著者
縄田 健悟
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.85.13016, (Released:2014-06-01)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
9 5

Despite the widespread popular belief in Japan about a relationship between personality and ABO blood type, this association has not been empirically substantiated. This study provides more robust evidence that there is no relationship between blood type and personality, through a secondary analysis of large-scale survey data. Recent data (after 2000) were collected using large-scale random sampling from over 10,000 people in total from both Japan and the US. Effect sizes were calculated. Japanese datasets from 2004 (N = 2,878–2,938), and 2,005 (N = 3,618–3,692) as well as one dataset from the US in 2004 (N = 3,037–3,092) were used. In all the datasets, 65 of 68 items yielded non-significant differences between blood groups. Effect sizes (η2) were less than .003. This means that blood type explained less than 0.3% of the total variance in personality. These results show the non-relevance of blood type for personality.
著者
縄田 健悟
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.2, pp.148-156, 2014 (Released:2014-06-25)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2 5

Despite the widespread popular belief in Japan about a relationship between personality and ABO blood type, this association has not been empirically substantiated. This study provides more robust evidence that there is no relationship between blood type and personality, through a secondary analysis of large-scale survey data. Recent data (after 2000) were collected using large-scale random sampling from over 10,000 people in total from both Japan and the US. Effect sizes were calculated. Japanese datasets from 2004 (N = 2,878–2,938), and 2,005 (N = 3,618–3,692) as well as one dataset from the US in 2004 (N = 3,037–3,092) were used. In all the datasets, 65 of 68 items yielded non-significant differences between blood groups. Effect sizes (η2) were less than .003. This means that blood type explained less than 0.3% of the total variance in personality. These results show the non-relevance of blood type for personality.
著者
坪見 博之 齊藤 智 苧阪 満里子 苧阪 直行
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.18402, (Released:2019-06-20)
参考文献数
139

Working memory (WM) is a capacity-limited cognitive system that strongly relates to higher-order cognitive abilities including fluid intelligence. It has been suggested that WM training can increase memory capacity, which in turn, improves general intellectual abilities. To evaluate these claims, the present review critically re-assessed nine meta-analysis studies, and revealed that the effect of WM training on fluid intelligence (Gf), executive function, and academic performance is relatively small (averaged Hedges’ adjusted g < .20). Moreover, there were several methodological issues regarding the study design (placebo effect, small sample size), analytical approach (inadequate group comparison, lack of correction for multiple comparisons), and theoretical framework (lack of theoretical account of the training mechanisms) in previous WM training studies. We propose a set of recommendations for future training studies that go beyond training the WM ability per se. This includes theoretically possible methods to enhance intellectual abilities by, for example, learning strategies to effectively encode and recall information into long-term memory.
著者
新美 亮輔 山田 真也
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.91.19004, (Released:2020-05-22)
参考文献数
58

Faces and clothing are clues to interpersonal perception. However, it is not known whether perceptions of faces and clothing are interacting with each other. We examined the effects of facial attractiveness on subjective ratings of clothing attractiveness. Participants were shown pictures of a person wearing a T-shirt in which the faces and shirt designs were manipulated. The faces were either male or female, attractive or unattractive. Participants were instructed to rate the attractiveness of the shirts, not the faces. Nevertheless, attractive female faces increased shirt attractiveness ratings, irrespective of the participant’s gender. Attractive male faces only slightly increased shirt attractiveness ratings. Gender differences and individual variability in visual attention were not responsible for these effects. The current results more likely reflect social or cultural factors, such as the higher priority placed on female facial attractiveness than male facial attractiveness in today’s society.
著者
大久保 街亜 鈴木 玄 Nicholls Michael E. R.
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.85.13235, (Released:2014-11-11)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
10 16

Quantitative assessment of handedness is required in various clinical and research settings in psychology, neuroscience, and medicine. In the present study we tested the reliability and validity of a Japanese version of the FLANDERS handedness questionnaire, which was a new measure of skilled hand preference originally reported by Nicholls, Thomas, Loetscher, and Grimshaw (2013). Participants (N = 431) completed three types of handedness questionnaires: the FLANDERS handedness questionnaire, Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, and H・N handedness test. Factor analysis revealed that the Japanese version of FLANDERS handedness questionnaire had a single-factor structure and high internal consistency. This questionnaire also possessed high test-retest reliability and criterion-referenced validity. These results indicate that the Japanese version of the FLANDERS handedness questionnaire is a valid and useful measure of skilled hand preference for Japanese participants.
著者
小塩 真司 市村 美帆 汀 逸鶴 三枝 高大
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.19003, (Released:2019-11-15)
参考文献数
33

The present study examines changes over time in 12 traits of the Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventory that has been commonly used in Japan. A cross-temporal meta-analysis was conducted on 245 samples (95 papers) of Japanese people who completed the scale between 1954 to 2012 (total N = 50,327). Most of the traits showed curvilinear changes with survey year. Especially in recent years, Emotional Instability traits tended to increase with time whereas Dominance and Non-reflection traits tended to decrease. Changes to Thinking Extraversion and Nervousness correlated strongly with the changes to self-esteem between 1984 and 2009. Implications of the changes in the personality traits with survey year are discussed along with future research directions.
著者
中谷内 一也 長谷 和久 横山 広美
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.89.17215, (Released:2018-03-10)
参考文献数
53

This study examined whether people’s level of basic scientific knowledge is associated with their anxiety levels pertaining to a wide range of hazards. We conducted a nationwide survey and collected data from a highly representative sample (N = 1,073). Participants rated their anxiety level regarding 51 hazards as well as their level of trust in organizations regarding the management of each hazard. Additionally, they answered 11 basic scientific knowledge questions. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that the level of people’s basic scientific knowledge was associated with the level of anxiety they felt about hazards, even after controlling for the effects of sex and trust level. However, the results also suggested that the explanatory power of knowledge was low. The interpretation of these results is discussed with a focus on the deficit model of science communication.
著者
原田 知佳 畑中 美穂 川野 健治 勝又 陽太郎 川島 大輔 荘島 幸子 白神 敬介 川本 静香
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.18004, (Released:2019-09-20)
参考文献数
33

Previous research has found that a combination of high levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and low levels of behavioral activation system (BAS-Drive) predicts suicidal thinking (Rasmussen, Elliott, & O’Connor, 2012). In this study, we examined whether the effects of a suicide prevention education program for junior highschool students were moderated by the risk level of students, regarding a combination of high BIS and low BASDrive as a high risk for suicide. A total of 28 high-risk students and 167 low-risk students participated in the program. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires during the intervention. As a result of the analysis, it was suggested that through the program, not only low-risk students but also potential high-risk students could gain the ability to seek assistance.
著者
宇井 美代子 松井 豊 福富 護 成田 健一 上瀬 由美子 八城 薫
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.3, pp.215-223, 2008 (Released:2011-06-25)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
1 1

The present study analyzed demographic and psychological factors that affect adult men's decisions to solicit a prostitute. We administered a questionnaire to 1 400 randomly sampled men aged 20 to 59, who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area (obtaining 664 valid responses). The results revealed that 14.6 percent of respondents have had the experience of being a client in prostitution at some point over the past four to five years. Men in their 50s, who spent their adolescence before the enforcement of anti-prostitution laws, had high prostitution acceptability. Those in their 20s and 30s, who spent their adolescence in the 1990s when “Enjyo-Kousai” (Japanese amateur prostitution)gained topicality, also showed high rates. These findings are considered to be birth cohort effects. In addition, those men who reported grater sexual drive and desire for intimate contact with others, as well as those who reported fewer attitudes of gender egalitarianism, had higher rates of prostitution solicitation. Finally, those men who reported less emotional family bonds also showed higher rates.
著者
亀田 達也
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.27-34, 1986-04-30 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
2

To examine effect of prior stereotypical expectancy on social judgment from a Bayesian perspective, undergraduate subjects (N=204) were asked to infer a target person's attitude toward an atomic power problem. Half of them were told in advance that he was a member of Liberal Democratic Party (pro-expectancy condition), and the other half were told that he was a member of Japanese Socialist Party (con-expectancy condition). Then subjects were given a series of his previous relevant utterances, which had either high or low diagnostic values for the inference of his attitude. (a) “Labeling effect” occurred. That is, despite being given identical utterances, subjects given L. D. P. label estimated the target's attitude to be more favorable toward the atomic power than subjects given J. S. P. label. (b) This effect emerged mainly when subjects were given low diagnostic utterances. (c) Subjects given high diagnostic utterances inadequately underused the base-rate information (prior expectancy) compared with the Bayesian normative value. (d) Utterances congruent with prior expectancy were better recalled than utterances incongruent with prior expectancy.
著者
高野 陽太郎 纓坂 英子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.4, pp.312-327, 1997-10-28 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
106
被引用文献数
18 16 15

To assess the validity of the dominant view that the “national character” of the Japanese is more collective than that of the Americans, this paper reviews ten recent empirical studies that compared these two nations regarding individualism/collectivism. Two experimental studies on conformity and five questionnaire studies found no substantial differences. Two experimental studies on cooperation and one questionnaire study found that Japanese college students were more individualistic than American counterparts. The only study that supported the dominant view (Hofstede, 1980) is found to have little validity because its “individualism factor” is virtually unrelated to the common definition of individualism/collectivism. It is shown that the past collective behavior of the Japanese can be interpreted as a universal reaction to the international situations that required cooperation inside Japan and have recently changed drastically. A review of the past literature that produced the dominant view suggests that it was formed through the fundamental attribution error and other judgmental biases.
著者
岩本(大久保) 慧悟 竹橋 洋毅 高 史明
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.18229, (Released:2020-01-20)
参考文献数
23

This study developed a Japanese version of the Stress Mindset Measure (SMM-J), which captures individual differences in beliefs on the nature of stress, and investigated its reliability and validity. Study 1 examined the reliability and factor structure of the SMM-J by analyzing survey data of 449 employed adults. The results revealed that the SMM-J was composed of two negatively and strongly correlated factors: harmfulness of stress and usefulness of stress. Study 2 (92 parents), Study 3 (349 undergraduates), and Study 4 (800 employed adults) examined the predictive validity of the SMM-J. The results showed that the SMM-J predicted subjective health and life satisfaction after controlling for the effects of traditional stress factors such as the amount of stress and the coping style. This result is consistent with previous studies. The importance of an appropriate stress mindset is discussed.
著者
小塩 真司 市村 美帆 汀 逸鶴 三枝 高大
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.90, no.6, pp.572-580, 2019 (Released:2020-02-25)
参考文献数
33

The present study examines changes over time in 12 traits of the Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventory that has been commonly used in Japan. A cross-temporal meta-analysis was conducted on 245 samples (95 papers) of Japanese people who completed the scale between 1954 to 2012 (total N = 50,327). Most of the traits showed curvilinear changes with survey year. Especially in recent years, Emotional Instability traits tended to increase with time whereas Dominance and Non-reflection traits tended to decrease. Changes to Thinking Extraversion and Nervousness correlated strongly with the changes to self-esteem between 1984 and 2009. Implications of the changes in the personality traits with survey year are discussed along with future research directions.
著者
和田 実
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.3, pp.232-237, 1996-08-26 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
17

The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of age, gender, and sex-role identity to role expectation in same-sex friends (SSF). Role expectation in SSF consisted of ten categories (Wada, 1993): Cooperation, information, similarity, self-enhancement, sensitivity, companionship, authenticity, self-disclosure, respect, and interdependence. Subjects were 129 (67 male and 62 female) junior high school, 243 (118 male and 125 female) senior high school, and 168 (88 male and 80 female) college students. Major findings were as follows: Senior high school and undergraduate students expected more self-enhancement from SSF than junior high students. Junior and senior high school students expected more companionship than undergraduates. Undergraduates expected more authenticity and less self disclosure than junior high school students. And male students expected more companionship, information, and similarity, but less self-disclosure, self-enhancement, and respect from SSF than female. Clear results of the relationship between sex-role identity and role expectation in SSF weren't found.
著者
三浦 麻子 小森 政嗣 松村 真宏 前田 和甫
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.2, pp.102-111, 2015 (Released:2015-06-25)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
4 7

In this article, we investigated the expression of emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake by analyzing the frequency of negative emotional terms in tweets posted on Twitter, one of the most popular social media platforms. We focused on differences in time-series variations and diurnal changes between two kinds of disasters: natural disasters (earthquakes and tsunamis) and nuclear accidents. The number of tweets containing negative emotional responses increased sharply shortly after the first huge earthquake and decreased over time, whereas tweets about nuclear accidents showed no correlation with elapsed time. Expressions of anxiety about natural disasters had a circadian rhythm, with a peak at midnight, whereas expressions of anger about the nuclear accident were highly sensitive to critical events related to the accident. These findings were discussed in terms of similarities and differences compared to earlier studies on emotional responses in social media.
著者
三浦 麻子 小森 政嗣 松村 真宏 前田 和甫
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.86.13076, (Released:2015-03-10)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
4 7

In this article, we investigated the expression of emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake by analyzing the frequency of negative emotional terms in tweets posted on Twitter, one of the most popular social media platforms. We focused on differences in time-series variations and diurnal changes between two kinds of disasters: natural disasters (earthquakes and tsunamis) and nuclear accidents. The number of tweets containing negative emotional responses increased sharply shortly after the first huge earthquake and decreased over time, whereas tweets about nuclear accidents showed no correlation with elapsed time. Expressions of anxiety about natural disasters had a circadian rhythm, with a peak at midnight, whereas expressions of anger about the nuclear accident were highly sensitive to critical events related to the accident. These findings were discussed in terms of similarities and differences compared to earlier studies on emotional responses in social media.
著者
仲嶺 真 上條 菜美子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.17233, (Released:2019-05-20)
参考文献数
26

This paper reviewed articles published in the Japanese Journal of Psychology pertaining to the development of a new psychological scale and ascertained whether these articles supported the necessity to develop a new scale. In a period of 15 years, there were 112 articles related to the development of a scale found in the Japanese Journal of Psychology. Only about 30% (38 articles) describe the necessity related to the originality of the new scale. In addition, about 40% (48 articles) do not describe the definitions of the constructs. Based on these results, the following two points are proposed: the importance of specifying the definition of the new construct; and clarifying similarities and differences between the new scale and the existing scales.
著者
村山 綾 三浦 麻子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.1, pp.1-9, 2015 (Released:2015-04-25)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
1

This study defined Belief in Just World (BJW) multidimensionally and investigated the effects of Belief in Immanent Justice (BIJ) and Belief in Ultimate Justice (BUJ) on victim derogation and draconian punishment of perpetrators. Study 1 tested the validity of the multidimensional structure of BJW and demonstrated relationships between BJW and other psychological variables. In Study 2, we measured the reactions to the victim and perpetrator in an injury case reported in a news article, and evaluated the relationships of these reactions to BIJ and BUJ. The results revealed that BIJ was associated with a preference in draconian punishment of the perpetrator, while BUJ was associated with dissociation from the victim (a type of victim derogation). In addition, as hypothesized, we found that dehumanization of the perpetrator partially mediated the relationship between BIJ and victim derogation. We discussed relationships between the two types of BJW and just-world maintenance strategies in the situation where a victim and a perpetrator are both recognized.
著者
橋本 光平 武藤 崇
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.17337, (Released:2018-12-25)
参考文献数
18

This research aimed to identify manipulable variables that moderate the effects of behavioral assimilation to age stereotype (BAAS). From a contextual behavioral perspective, individuals who are cognitively fused with the conceptual self could be more vulnerable to the age stereotype. A total of 100 older adult participants were assigned to one of two conditions: age stereotype condition; or neutral information condition (i.e., control condition). Individual differences in “cognitive fusion with conceptual self,” “general cognitive fusion,” “mindfulness,” “perspective taking,” and “acting actively and flexibly in the world” were considered as moderator. Results indicated that “cognitive fusion with conceptual self” significantly moderated the effects of BAAS: participants who were more cognitively fused with the conceptual self were more vulnerable to the age stereotype. No significant moderating effects were found for the other four variables. These findings suggest that if the cognitive fusion with the conceptual self was modified the effects of BAAS would be mitigated.