earthquake, focusing on the psychological factors influencing consumers. A preliminary investigation (N=112) identified affective (System 1) factors - "negative affect," "association with Fukushima," "support for quake-hit areas," and "radiation anxieties" - and reason (System 2) factors - "knowledge-based judgment" and "rational decision" - based on the dual-process theory. Initially, the results of structural equation modeling (SEM) conducted on the main survey data (N=310) indicated the influence of multi-collinearity. Accordingly, the factors "negative affect," "association with Fukushima," and "radiation anxieties" were integrated as "anxiety over radiation and nuclear power." The result of SEM on the refined model suggested this factor causes restrained buying while "support for quake-hit areas" is effective in its mitigation. Finally, future contingency plans to combat reputational risk were discussed based on the findings of this study.
著者
横井 良典 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.1, pp.16-25, 2018-07-31 (Released:2018-08-01)
参考文献数
45

This study examined trust in artificial intelligence in medical care and identified its determinants. Studies on risk perception have found that perceived ability, integrity, and value similarity determine trust in risk managers. Further, engineering studies on trust in artificial intelligence have suggested that perceived ability and integrity determine trust. However, few researchers have examined whether perceived value similarity affects trust in artificial intelligence. We employed a situation assumption method and focused on the shared policy of medical treatment. In Study 1 (n=165), the results revealed that the shared policy of medical treatment enhanced participants’ trust in artificial intelligence, as it did in humans. In addition, artificial intelligence was less trusted than humans were. Study 2 (n=139) replicated the experiment conducted in Study 1 by improving items for manipulation check. The results of Study 2 mostly reproduced those of Study 1. Empirical implications of the findings are discussed.
著者
中谷内 一也 島田 貴仁
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.34-44, 2008

The purpose of the present study was to compare the perceived risk of crimes between the lay public and experts. A hypothesis of the lay public's risk perception was deduced using the weight function of prospect theory. It was expected that the lay public would overestimate the number of personal injury crimes, which are statistically low, and underestimate the number of property crimes, which are statistically higher. Experts, on the other hand, were expected to correctly estimate the number of crimes in each category. One hundred and sixty undergraduate students and 259 police officers estimated an average annual number for each of 18 crimes. The results supported the hypothesis, revealing that the public overestimated the number of personal injury crimes, which rarely occur, and underestimated the number of property crimes, which occur frequently. Implications of these results for experts and how they communicate with the lay public regarding crime prevention were discussed.
著者
中谷内 一也 工藤 大介 尾崎 拓
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.2, pp.139-147, 2014 (Released:2014-06-25)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
3 4

This study investigated the levels of public trust in organizations associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake. In Study 1 (N = 639), the levels of trust in eight organizations as well as the determinants of trust–perceived salient value similarity (SVS), ability, and motivation– were measured twice, first immediately after the earthquake and then a year later. The results indicated that the trust levels for six of the eight organizations had been preserved, supporting the double asymmetric effect of trust. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that SVS explained trust more when the organization had been less trusted. Trust in the organization explains well the perceived reduction of the target risk. The results of SEM in Study 2 (N = 1,030) replicated those of Study 1, suggesting the stability of the explanatory power of the determinants of trust. Implications of the study for risk management practices are discussed.
著者
工藤 大介 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.35-44, 2014-08-18 (Released:2015-06-06)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
3

This study investigated why the restrained buying called reputational risk occurred after The Great East Japan Earthquake, focusing on the psychological factors influencing consumers. A preliminary investigation (N=112) identified affective (System 1) factors—“negative affect,” “association with Fukushima,” “support for quake-hit areas,” and “radiation anxieties”—and reason (System 2) factors—“knowledge-based judgment” and “rational decision”—based on the dual-process theory. Initially, the results of structural equation modeling (SEM) conducted on the main survey data (N=310) indicated the influence of multi-collinearity. Accordingly, the factors “negative affect,” “association with Fukushima,” and “radiation anxieties” were integrated as “anxiety over radiation and nuclear power.” The result of SEM on the refined model suggested this factor causes restrained buying while “support for quake-hit areas” is effective in its mitigation. Finally, future contingency plans to combat reputational risk were discussed based on the findings of this study.
著者
柴田 侑秀 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.3, pp.151-161, 2019-03-31 (Released:2019-03-31)
参考文献数
37

The literature in the field of fear of crime posits that fear results from perceived likelihood of victimization. This causal relation, however, has not yet been confirmed in empirical research. This paper examined this relationship by providing participants with information regarding the actual numbers of a crime. In Study 1, the survey data on the fear of crime was collected from 173 undergraduate students, and a hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to select the types of crimes as materials in the experiment. In Study 2, 274 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions: one where the annual number of a type of injury due to crime was presented or the control condition, where no crime statistics were presented. The results revealed that the participants with the statistical information about the crimes decreased their perceived likelihood of victimization as well as their fear of crime. These results provide preliminary confirmation of the causality from the perceived likelihood of victimization to fear of crime. The practical implications and limitations of this research were discussed.
著者
中谷内 一也 Cvetkovich George
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.3, pp.259-268, 2008
被引用文献数
2

The degree of trust in risk managers heavily influences the public's acceptance of new technologies. The present study examined factors affecting public trust in risk managers, integrating the salient value similarity (SVS) model and the traditional view of trust. A thousand residents in Tokyo and neighboring prefectures participated in a survey that investigated public trust in the government offices responsible for the decision to approve a genetically modified rice that claims to inhibit pollen allergies. In the high interest group, giving moral meaning to the outcomes of the decision was found to be a powerful predictor of trust. Perceived agreement in values between individuals and the regulators was also found to influence trust in decisions, as predicted by the SVS model. On the other hand, as expected with the traditional perspective on trust, a perception of procedural competency and a belief in the fairness of the risk managers were found to be powerful predictors of trust in the low interest group. Implications of these results for the practice of risk management were discussed.
著者
中谷内 一也
出版者
静岡県立大学
雑誌
経営と情報 : 静岡県立大学・経営情報学部/学報 (ISSN:09188215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.1, pp.31-37, 1999-12-25

This study examined the relationship between the lay judgment of carcinogenic risk threshold and attitude toward nuclear power plants. After the experimenter explained the concept of the threshold in dose-response relationship, one-hundred and thirty students gave their judgment of the threshold in the dose-response relationship of carcinogenic risk of exposure to radiation and their attitudes toward nuclear power plants. Then they watched a sensational TV program reporting on the danger of nuclear waste and its storage. After that they were given the same questions which they had answered previously. The results suggested that there was no relationship between judgment of threshold and attitude toward the nuclear power plants. Also the judgment had no relationship to the attitude change brought about by the TV program. Implications of these results for radiation risk management and communication are discussed.
著者
大木 聖子 中谷内 一也 横山 広美 纐纈 一起 泊 次郎 桒原 央治
出版者
慶應義塾大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2011-04-28

社会が災害科学に期待することは自然災害の防止や軽減であり,それには災害を予測する必要があるが,予測が困難な場合が多いため,災害科学の社会貢献は不定性が高くなる.それを念頭に置かずに「踏み越え」が行われると科学者が刑事責任まで問われることがあり,イタリアのラクイラ地震裁判はその最近の例である.我々は,資料収集や聞き取り調査,判決理由書の分析等を行い,そこでの災害科学の不定性と科学者の責任を検討した.その結果,裁判の対象となったラクイラ地震の人的被害は,災害科学の不定性を踏まえない市民保護庁副長官の安易な「安全宣言」が主な原因という結論を得た.また,これのみを報じた報道機関にも重大な責任がある.
著者
中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.69-77, 1999

This study examined the effects of (a) the processes of risk reduction to achieve zero risk and (b) the framings of the problem on the value of achieving zero risk. Respondents assessed WTPs (willingness to pay) to save lives in a hypothetical earthquake. two factors were manipulated in the experiment. These were (1) the process to present risk reduction as an increase in lives saved or a decrease in deaths. The results suggested that the zero risk effect, which meant the identical loss reduction by a protective action against risk was valued more highly when it achieved the "no loss" outcome than when it left some losses, disappeared in the condition where zero risk was achieved by one-to-one actions with corresponding one-to-one costs. rather, people valued the first protective action more highly than the following actions in that condition, particularly when the problem was framed positively. Zero risk effect appeared only in the condition where a single-shot action could achieve zero risk.
著者
中谷内 一也 長谷 和久 横山 広美
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.89, no.2, pp.171-178, 2018 (Released:2018-06-25)
参考文献数
53

This study examined whether people’s level of basic scientific knowledge is associated with their anxiety levels pertaining to a wide range of hazards. We conducted a nationwide survey and collected data from a highly representative sample (N = 1,073). Participants rated their anxiety level regarding 51 hazards as well as their level of trust in organizations regarding the management of each hazard. Additionally, they answered 11 basic scientific knowledge questions. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that the level of people’s basic scientific knowledge was associated with the level of anxiety they felt about hazards, even after controlling for the effects of sex and trust level. However, the results also suggested that the explanatory power of knowledge was low. The interpretation of these results is discussed with a focus on the deficit model of science communication.
著者
中谷内 一也
出版者
日本保健物理学会
雑誌
保健物理 (ISSN:03676110)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.4, pp.391-396, 1999 (Released:2010-02-25)
参考文献数
17

This paper discusses the threshold of carcinogen risk from the viewpoint of social psychology. First, the results of a survey suggesting that renunciation of the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis would have no influence on the public acceptance (PA) of nuclear power plants are reported. Second, the relationship between the adoption of the LNT hypothesis and the standardization of management for various risks are discussed.
著者
野波 寛 加藤 潤三 中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.81-91, 2009
被引用文献数
1 1

The present research investigated the legitimacy of actors that participate in managing natural resources as commons, and the determinants of their legitimacy. Legitimacy was defined as the approvability of the rights of others and the self, to participate in the management of the commons. Traits that actors expected of managers were highlighted as the determinants of legitimacy. We examined the effects of three traits: expertise, partyship, and locality. A questionnaire survey targeted three actors-farmers, fishermen, and other workers-involved in the red clay flow problem that has damaged the local sea in Ginoza village, in Okinawa. As a result, the legitimacy of farmers and fishermen was higher than that of civil servants. Results also indicated that the parties to the problem were more favored as managers than the experts, and that the actors favored local community members as managers over experts. Furthermore, the favored traits of managers as determinants of legitimacy were inconsistent among the actors. These suggested that the subjective locations of actors in participating in the control of the red clay flow were different from each other. The contributions of these findings to the expansion of social governance in managing the commons are discussed.
著者
中谷内 一也
出版者
日本社会心理学会
雑誌
社会心理学研究 (ISSN:09161503)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.2, pp.63-72, 2002
被引用文献数
1

This questionnaire-based research examines in what areas people have a strong desire for total risk elimination. On a seven point scale (1 =not at all to 7 =very strongly), participants in Shizuoka and Aichi prefectures rated how strongly they desire that no one should die on a range of 61 items. Items were chosen from previous studies that investigated people's risk perception of a variety of technologies, activities, and incidents. Some items were added to the list because they were heavily discussed public issues at the time in Japan (for example, dioxin or bullying at school) .The results showed that desire for zero risk is relatively weak in the areas of voluntary activities, interpersonal conflicts, and natural disasters. On the other hand, technologies related to atomic energy, medical treatment, bullying at school, and handgun use were the highest rated among the 61 items. The reason people desire zero risk regarding these items is discussed and compared to previous research dealing with people's desire for severe restrictions on technologies and activities that are perceived to be risky.

2 0 0 0 OA 信頼の心理学

著者
中谷内 一也
出版者
日本香粧品学会
雑誌
日本香粧品学会誌 (ISSN:18802532)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.4, pp.244-249, 2014-12-31 (Released:2016-01-22)
参考文献数
4

Conventionally, in social psychology research, “perceived competence” that is rooted in a specialized technique and knowledge, and “perceived motivation” that is rooted in the attitude to carry out one's duty have been targeted, as important factors for earning trust. Today, attention is being drawn to the salient value similarity (SVS) model whose viewpoint differs from that of these two factors. In the SVS model, trust is assumed not only to be dependent on characteristics of the trusted party but also to be determined by the commonality of both the trusting and trusted parties, in particular, by sharing salient values. That is to say that the SVS model insists that “we can trust in and entrust something to a person who has the same viewpoint and shares similar feelings.” Studies related to trust in recent years have clarified that all of the perception of competence, motivation, and value sharing are significant defining factors of trust. In addition, it is reported that the weight of trust in value-sharing perception increases and the weight of competence perception decreases relatively, in the event that the problem someone faces is important to the individual, in the event that there exists an argument in the society concerning the pros and cons of the problem, and in the event that trust in the risk management organization subject to assessment is reduced.
著者
中谷内 一也 渡部 幹
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.76, no.3, pp.235-243, 2005
被引用文献数
1

This research examined the effects of providing a monitoring and self sanctioning system, called "hostage posting" in economics, on the improvement of trustworthiness. We conducted two questionnaire-type experiments to compare the trust-improving effects among the three conditions, (a) a voluntary provision of a monitoring and self-sanction system by the manager, (b) an imposed provision, and (c) an achievement of satisfactory management without any types of provisions. Total of 561 undergraduate students participated in the experiments. Results revealed that perceived integrity and competence were improved to almost the same level in both conditions (a) and (c), whereas these were not improved in condition (b). Consistent with our previous research, these results showed that the voluntary hostage posting improved trustworthiness level as well as a good performance did. The estimation of necessity of the system, however, was not different across these conditions. The implications for management practice and directions for future research were discussed.
著者
長谷 和久 中谷内 一也
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.88.16064, (Released:2017-11-10)
参考文献数
22

Literature in the field of regulatory focus theory argues that individuals who are promotion-focused in creativity-related tasks are more successful than those who are prevention-focused. However, recent studies have shown that prevention-focused individuals are persistent when solving tasks, potentially leading to improved task performance. This study, which considered two kinds of regulatory focus (chronic/situational), investigated the hypothesis that prevention-focused individuals employ a persistent style when performing creative tasks. A Japanese version of the Remote Associates Test (RAT) was used as a creative task, and subjective depletion after the RAT, as well as the time spent deciding to skip RAT items, were measured as indicators of persistence. The results showed that both chronic and situational prevention focuses made participants more depleted than did the promotion focus. Furthermore, in the situational promotion-focus condition, chronic prevention focus made participants more depleted and lengthened the time taken to skip items. Thus, chronic prevention focus promoted persistence in a regulatory nonfit condition (i.e., situational promotion focus).