著者
縄田 健悟
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2014-06-01)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2 or 0

Despite the widespread popular belief in Japan about a relationship between personality and ABO blood type, this association has not been empirically substantiated. This study provides more robust evidence that there is no relationship between blood type and personality, through a secondary analysis of large-scale survey data. Recent data (after 2000) were collected using large-scale random sampling from over 10,000 people in total from both Japan and the US. Effect sizes were calculated. Japanese datasets from 2004 (N = 2,878–2,938), and 2,005 (N = 3,618–3,692) as well as one dataset from the US in 2004 (N = 3,037–3,092) were used. In all the datasets, 65 of 68 items yielded non-significant differences between blood groups. Effect sizes (η2) were less than .003. This means that blood type explained less than 0.3% of the total variance in personality. These results show the non-relevance of blood type for personality.
著者
縄田 健悟
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.2, pp.148-156, 2014 (Released:2014-06-25)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2 or 0

Despite the widespread popular belief in Japan about a relationship between personality and ABO blood type, this association has not been empirically substantiated. This study provides more robust evidence that there is no relationship between blood type and personality, through a secondary analysis of large-scale survey data. Recent data (after 2000) were collected using large-scale random sampling from over 10,000 people in total from both Japan and the US. Effect sizes were calculated. Japanese datasets from 2004 (N = 2,878–2,938), and 2,005 (N = 3,618–3,692) as well as one dataset from the US in 2004 (N = 3,037–3,092) were used. In all the datasets, 65 of 68 items yielded non-significant differences between blood groups. Effect sizes (η2) were less than .003. This means that blood type explained less than 0.3% of the total variance in personality. These results show the non-relevance of blood type for personality.
著者
村山 綾 三浦 麻子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2015-01-15)
参考文献数
35

This study defined Belief in Just World (BJW) multidimensionally and investigated the effects of Belief in Immanent Justice (BIJ) and Belief in Ultimate Justice (BUJ) on victim derogation and draconian punishment of perpetrators. Study 1 tested the validity of the multidimensional structure of BJW and demonstrated relationships between BJW and other psychological variables. In Study 2, we measured the reactions to the victim and perpetrator in an injury case reported in a news article, and evaluated the relationships of these reactions to BIJ and BUJ. The results revealed that BIJ was associated with a preference in draconian punishment of the perpetrator, while BUJ was associated with dissociation from the victim (a type of victim derogation). In addition, as hypothesized, we found that dehumanization of the perpetrator partially mediated the relationship between BIJ and victim derogation. We discussed relationships between the two types of BJW and just-world maintenance strategies in the situation where a victim and a perpetrator are both recognized.
著者
大久保 街亜 鈴木 玄 Nicholls Michael E. R.
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2014-11-11)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
2 or 0

Quantitative assessment of handedness is required in various clinical and research settings in psychology, neuroscience, and medicine. In the present study we tested the reliability and validity of a Japanese version of the FLANDERS handedness questionnaire, which was a new measure of skilled hand preference originally reported by Nicholls, Thomas, Loetscher, and Grimshaw (2013). Participants (N = 431) completed three types of handedness questionnaires: the FLANDERS handedness questionnaire, Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, and H・N handedness test. Factor analysis revealed that the Japanese version of FLANDERS handedness questionnaire had a single-factor structure and high internal consistency. This questionnaire also possessed high test-retest reliability and criterion-referenced validity. These results indicate that the Japanese version of the FLANDERS handedness questionnaire is a valid and useful measure of skilled hand preference for Japanese participants.
著者
三浦 麻子 小森 政嗣 松村 真宏 前田 和甫
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2015-03-10)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
2 or 0

In this article, we investigated the expression of emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake by analyzing the frequency of negative emotional terms in tweets posted on Twitter, one of the most popular social media platforms. We focused on differences in time-series variations and diurnal changes between two kinds of disasters: natural disasters (earthquakes and tsunamis) and nuclear accidents. The number of tweets containing negative emotional responses increased sharply shortly after the first huge earthquake and decreased over time, whereas tweets about nuclear accidents showed no correlation with elapsed time. Expressions of anxiety about natural disasters had a circadian rhythm, with a peak at midnight, whereas expressions of anger about the nuclear accident were highly sensitive to critical events related to the accident. These findings were discussed in terms of similarities and differences compared to earlier studies on emotional responses in social media.
著者
三浦 麻子 小森 政嗣 松村 真宏 前田 和甫
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.2, pp.102-111, 2015 (Released:2015-06-25)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
2 or 0

In this article, we investigated the expression of emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake by analyzing the frequency of negative emotional terms in tweets posted on Twitter, one of the most popular social media platforms. We focused on differences in time-series variations and diurnal changes between two kinds of disasters: natural disasters (earthquakes and tsunamis) and nuclear accidents. The number of tweets containing negative emotional responses increased sharply shortly after the first huge earthquake and decreased over time, whereas tweets about nuclear accidents showed no correlation with elapsed time. Expressions of anxiety about natural disasters had a circadian rhythm, with a peak at midnight, whereas expressions of anger about the nuclear accident were highly sensitive to critical events related to the accident. These findings were discussed in terms of similarities and differences compared to earlier studies on emotional responses in social media.
著者
山本 雄大 佐藤 潤美 大渕 憲一
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.2, pp.121-129, 2014 (Released:2014-06-25)
参考文献数
33

The present study examined the negative evaluations and discrimination against smokers among the Japanese. In Study 1, 52 students rated one of four target-persons differentially depicted in terms of gender and smoking habit using scales to measure coolness, sociability, intellectuality, and earnestness. The results showed that participants rated smokers more negatively than nonsmokers except for sociability. Those who perceived smoking as controllable rated smokers’ earnestness even more negatively, suggesting that the negative evaluations are partially moderated by the perceived controllability of smoking. To examine a hypothesis that negative evaluations of smokers would mediate discrimination, in Study 2 we measured how participants (96 students) responded to target persons asking for a loan or a job, as well as their ratings of the targets on the Big Five personality dimensions. The results support the hypothesis of mediation.
著者
小林 晃洋 大久保 街亜
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.1, pp.60-68, 2014-04-25 (Released:2014-04-15)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
2 or 0

The Operation Span Test (OSPAN) is widely used to assess working memory capacity. However, this instrument has been rarely used to test Japanese participants because its task was not sufficiently difficult. The mean score for the original computerized OSPAN often reached a ceiling when Japanese participants were tested. In this study, we developed a computerized version of OSPAN for Japanese participants by increasing the task difficulty of the arithmetic procedures. The OSPAN scores were normally distributed and the mean score was approximately 50%. There were positive correlations between OSPAN scores and other scores of working memory measurements, such as a reading span test and a digit span test. These results suggest that the Japanese OSPAN is a reliable and valid measurement of working memory to test Japanese participants.
著者
加藤 仁 五十嵐 祐
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2016-01-15)
参考文献数
47

Recent research has shown growing interest in the process by which narcissism triggers immersion in social network games (SNG). Highly narcissistic individuals are motivated not only by the achievement of goals and monopoly of materials (i.e., self-enhancement), but also by comparison and competition with others (i.e., social comparison). We predicted that the common rules and environments of SNG and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), such as systems of exchanging items and ranking players, facilitate immersion of highly narcissistic individuals during the game. Structural equation modeling of data from 378 SNG players and 150 MMORPG players recruited online showed that self-esteem inhibited game immersion, whereas narcissism increased game immersion via motivation for goal attainment. SNG players were more likely to be immersed in the game via motivation for goal attainment than MMORPG players. These findings suggest that, compared with MMORPG, the environments of SNG provide strong incentives not for those high in self-esteem who seek acceptance of others, but for those high in narcissism who are motivated by self-enhancement via competition with others.
著者
高野 陽太郎 纓坂 英子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.4, pp.312-327, 1997-10-28 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
106
被引用文献数
7 or 15

To assess the validity of the dominant view that the “national character” of the Japanese is more collective than that of the Americans, this paper reviews ten recent empirical studies that compared these two nations regarding individualism/collectivism. Two experimental studies on conformity and five questionnaire studies found no substantial differences. Two experimental studies on cooperation and one questionnaire study found that Japanese college students were more individualistic than American counterparts. The only study that supported the dominant view (Hofstede, 1980) is found to have little validity because its “individualism factor” is virtually unrelated to the common definition of individualism/collectivism. It is shown that the past collective behavior of the Japanese can be interpreted as a universal reaction to the international situations that required cooperation inside Japan and have recently changed drastically. A review of the past literature that produced the dominant view suggests that it was formed through the fundamental attribution error and other judgmental biases.
著者
平川 真 深田 博己 塚脇 涼太 樋口 匡貴
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, no.6, pp.532-539, 2012 (Released:2012-08-18)
参考文献数
34

Why do people make requests indirectly? We examined the goals of indirect requests in order to answer this question. In Study 1, 162 university students completed a questionnaire regarding the goals of indirect requests. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the goals of indirect requests could be classified into five types: concern for the listener, making an effective request, avoidance of explicit refusal, self-impression management, or conveyance of indebtedness. In Study 2, we examined whether these goals actually affect the use of indirect requests by conducting a questionnaire study with 25 university students. The results indicated that some goals (making an effective request, avoidance of explicit refusal, self-impression management, and conveyance of indebtedness) have positive effects on indirect requests, whereas the goal of concern for the listener has no effect. Therefore, we concluded that these four goals which have positive effects are reasonable goals for indirect requests.
著者
岩佐 和典 田中 恒彦 山田 祐樹
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2018-01-15)
参考文献数
45

The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R-J). The participants were 1063 Japanese people (mean age = 21.64, SD = 7.33, range = 18–77; 581 males and 482 females) and were separated into three different groups. Participants in samples 1 (n = 481) and 2 (n = 492) provided data for examining the factor structure and validity of the DS-R-J. They completed the DS-R-J as well as questionnaires assessing disgust propensity and sensitivity, anxiety sensitivity, state and trait anxiety, affective state, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Participants in sample 3 (n = 90) provided data for estimating the test–retest reliability of the DS-R-J. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-factor structure involving core disgust, animal-reminder disgust, and physical and mental contamination disgust. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were sufficient, and conceptual validity of the DS-R-J was also supported. The results show that the Japanese version of the DS-R-J is a reliable and valid measurement of disgust sensitivity.
著者
高橋 直
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.2, pp.94-101, 1996-06-26 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
1 or 0

This study examined the effect of trash-receptacle availability on littering behavior in a naturalistic setting, namely a shopping mall. The procedure employed was an ABAB design, with (A) a baseline period, (B) an intervention period, (A) a second baseline period, and (B) a second intervention period. During the intervention periods, receptacles for empty cans and bottles were placed next to every trash receptacle that had been in place. The arrangement had a highly significant effect on littering behavior. For the first intervention period, a 22% reduction in litter was obtained, and it was reduced 34% for the second period. It seems that receptacles themselves were a powerful cue to induce people to deposit their litter. Conditions for findings of applied behavior analysis to generalize to more realistic every-day situations were also discussed.
著者
森 数馬 岩永 誠
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.5, pp.495-509, 2014 (Released:2014-12-25)
参考文献数
101

While enjoying music and other works of art, people sometimes experience “chills,” a strong emotional response characterized by a sensation of goose bumps or shivers. Such experiences differ from having goose bumps as a defense response or from shivering in reaction to cold temperatures. The current paper presents the phenomenon of music-induced chills and reviews the chill-related emotional response, autonomic nervous system activity, and brain activity. It also reviews the musico-acoustic features, listening contexts, and individual differences that cause chills. Based on the review, we propose a hypothetical model regarding the evocation of music-induced chills. Furthermore, we investigate the strong emotional response associated with chills by exploring the relationship between music-related chills and non-music-related chills, and discuss future research directions.
著者
有光 興記
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.2, pp.97-104, 2006-06-25 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
8 or 0

This study examined the relationship between empathic responsiveness and the proneness to ‘zaiakukan’ (guilt) and ‘shuchishin’ (shame and embarrassment). Two hundred and thirty five Japanese undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Situational Guilt Inventory (Arimitsu, 2002), Situational Shyness Questionnaire (Narita, Terasaki, & Niihama, 1990), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1983). As predicted, other-oriented empathic responsiveness, which measured perspective taking and empathetic concern, had a positive correlation with zaiakukan proneness, with shame and embarrassment controlled. On the other hand, self-oriented personal distress had a positive correlation with proneness to ‘kihazukashisa’, a component of shame and embarrassment, with guilt controlled. Inspection of correlations suggested that zaiakukan emerged from other-oriented empathy, and shuchishin in men from personal distress, because women's experience of shuchishin was less negative than men. Results on private shame were different from those in the previous studies (Leith & Baumeister, 1998; Tangney, 1991), and were discussed in terms of cultural differences.
著者
井上 佳奈 山本 佑実 菅村 玄二
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2016-03-10)
参考文献数
60

We tested possible intrapersonal effects of a sigh as a psychological “resetter/rebooter.” Fifty-eight undergraduates were randomly assigned to a sigh or a normal exhalation (control) group. We asked participants on each task to model the experimenter demonstrating how to exhale air into a small plastic bag for breathing manipulation under the pretext that we were interested in the exhaled gas in stressful situations. Results revealed that the sigh group did not experience more relief (as shown by prolonged reaction time) after exposure to threat stimuli, but showed more persistence on a highly-difficult puzzle task (p = .03, d = .62) and more willingness to continue working on a monotonous task (p < .10, d = .48), than the normal exhalation group. A sigh may have an adaptive function to motivate further work; although it may not induce relief — suggesting that a “sigh of refresh” is a voluntary but a “sigh of relief” is an involuntary response.
著者
井上 佳奈 山本 佑実 菅村 玄二
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.87, no.2, pp.133-143, 2016 (Released:2016-07-08)
参考文献数
60

We tested possible intrapersonal effects of a sigh as a psychological “resetter/rebooter.” Fifty-eight undergraduates were randomly assigned to a sigh or a normal exhalation (control) group. We asked participants on each task to model the experimenter demonstrating how to exhale air into a small plastic bag for breathing manipulation under the pretext that we were interested in the exhaled gas in stressful situations. Results revealed that the sigh group did not experience more relief (as shown by prolonged reaction time) after exposure to threat stimuli, but showed more persistence on a highly-difficult puzzle task (p = .03, d = .62) and more willingness to continue working on a monotonous task (p < .10, d = .48), than the normal exhalation group. A sigh may have an adaptive function to motivate further work; although it may not induce relief — suggesting that a “sigh of refresh” is a voluntary but a “sigh of relief” is an involuntary response.
著者
藤 桂 吉田 富二雄
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.80, no.6, pp.494-503, 2010

This study examined the influences of online gaming on sociability and aggression in real life. It was hypothesized that the effects of online gaming would differ depending on the interaction style of the online-gamers. Online-gamers in Japan (<I>n</I>=1 477) were asked to respond to questionnaires that measured interaction style during online gaming, the effects of sociability and aggression, as well as social and individual orientation in real life. Factor analysis of the scores for interaction style extracted five factors. Covariance structure analysis indicated that sociable interactions such as "Broadening relations" and "Feeling of belonging" promoted sociability in real life. In addition, "Release from daily hassles" promoted sociability and decreased aggression. In contrast, non-sociable and aggressive interactions decreased sociability and increased aggression. The results also suggested that a social orientation in real life promoted sociable interactions during game playing, while an individual orientation promoted non-sociable and aggressive interactions. These results supported the hypotheses and suggested that online gaming resulted in positive outcomes for those who are socially, but negative outcomes for those who are not.
著者
大上 渉
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.84, no.3, pp.218-228, 2013-08-25 (Released:2013-11-01)
参考文献数
35

This study examined the behavioral patterns of Japanese extremist groups, based on 377 terror incidents that occurred in Japan between 1990 and 2010. These incidents included bombings, rocket attacks, hostage taking, and vehicle assaults. Information was drawn primarily from on-line newspaper databases. A multiple correspondence analysis was performed using five categories: extremist group identity, time of attack, target of attack, attack strategy, and method of claiming responsibility. Extremist group characteristics varied along two dimensions: the interaction level between terrorist and victim, and the indiscriminate level of use of force. We categorized multiple far-left, far-right, and religious extremist groups based on these two dimensions. Our findings may help prevent terror attacks, and help identify the group responsible for a given incident.
著者
日道 俊之 小山内 秀和 後藤 崇志 藤田 弥世 河村 悠太 Davis Mark H. 野村 理朗
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
(Released:2017-01-14)
参考文献数
57

Empathy is a multi-dimensional concept with emotional and cognitive components. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) is a multi-dimensional scale of empathic traits. Although some researchers have attempted to translate the IRI into Japanese, these translated scales had limitations with content and construct validity, and measurement invariance. We therefore attempt to overcome these limitations by developing a new Japanese version of the IRI (IRI-J). We used three approaches to assess the validity and measurement invariance of the IRI-J. In Study 1, content validity was tested using back-translation, and construct validity was confirmed through a comprehensive investigation of a web-based survey using six other scales. Results indicate that the factor structure of the IRI-J was equivalent to that of the original version, and that the IRI-J had adequate reliability and construct validity. In Study 2, measurement invariance by gender was confirmed using data from four web-based surveys. These results suggest that the factor model of IRI-J for each gender is equivalent. The present study thus provides an improved measure of empathic traits for the Japanese population.