著者
縄田 健悟
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.85.13016, (Released:2014-06-01)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
5 2

Despite the widespread popular belief in Japan about a relationship between personality and ABO blood type, this association has not been empirically substantiated. This study provides more robust evidence that there is no relationship between blood type and personality, through a secondary analysis of large-scale survey data. Recent data (after 2000) were collected using large-scale random sampling from over 10,000 people in total from both Japan and the US. Effect sizes were calculated. Japanese datasets from 2004 (N = 2,878–2,938), and 2,005 (N = 3,618–3,692) as well as one dataset from the US in 2004 (N = 3,037–3,092) were used. In all the datasets, 65 of 68 items yielded non-significant differences between blood groups. Effect sizes (η2) were less than .003. This means that blood type explained less than 0.3% of the total variance in personality. These results show the non-relevance of blood type for personality.
著者
縄田 健悟
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.2, pp.148-156, 2014 (Released:2014-06-25)
参考文献数
24
被引用文献数
2 2

Despite the widespread popular belief in Japan about a relationship between personality and ABO blood type, this association has not been empirically substantiated. This study provides more robust evidence that there is no relationship between blood type and personality, through a secondary analysis of large-scale survey data. Recent data (after 2000) were collected using large-scale random sampling from over 10,000 people in total from both Japan and the US. Effect sizes were calculated. Japanese datasets from 2004 (N = 2,878–2,938), and 2,005 (N = 3,618–3,692) as well as one dataset from the US in 2004 (N = 3,037–3,092) were used. In all the datasets, 65 of 68 items yielded non-significant differences between blood groups. Effect sizes (η2) were less than .003. This means that blood type explained less than 0.3% of the total variance in personality. These results show the non-relevance of blood type for personality.
著者
村山 綾 三浦 麻子
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.86.13069, (Released:2015-01-15)
参考文献数
35

This study defined Belief in Just World (BJW) multidimensionally and investigated the effects of Belief in Immanent Justice (BIJ) and Belief in Ultimate Justice (BUJ) on victim derogation and draconian punishment of perpetrators. Study 1 tested the validity of the multidimensional structure of BJW and demonstrated relationships between BJW and other psychological variables. In Study 2, we measured the reactions to the victim and perpetrator in an injury case reported in a news article, and evaluated the relationships of these reactions to BIJ and BUJ. The results revealed that BIJ was associated with a preference in draconian punishment of the perpetrator, while BUJ was associated with dissociation from the victim (a type of victim derogation). In addition, as hypothesized, we found that dehumanization of the perpetrator partially mediated the relationship between BIJ and victim derogation. We discussed relationships between the two types of BJW and just-world maintenance strategies in the situation where a victim and a perpetrator are both recognized.
著者
大久保 街亜 鈴木 玄 Nicholls Michael E. R.
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.85.13235, (Released:2014-11-11)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
10 10

Quantitative assessment of handedness is required in various clinical and research settings in psychology, neuroscience, and medicine. In the present study we tested the reliability and validity of a Japanese version of the FLANDERS handedness questionnaire, which was a new measure of skilled hand preference originally reported by Nicholls, Thomas, Loetscher, and Grimshaw (2013). Participants (N = 431) completed three types of handedness questionnaires: the FLANDERS handedness questionnaire, Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, and H・N handedness test. Factor analysis revealed that the Japanese version of FLANDERS handedness questionnaire had a single-factor structure and high internal consistency. This questionnaire also possessed high test-retest reliability and criterion-referenced validity. These results indicate that the Japanese version of the FLANDERS handedness questionnaire is a valid and useful measure of skilled hand preference for Japanese participants.
著者
中谷内 一也 長谷 和久 横山 広美
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.89.17215, (Released:2018-03-10)
参考文献数
53

This study examined whether people’s level of basic scientific knowledge is associated with their anxiety levels pertaining to a wide range of hazards. We conducted a nationwide survey and collected data from a highly representative sample (N = 1,073). Participants rated their anxiety level regarding 51 hazards as well as their level of trust in organizations regarding the management of each hazard. Additionally, they answered 11 basic scientific knowledge questions. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that the level of people’s basic scientific knowledge was associated with the level of anxiety they felt about hazards, even after controlling for the effects of sex and trust level. However, the results also suggested that the explanatory power of knowledge was low. The interpretation of these results is discussed with a focus on the deficit model of science communication.
著者
宇井 美代子 松井 豊 福富 護 成田 健一 上瀬 由美子 八城 薫
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.79, no.3, pp.215-223, 2008 (Released:2011-06-25)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
1 1

The present study analyzed demographic and psychological factors that affect adult men's decisions to solicit a prostitute. We administered a questionnaire to 1 400 randomly sampled men aged 20 to 59, who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area (obtaining 664 valid responses). The results revealed that 14.6 percent of respondents have had the experience of being a client in prostitution at some point over the past four to five years. Men in their 50s, who spent their adolescence before the enforcement of anti-prostitution laws, had high prostitution acceptability. Those in their 20s and 30s, who spent their adolescence in the 1990s when “Enjyo-Kousai” (Japanese amateur prostitution)gained topicality, also showed high rates. These findings are considered to be birth cohort effects. In addition, those men who reported grater sexual drive and desire for intimate contact with others, as well as those who reported fewer attitudes of gender egalitarianism, had higher rates of prostitution solicitation. Finally, those men who reported less emotional family bonds also showed higher rates.
著者
坪見 博之 齊藤 智 苧阪 満里子 苧阪 直行
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.18402, (Released:2019-06-20)
参考文献数
139

Working memory (WM) is a capacity-limited cognitive system that strongly relates to higher-order cognitive abilities including fluid intelligence. It has been suggested that WM training can increase memory capacity, which in turn, improves general intellectual abilities. To evaluate these claims, the present review critically re-assessed nine meta-analysis studies, and revealed that the effect of WM training on fluid intelligence (Gf), executive function, and academic performance is relatively small (averaged Hedges’ adjusted g < .20). Moreover, there were several methodological issues regarding the study design (placebo effect, small sample size), analytical approach (inadequate group comparison, lack of correction for multiple comparisons), and theoretical framework (lack of theoretical account of the training mechanisms) in previous WM training studies. We propose a set of recommendations for future training studies that go beyond training the WM ability per se. This includes theoretically possible methods to enhance intellectual abilities by, for example, learning strategies to effectively encode and recall information into long-term memory.
著者
三浦 麻子 小森 政嗣 松村 真宏 前田 和甫
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.86.13076, (Released:2015-03-10)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
4 6

In this article, we investigated the expression of emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake by analyzing the frequency of negative emotional terms in tweets posted on Twitter, one of the most popular social media platforms. We focused on differences in time-series variations and diurnal changes between two kinds of disasters: natural disasters (earthquakes and tsunamis) and nuclear accidents. The number of tweets containing negative emotional responses increased sharply shortly after the first huge earthquake and decreased over time, whereas tweets about nuclear accidents showed no correlation with elapsed time. Expressions of anxiety about natural disasters had a circadian rhythm, with a peak at midnight, whereas expressions of anger about the nuclear accident were highly sensitive to critical events related to the accident. These findings were discussed in terms of similarities and differences compared to earlier studies on emotional responses in social media.
著者
仲嶺 真 上條 菜美子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.17233, (Released:2019-05-20)
参考文献数
26

This paper reviewed articles published in the Japanese Journal of Psychology pertaining to the development of a new psychological scale and ascertained whether these articles supported the necessity to develop a new scale. In a period of 15 years, there were 112 articles related to the development of a scale found in the Japanese Journal of Psychology. Only about 30% (38 articles) describe the necessity related to the originality of the new scale. In addition, about 40% (48 articles) do not describe the definitions of the constructs. Based on these results, the following two points are proposed: the importance of specifying the definition of the new construct; and clarifying similarities and differences between the new scale and the existing scales.
著者
高野 陽太郎 纓坂 英子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.68, no.4, pp.312-327, 1997-10-28 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
106
被引用文献数
7 14 15

To assess the validity of the dominant view that the “national character” of the Japanese is more collective than that of the Americans, this paper reviews ten recent empirical studies that compared these two nations regarding individualism/collectivism. Two experimental studies on conformity and five questionnaire studies found no substantial differences. Two experimental studies on cooperation and one questionnaire study found that Japanese college students were more individualistic than American counterparts. The only study that supported the dominant view (Hofstede, 1980) is found to have little validity because its “individualism factor” is virtually unrelated to the common definition of individualism/collectivism. It is shown that the past collective behavior of the Japanese can be interpreted as a universal reaction to the international situations that required cooperation inside Japan and have recently changed drastically. A review of the past literature that produced the dominant view suggests that it was formed through the fundamental attribution error and other judgmental biases.
著者
三浦 麻子 小森 政嗣 松村 真宏 前田 和甫
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.2, pp.102-111, 2015 (Released:2015-06-25)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
4 6

In this article, we investigated the expression of emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake by analyzing the frequency of negative emotional terms in tweets posted on Twitter, one of the most popular social media platforms. We focused on differences in time-series variations and diurnal changes between two kinds of disasters: natural disasters (earthquakes and tsunamis) and nuclear accidents. The number of tweets containing negative emotional responses increased sharply shortly after the first huge earthquake and decreased over time, whereas tweets about nuclear accidents showed no correlation with elapsed time. Expressions of anxiety about natural disasters had a circadian rhythm, with a peak at midnight, whereas expressions of anger about the nuclear accident were highly sensitive to critical events related to the accident. These findings were discussed in terms of similarities and differences compared to earlier studies on emotional responses in social media.
著者
村山 綾 三浦 麻子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.17234, (Released:2019-05-20)
参考文献数
32

The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the Japanese version (Kanai, 2013) of the Moral Foundation Questionnaire (MFQ; Graham, Nosek, Haidt, Iyer, Koleva, & Ditto, 2011). In Study 1, we tested the internal validity of the MFQ using data collected from 855 participants, following the procedure by Graham et al. (2011). Analyses revealed that the five-factor model showed the best fit among any other model. In addition, a higher score in In-group, Authority, and Purity was related weakly but significantly to conservative political identity. In Study 2, we tested test-retest reliability as well as the relationships between the MFQ and ideologies, using data collected from 470 participants. The test-retest reliability was relatively low, compared to Graham et al. (2011). The relationships between the MFQ and ideologies were consistent overall with the Moral Foundations Theory. However, we also found several inconsistent results such as a higher score in Purity resulting in agreeing more with a liberal opinion. Usage of the Japanese version of the MFQ in empirical studies was discussed.
著者
山本 雄大 佐藤 潤美 大渕 憲一
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.2, pp.121-129, 2014 (Released:2014-06-25)
参考文献数
33

The present study examined the negative evaluations and discrimination against smokers among the Japanese. In Study 1, 52 students rated one of four target-persons differentially depicted in terms of gender and smoking habit using scales to measure coolness, sociability, intellectuality, and earnestness. The results showed that participants rated smokers more negatively than nonsmokers except for sociability. Those who perceived smoking as controllable rated smokers’ earnestness even more negatively, suggesting that the negative evaluations are partially moderated by the perceived controllability of smoking. To examine a hypothesis that negative evaluations of smokers would mediate discrimination, in Study 2 we measured how participants (96 students) responded to target persons asking for a loan or a job, as well as their ratings of the targets on the Big Five personality dimensions. The results support the hypothesis of mediation.
著者
加藤 仁 五十嵐 祐
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.87.14033, (Released:2016-01-15)
参考文献数
47
被引用文献数
4 1

Recent research has shown growing interest in the process by which narcissism triggers immersion in social network games (SNG). Highly narcissistic individuals are motivated not only by the achievement of goals and monopoly of materials (i.e., self-enhancement), but also by comparison and competition with others (i.e., social comparison). We predicted that the common rules and environments of SNG and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), such as systems of exchanging items and ranking players, facilitate immersion of highly narcissistic individuals during the game. Structural equation modeling of data from 378 SNG players and 150 MMORPG players recruited online showed that self-esteem inhibited game immersion, whereas narcissism increased game immersion via motivation for goal attainment. SNG players were more likely to be immersed in the game via motivation for goal attainment than MMORPG players. These findings suggest that, compared with MMORPG, the environments of SNG provide strong incentives not for those high in self-esteem who seek acceptance of others, but for those high in narcissism who are motivated by self-enhancement via competition with others.
著者
後藤 崇志 石橋 優也 梶村 昇吾 岡 隆之介 楠見 孝
出版者
The Japanese Psychological Association
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
2015
被引用文献数
2

We developed a free will and determinism scale in Japanese (FAD-J) to assess lay beliefs in free will, scientific determinism, fatalistic determinism, and unpredictability. In Study 1, we translated a free will and determinism scale (FAD-Plus) into Japanese and verified its reliability and validity. In Study 2, we examined the relationship between the FAD-J and eight other scales. Results suggested that lay beliefs in free will and determinism were related to self-regulation, critical thinking, other-oriented empathy, self-esteem, and regret and maximization in decision makings. We discuss the usefulness of the FAD-J for studying the psychological functions of lay beliefs in free will and determinism.
著者
若林 明雄 東條 吉邦 Simon Baron-Cohen Sally Wheelwright
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.75, no.1, pp.78-84, 2004-04-25 (Released:2010-07-16)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
71 79

Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, and Clubley (2001) constructed brief, self-administered instruments named the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), for measuring the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has the traits associated with the autistic spectrum. In this paper, we report on a Japanese version of this new instrument. Three groups of Japanese subjects were assessed. Group 1 (n=57) consisted of adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA). The other two groups were control groups. Subjects of Group 2 (n=194) were normal adults and those of Group 3 (n=1050) were students selected from five Universities in Tokyo and Chiba. The adults with AS/HFA had a mean AQ score of 37.9 (SD=5.31), which was significantly higher than the two control groups (Group 2: X=18.5, SD=6.21, and Group 3: X=20.7, SD=6.388). While eighty-eight percent of the adults with AS/HFA scored more than 33 points, only 3% of subjects in the two control groups indicated those points. Among the controls, males scored slightly but significantly higher than females. The reliability of the AQ in both test-retest and inter-rater measures were significantly high.
著者
和田 実
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.81, no.4, pp.356-363, 2010

This study investigated heterosexual undergraduates' behavior with a same-sex close friend and their attitudes toward homosexuality after this friend disclosed his/her sexual orientation. The study also examined whether the heterosexual friend was regarded as a romantic love object or not. Participants were 77 male and 139 female undergraduates. Males decreased their behaviors with their close friend and adopted more positive attitudes toward gay men after they knew their friend's sexual orientation. Females decreased their behavior with their close friend more after learning that they were a romantic love object of their friend, compared to when tehy were not. Also females adopted more positive attitudes toward lesbians only after knowing they were not a romantic love object. These gender differences are discussed.
著者
橋本 光平 武藤 崇
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.90.17337, (Released:2018-12-25)
参考文献数
18

This research aimed to identify manipulable variables that moderate the effects of behavioral assimilation to age stereotype (BAAS). From a contextual behavioral perspective, individuals who are cognitively fused with the conceptual self could be more vulnerable to the age stereotype. A total of 100 older adult participants were assigned to one of two conditions: age stereotype condition; or neutral information condition (i.e., control condition). Individual differences in “cognitive fusion with conceptual self,” “general cognitive fusion,” “mindfulness,” “perspective taking,” and “acting actively and flexibly in the world” were considered as moderator. Results indicated that “cognitive fusion with conceptual self” significantly moderated the effects of BAAS: participants who were more cognitively fused with the conceptual self were more vulnerable to the age stereotype. No significant moderating effects were found for the other four variables. These findings suggest that if the cognitive fusion with the conceptual self was modified the effects of BAAS would be mitigated.
著者
村山 綾 三浦 麻子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.86, no.1, pp.1-9, 2015 (Released:2015-04-25)
参考文献数
35
被引用文献数
1

This study defined Belief in Just World (BJW) multidimensionally and investigated the effects of Belief in Immanent Justice (BIJ) and Belief in Ultimate Justice (BUJ) on victim derogation and draconian punishment of perpetrators. Study 1 tested the validity of the multidimensional structure of BJW and demonstrated relationships between BJW and other psychological variables. In Study 2, we measured the reactions to the victim and perpetrator in an injury case reported in a news article, and evaluated the relationships of these reactions to BIJ and BUJ. The results revealed that BIJ was associated with a preference in draconian punishment of the perpetrator, while BUJ was associated with dissociation from the victim (a type of victim derogation). In addition, as hypothesized, we found that dehumanization of the perpetrator partially mediated the relationship between BIJ and victim derogation. We discussed relationships between the two types of BJW and just-world maintenance strategies in the situation where a victim and a perpetrator are both recognized.
著者
小林 晃洋 大久保 街亜
出版者
公益社団法人 日本心理学会
雑誌
心理学研究 (ISSN:00215236)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.85, no.1, pp.60-68, 2014-04-25 (Released:2014-04-15)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
2 2

The Operation Span Test (OSPAN) is widely used to assess working memory capacity. However, this instrument has been rarely used to test Japanese participants because its task was not sufficiently difficult. The mean score for the original computerized OSPAN often reached a ceiling when Japanese participants were tested. In this study, we developed a computerized version of OSPAN for Japanese participants by increasing the task difficulty of the arithmetic procedures. The OSPAN scores were normally distributed and the mean score was approximately 50%. There were positive correlations between OSPAN scores and other scores of working memory measurements, such as a reading span test and a digit span test. These results suggest that the Japanese OSPAN is a reliable and valid measurement of working memory to test Japanese participants.