著者
上野 隆生
出版者
和光大学現代人間学部
雑誌
和光大学現代人間学部紀要 (ISSN:18827292)
巻号頁・発行日
no.3, pp.99-115, 2010-03

This article deals with the Italian School Textbooks, especially those of geography, published from 1920's to the first half of 1960's. My focus falls upon the Italian images of Japan──how they described Japan and things Japanese──and its transition. Naturally in the field of culture or belle arte important exchanges between Japan and Italy have been occurred since the end of Edo period. But the study of public images between the two nations has been less exhausted than we expect in the domain of modern Japanese history. This negligence seemed more queer in considering the intimate relations between the two countries as fascist powers in the late 1930's and in the first half of the 1940's. After the defeat of the fascist powers, democracy and economy appeared to have become the main interests of nations instead of the arrogant aggression and expanding the colonial-empire. So did it even in the ex-fascist nations. Then, what of the images of Japan in Italy? Even though my analysis is circumscribed by lack of comprehensive materials, for the purpose of gaining a better understanding of the Italian images of Japan for nearly fifty years in the midst of 20th century, the following might be a conclusion. First and foremost, we often read in the textbooks that Japan made such a successful takeout both in the economical and in the political dimensions. It was so surprising that almost every textbook, no matter when it was published, mentioned on that point. Not only in the pre-WWII period but also in the post-WWII period, it is clear that they are astonished at the speed of development of Japan. Secondly, they tried to grasp the reason of such rapid development. The reason of this rapidity always centered on the shrewd capability of Japanese people to imitate European civilization. At the same time, often mentioned is the fact that Japan lacked enough space, food and materials to nurture the Japanese people. There comes the striking difference between pre- and post-WWII. Before the WWII, they regarded this lack as a reason that Japan conquered Korea, China, and Southeast Asia. In other words, it was well "justified" for Japan to annex these area. After the WWII, on the other hand, they come to think that over-population and material shortage compelled Japanese industry to become more labor-intensive and effective, which has been the essential characteristic of Japanese industries. Therefore Japanese products can be competitive everywhere in the world. Thirdly, with a feeling of marvels, they introduced Japanese ways of life, beautiful sceneries such as Inland See, and Japanese culture. It has been more mentioned in detail than we had ex pected. A particular emphasis is laid on the contrast between the highly modernized industrial apparatus and the traditional way of life. In a nutshell, reviewing the Italian school textbooks of geography, an ambivalent image has existed about Japan, that is, wonder and menace. When it comes to the rapidity of Westernization, a feeling of wonder cast a long shadow of the images of Japan in Italy. But at once looking from the viewpoint of geopolitics or the rapidity of Japanese expansion into Asia and the Pacific, a feeling of menace emerged into the images of Japan. This ambivalence seems to have created the prototype of the images of Japan in Italy.
著者
上野 隆生
出版者
和光大学現代人間学部
雑誌
和光大学現代人間学部紀要 = Bulletin of the Faculty of Human Studies (ISSN:18827292)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.105-122, 2008-03

The notorious Greater East Asia co-prosperity sphere, which refers to the Japanese invasion of Southeast Asia, has been one of the exhausted themes of modern Japanese history. The Japanese invasion into northern Indochina began in autumn 1940. But it was only ten years before when the Kwantung Army initiated the Manchurian “Incident”, for the purpose of bringing Manchuria under Japanese rule. In 1930’s, Japan began to invade northward at first, then southward. Was that really possible? The aim of this article is twofold: firstly, to survey the history of the thought of the southward advance” and that of the “northward advance”; secondly, to present some hypothetical analysis about the relations between the “southward advance” theory and “southward advance” policy as well as those between the “northward advance” theory and the “northward advance” policy, which should be instrumental in understanding the relations between the “southward advance” theory and the “northward advance” theory. From the beginning of the Meiji Era, Southeast Asia has been taken for the land of “fertile resources with lazy natives”. Such kind of image helped encapsulating the “southward advance” theory into a romantic or idealistic, if any, idea. On the other hand, the long-lasted influence of China and Korea made it easy for the “northward advance” theory to be formulated into the “northward advance” policy. At the critical moment in 1930’s, when Japan felt locked in stalemate in advancing northward, the “southward advance” theory emerged as a panacea, which bloated to the extent of the unrealistic Greater East Asia co-prosperity sphere.
著者
上野 隆生
出版者
敬愛大学・千葉敬愛短期大学
雑誌
環境情報研究 (ISSN:0919729X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.153-175, 1998-04

Lorenz von Stein (1815-1890) was influential in drafting the so-called Meiji Constitution. In 1880's many Japanese statesmen, bureaucrats, and scholars visited Stein on the outskirts of Vienna to study the main points of Staatswissenschaft and to receive important instructions and suggestions for the future Constitution of Japan. Among those who called on Stein, we find Fujinami Kototada. Fujinami had been sent with special instructions from the Meiji oligarchies, especially Ito Hirobumi. Ito himself had been greatly influenced by Stein's theory, which was quite helpful in establishing an absolutistic constitution. Fujinami served as a very faithful custodian of Emperor Meiji's household affairs from his childhood. Therefore, if Fujinami attended the personal lectures of Stein, Ito thought it would be easy for Emperor Meiji to understand the core of Staatswissenschaft through Fujinami. In this article, by examining Fujinami's lecture-notes, the theory of state Emperor Meiji received is analysed.