著者
中畑 邦夫
出版者
国立音楽大学
雑誌
研究紀要 (ISSN:02885492)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.45, pp.49-60, 2010

坂口安吾の短編「桜の森の満開の下」を、我々はいわゆる「社会契約説」における「自然状態」から「社会状態」への移行を物語として表現したものとして解釈することができる。従来、社会契約説に特有のアポリアの一つとして、「自然状態に生きる無知なる自然人が、なぜ未知の社会状態へと進むことを選ぶのか」という「動機」の問題が指摘されてきた。それは無知な自然人を突き動かすほどの魅力をそなえたものでなければならないはずであり、安吾によればそれは「美」なのである。しかし美は、社会状態全体の一つの側面に過ぎないのであって、自然人は社会状態において文化や秩序の醜悪さに直面することになる。この物語は自然人である主人公が都という社会状態からやってきた一人の女の美しさによって自然状態を離脱し、社会状態の中で文化や秩序の醜悪さと退屈さに苦悩しつつ、結末においてそういったものの根源にある「虚空」に気付いてしまうというプロセスを悲劇的に描いたものである。物語の中で描かれる文化や秩序とは読者である我々が現にその中で生きているものであり、その根源にも虚空が横たわっている。したがってこの作品はたんに一つの物語であることを超えて、安吾独自の自然-社会状態論として解釈することも出来るのである。
著者
中畑 邦夫 Kunio Nakahata
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗沢学際ジャーナル (ISSN:09196714)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.2, pp.75-86, 2011

In this article,I try to interpret Sakaguchi Ango's criticism of the Imperial System from the view point of R. Girard's theory of the system of Sacrifice. I emphasize that in Darakuron and Zoku Darakuron at least, Ango criticized the Imperial System and the Japanese nation that supported it, not the Emperor himself. I think he makes virtually no reference to the Emperor himself. Girard's theory helps us to understand that the Imperial System and the system of sacrifice have an important point in common on the one hand.and to appreciate the uniqueness of the Imperial System on the other hand.
著者
中畑 邦夫
出版者
麗澤大学
雑誌
麗澤学際ジャーナル (ISSN:09196714)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.45-58, 2011-03-10

Karatani Kojin insists that Sakaguchi Ango's works and thoughts should be interpreted according to the dichotomy not between Leftism and Rightism, but between Enlightenment and Romanticism. This viewpoint is epoch making, because if interpreted either as Leftism or Rightism,as many former researchers did, Ango's thoughts lose their potential, which is much larger than many researchers have supposed. Karatani says that Ango grasped that in Western thought, rationality is based on some irrationality, and irrationality is based on rationality. With such deep insight, Ango criticized superficial social and political theories and moral or ethical thoughts in Japan, especially before and during the last war. Ango pointed out that all social or political systems and morality or ethics,whether they are just in thought or real,from the family system to Cosmopolitanism,are all 'automata' ,or 'karakuri' in Japanese, He also pointed out that human beings will necessarily create automata from the personal to the sociai level, and it is the 'reality of a human being',or, what Ango named 'furusato' in Japanese. Karatani calls Ango's thought his 'Radicalism',and in this respect, Karatani says,Ango is equal to great thinkers in the West such as Hobbers, Kant, and Marx,and in Ango's thought,he see the potential to dissolve nation states and to construct a world federation.Karatani's interpretation is a landmark in the study of Ango, and researchers should take account of, or not make light of, Ango's radicalism. I think,however,that Karatani's interpretation is not as radical as Ango's thought itself, but following Karatani's interpretation,we can comprehend Ango's thougyt more radically. I think that Karatani connects Ango's thought somewhat hastily with social or political thoughts, When Ango referred to the reality of a human being, he considered a human being as a person, not as a part of a social or political system. Ango declared that politics is 'a coarse web' and political thought can never grasp a person in the exact meaning, Ango thought that in the reality of human beings, a person is captured in 'a fine web',and this web is a kind of discourse as argued by M.Foucault. Ango also said that in the reality of a human being, a person should inevitably be moral or ethical. In other words, a person is moral or ethical before he constructs some moral or ethical discourse. I think that folllowing Ango's thought, we should not costruct some social, political, moral or ethical discourses, buy should examine whether such discourses are based on the reality of a human being. Ango donates us a kind of 'test' for such examination, and we can call it 'discourse for morality or ethics',not 'discourse of marality or ethics.'
著者
中畑 邦夫 Kunio Nakahata
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤学際ジャーナル = Reitaku Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (ISSN:21895333)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.115-130, 2015-03-20

In this article, I deal with unique arguments on the masses in Ango Sakaguchi’s works which was written mainly after the Pacific War, and try to show its significance.To understand Ango’s arguments on the masses, it is necessary to comprehend his concept of Karakuri. Karakuri means systems, which involve not only ‘visible systems’ such as political systems or legislative systems, but also ‘invisible systems’ such as morals, manners and customs of communities, and even habits in personal life. Karakuris are established based on human nature, or on the fact that as long as humans live, they have will to live, and to live better, and in Ango’s works, human nature is nature of masses who are faithful to their will personally in any social circumstances, and all the humans are masses radically and intrinsically. But there are cases where to be faithful to human nature impedes our life of a person, or of a community. So Karakuri must be established, even though it is contradictory to human nature. For example, during the war time, the military had to make soldiers faithful to a Karakuri called bushido, morals of soldiers that it is much better to die than to receive disgrace as captive, because Japanese would hate to battle in general, and without such Karakuri, Japanese would escape from the battles for their country.In this way, Karakuris shows peculiarity or special characteristics of persons or communities, even though they are based on universal human nature or nature of masses, and in Japan they brought about tragic situations. Never to repeat such situations, and to realize eternal peace, Ango points out absurdity and contradictory construction of conventional Karakuri as to what Japanese people are, or peculiarity of Japanese people, and insists that Japanese people go back to or evolve into, nature of masses or universality. And as a way to universality, Ango argues the importance of art which is not conventional in or peculiar to Japan, but is open to masses universally.