著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, no.2, pp.1-15, 2015-01-01

This paper reconsiders Yumiko Ehara’s examination on a series of discussions in the Japanese women’s movement since 1970s, to explore sociological implication of the issue raised by her. Through critical investigation into these discussions, Ehara articulated certain kind of diffi culty that might be found out even today in our discussions of social problems about gender inequality. In rereading Ehara’s examination, this paper suggests that change of people’s lifestyle and change of society are related to change of discourses in and through which our everyday life has been organized. In order to produce new discourses, we have to unravel the interconnection of various concepts in our everyday language use activities and reorganize them in a new way. Ehara’s concept of “Kenryoku-sayo” means regulatory power of discourses that prevents us from unraveling and reorganizing such interconnection of concepts related to gender. Based on Ehara’s examination, this paper suggests that such discoursive power not only regulates our everyday life but also is activated in and through our own everyday language use activities.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.1-14, 2012-07-01

This paper considers girl zines as feminist alternative media. Girl zines were participatory media produced through grass roots feminist movement in US in 1990s. In following discussion, I review American girl’s cultural creating activities in relation to the history of modernization and industrialization in US and gender norms. In so doing I examine the difference between consumer oriented girl’s “bedroom culture” and girl zine’s culture. Through these considerations, this paper tries to understand the problematic posed by this young feminist movement in the 1990s. Following the study of Stephen Duncombe, Chapter 2 discusses the defi nition of zines, their origin and their main concerns. Chapter 3, following the study of US girl culture by Mary Celest Kearney, locates girl ziens within US history of girl’s cultural creating activities. Chapter4 and 5 analyze the relation between girl zines and feminist movement in US since 1970s. This paper suggests that girl zines don’t simply mean zines made by girls. Rather, they are alternative media for women who demonstrate the unconformity against dominant values in modern society, such as male-centrism, hetero-sexism, white-centrism and consumer capitalism. Based on punk’s DIY ethos and feminism, girl zines challenge mainstream girl culture, “bedroom culture”, which is lead by corporate culture industries. At the same time girl zines are the site where girls explore what does it mean to be an American girl or American woman.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.1, pp.1-22, 2017-07-31

The purpose of this paper is to examine the idea of Dorothy Smith’s institutional ethnography(IE) though reading her early study, “Institutional Ethnography: A Feminist Research Strategy ”(Smith1987:151-179).In this article she re-raised the classical sociological issue about the relationship betweenpeople’s local and particular experience and extra-local and general social relations, and suggestedan alternative sociology that explores how the everyday world of people’s experience is put togetherby social relations that extend beyond the everyday world. She applied Ethnomethodological notionof accountability to the institutional context and located institutional accounting practices tying localsettings of everyday world to the nonlocal organization of the ‘ruling apparatus’. Dorothy Smith’sIE explores how actual work processes are made accountable through institutional ideologicalprocedures that attend selectively to work processes, thus making only selective aspect of themaccountable within the institutional order. In so doing IE tries to break through to the penumbra notcomprehended by institutional accounting practices.Trough examining the idea of Smith’s IE, this paper tries to develop the method of sociologicalinquiry into knowing the social from people’s actual everyday world.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.28, no.2, pp.1-20, 2018-01-31

The purpose of this paper is to examine the idea of Dorothy Smith’s institutional ethnography(IE) through reading her article “The Standard North American Family:SNAF as an Ideological Code”(Smith 1999:157-171).In her sociological investigation, Smith re-raised the classical sociological issue about therelationship between people’s local and particular experience and extra-local and general socialrelations. And she suggested an alternative sociology that explores how the everyday world ofpeople’s experience is put together by social relations that extend beyond the everyday world.The point of the “SNAF” article is to explore the operation of SNAF as‘ideological code’ withinwhat she called‘ruling relations’. Ruling relations are internally coordinated complex of administrative,managerial, professional, and discursive organization that regulates, organizers, governs, andcontrols our societies. Within these relations, SNAF code operates to coordinate multiple site throughtextually mediated discourses.In the “SNAF” article, ideological code is regarded as a constant generator of procedures forselecting syntax categories and vocabulary in the writing of formal texts and for interpreting sentences,written or spoken, ordered by it. Smith argues that SNAF-governed texts are ubiquitous and givediscursive body and substance to a version of The Family, and mask the actualities of people’s livesespecially when they do not accord with SNAF.Through examining the idea of Smith’s ‘textually mediated discourses’ and‘ideological code’, thispaper tries to develop the method of sociological inquiry into knowing the social from people’s actualeveryday world.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.29, no.1, pp.1-18, 2018-07-31

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the idea of the social organization of textual realities in Dorothy Smith’s sociology.Smith’s sociology re-raised the classical sociological issue about the relationship between people’s local and particular experience and extra-local and general social relations. And shesuggested an alternative sociology that explored how the everyday world of people’s experience is put together by social relations that extend beyond the everyday world. She argued that traditional sociological method of inquiry translated people’s own knowledge of the world of their everyday practices into the objectified knowledge to make everyday world accountable within sociological discourse. On the other hand, her sociology locates the starting point of inquiry within people’s actual experience and their own knowledge.Based on Smith’s Institutional Ethnography (IE), this paper investigates institutional accounting practices which produce textual realities. According to IE, actual work processes are made accountable as text (factual account) through institutional ideological procedures which attend selectively to work processes, thus making only selective aspect of them accountable within the institutional order. For IE texts are integral because they organize the trans or extra-local relations that we participate in but cannot observe from our local site of being.This paper examines the way IE discovers and makes observable how texts enter into, organize, shape, and coordinate people’s doings as we participate in the objectifying relation of ruling. In so doing this paper tries to suggest the method of knowing the social from people’s actual everyday world.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, no.1, pp.1-16, 2019-07-31

The purpose of this paper is to study the concepts of work and work knowledges in DorothySmith’s Institutional Ethnography.Inspired by the thinking of a feminist group called the Wages for Housework group, she expanded the meaning of work not only into what people are paid to do but also into anything that people do that takes time, effort and intent. The concept of work in this “generous” sense orients the institutional ethnographer to what people are actually doing as they participate in institutional processes. Work knowledges refers to what people know of and in their work and how it is coordinated with the work of others. It is a major resource of the institutional ethnographer. Whether they are produced in interviewer-informant interchange or in participant observation, work knowledges should be evoked dialogically.After brief examination of the definition of these concepts in Smith’s argument, this paper tries to reconsider her researches on women’s mothering work for their children’s schooling. In so doing this paper tries to explicate how sociological investigation based on work and work knowledges could be proceeded. The work and work knowledges in this sense could not be accountable in institutional discourse. This paper explores how IE could discover what people know of and in their work and explore how it is coordinated with the work of others.Lastly, this paper discusses the problem of “institutional capture”. This is a barrier created by the ways in which institutional discourse may enter into the dialogue that produces work knowledges. The objectified knowledge in institutional discourse would subsume and displace descriptions based on experience and prevent the institutional ethnographer from accessing to the people’s work knowledges.Through examining the idea of Smith’s work and work knowledges, this paper tries to develop the method of sociological inquiry into knowing the social from people’s actual everyday world.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
日本マス・コミュニケーション学会
雑誌
マス・コミュニケーション研究 (ISSN:13411306)
巻号頁・発行日
no.49, pp.96-109, 232, 1996-07-31

The purpose of this paper is to explicate the activities that audience actually achieve in watching TV. In so doing, I would like to offer a new perspective for the study of mass communications. First, I reconsider the "text-reader" framework by which interpretive activities of audience have been studied. Second, by reference to research by D.Smith, I try to review this subject-object dichotomy. And last, I demonstrate how TV program-watching is actually organized as categorization practices. In conclusion, TV program watching is language-use activity or social activity.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, no.1, pp.1-14, 2012-07-01

This paper considers girl zines as feminist alternative media. Girl zines were participatory media produced through grass roots feminist movement in US in 1990s. In following discussion, I review American girl's cultural creating activities in relation to the history of modernization and industrialization in US and gender norms. In so doing I examine the difference between consumer oriented girl's "bedroom culture" and girl zine's culture. Through these considerations, this paper tries to understand the problematic posed by this young feminist movement in the 1990s. Following the study of Stephen Duncombe, Chapter 2 discusses the defi nition of zines, their origin and their main concerns. Chapter 3, following the study of US girl culture by Mary Celest Kearney, locates girl ziens within US history of girl's cultural creating activities. Chapter4 and 5 analyze the relation between girl zines and feminist movement in US since 1970s. This paper suggests that girl zines don't simply mean zines made by girls. Rather, they are alternative media for women who demonstrate the unconformity against dominant values in modern society, such as male-centrism, hetero-sexism, white-centrism and consumer capitalism. Based on punk's DIY ethos and feminism, girl zines challenge mainstream girl culture, "bedroom culture", which is lead by corporate culture industries. At the same time girl zines are the site where girls explore what does it mean to be an American girl or American woman.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.20, no.2, pp.1-15, 2010-01-01

This paper considers some critical discussions about the sex/gender dualism. They argue that the dualism presupposes that on one hand there is crucial difference between women and men ; on the other hand there is crucial similarity among women (or men). This presupposition overlooks the difference among women (or men) and accepts the idea that there issome essential difference between women and men by assuming a natural sex without any social, cultural and historical contexts. Against the sex/gender dualism, an alternative view of gender has been discussed since 1990’.This view argues that, whether physically or socially taken, who is a ‘woman (or man)’ and what doesthat category mean are determined in a specifi c context. This view helps to reconsider the concept of gender which assumes the analytic distinction between sex and gender and argues that dividing someone into woman and man is itself a social, cultural and historical matter, namely “gender”. Adopting this view of gender, we can respecify the issues on the sociological investigationof gender. How division of sex can be articulated in each context can be itself an important issueon the sociological investigation of gender. Being a woman(or man) is produced through some activities and in itself a social phenomena. This paper explores a kind of view of language in these reconsiderations of the concept of gender. From this view of language, identifyng, recognizing or naming someone as a woman or man is not simply representation of some given object with language, but is itself doing something, namely a language ?use-practice. Being a woman (or man) is not a given social fact but a socialphenomena constructed in and through people’s language-use-practices. Through these examinations, this paper raises some issues on the sociological investigation of gender about what gender is and where we should fi nd the social phenomena of gender.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies Bunkyo University (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.1-16, 2017-01-31

The purpose of this paper is to examine some key concepts of Dorothy Smith’s feminist sociologythrough reading her early study, “Institutional Ethnography: A Feminist Research Strategy” (Smith1987:151-179). In this article she re-raised the classical sociological issue about the relationshipbetween people’s local and particular experience and extra-local and general social relations, andsuggested an alternative sociology that explores how the everyday world of people’s experience isput together by social relations that extend beyond the everyday world. She argued that traditionalsociological method of inquiry translates people’s own knowledge of the world of their everydaypractices into the objectified knowledge to make everyday world accountable within sociologicaldiscourse. On the other hand, her sociology locates the starting point of inquiry within people’s actualexperience and their own knowledge. The key concepts of her sociology, such as ‘the everyday worldas problematic’ ‘standpoint of women’ ‘institutional ethnography’ ‘work knowledge’, make visible howpeople are connected into the extended social relations of ruling from people’s standpoints. Throughexamining these concepts, this paper develops the method of sociological inquiry into knowing thesocial from people’s actual everyday world.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 = Journal of the Faculty of International Studies (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.1-16, 2013-07-01

This paper considers the relationship between third wave feminism and girl zines through reading Alison Piepmeier’s Girl Zines : Making Media, Doing Feminism. According to Piepmeier, girl zines and third wave feminism respond to the same world, and girl zines are mechanism in which third wave feminists articulate theory and create community. Following her study, this paper tries to reveal third wave feminism in and through girl zines. Chapter 1 explains Piepmeider’s view on girl’s studies and third wave feminism. Chapter 2 locates girl ziens within the history of participatory media of US feminism since 19th century. Chapter 3 examines some characteristics of girl zine’s visual style and the concept of fragmented identitiy in order to explain how girl zines are intervening in gendered representation. Chapter 4, based on the concept intersectionality, examies the challenges to “the white-girl ideal of feminism”and the problem of colorblindness by girls and women of color. Chapter 5 offers brief discussion about politics of girl zines. In so doing this paper explores how girl zines’ negotiations of the specific and the generalizable create alternative descriptions of what it means to be an American girl or an American woman.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
関東社会学会
雑誌
年報社会学論集 (ISSN:09194363)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2002, no.15, pp.82-92, 2002-06-01 (Released:2010-04-21)
参考文献数
11

Since the 70's, Dorothy Smith has explored the disjuncture between objectified knowledge and women's experience in her works of feminist sociology. This paper examines the particular use she makes of the concept of “disjuncture” through her work so as to redefine the sociological implications of her arguments. Smith's sociology does not take “women's experience” as a simply private thing. The “experience” is always mediated by “relation of ruling” and transformed into “objectified knowledge” in an invisible process. By critically analyzing this process, Smith shows that investigations on the production of the distinction private-public through the social organization of knowledge could be the main issue of sociology.
著者
上谷 香陽
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
文教大学国際学部紀要 (ISSN:09173072)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, no.1, pp.1-16, 2013-07

This paper considers the relationship between third wave feminism and girl zines through reading Alison Piepmeier's Girl Zines : Making Media, Doing Feminism. According to Piepmeier, girl zines and third wave feminism respond to the same world, and girl zines are mechanism in which third wave feminists articulate theory and create community. Following her study, this paper tries to reveal third wave feminism in and through girl zines. Chapter 1 explains Piepmeider's view on girl's studies and third wave feminism. Chapter 2 locates girl ziens within the history of participatory media of US feminism since 19th century. Chapter 3 examines some characteristics of girl zine's visual style and the concept of fragmented identitiy in order to explain how girl zines are intervening in gendered representation. Chapter 4, based on the concept intersectionality, examies the challenges to "the white-girl ideal of feminism"and the problem of colorblindness by girls and women of color. Chapter 5 offers brief discussion about politics of girl zines. In so doing this paper explores how girl zines' negotiations of the specific and the generalizable create alternative descriptions of what it means to be an American girl or an American woman.